What is the carbon market? The carbon market is like any other market, but in this particular market “people” are shopping for “carbon credits” measured in tCO2e. Source: Freefoto.com
What is carbon credit? 1 Carbon credit = 1 ton of CO2 CERs Emission Reductions Units Verified Emission Reductions 1 Carbon credit = 1 ton of CO2 Currently the price of one carbon credit varies between 6$ and 8 $
Who are the Buyers & Sellers? Buyers Compliance buyers, i.e. (big) carbon emitters from developed countries which have commitment to kyoto protocol. Voluntary buyers, e.g. corporations, e.g. as part of Corporate Social Responsibility initiatives (being “green”), attract potential clients, satisfy eco-conscious shareholders, new investment opportunities, risk management or part of their philosophy individuals, e.g. offset your holiday flight, (NGOs) etc…. Sellers Developing countries, i.e. Lower emission countries or with large tracks of forests Developed countries, i.e. countries trading off their surplus in carbon credits
Types of Carbon Markets Regulatory Markets - Clean Development Mechanisms -Joint implementation Voluntary Carbon Market
Voluntary Market The voluntary market represents those who wish to compensate voluntarily for emissions associated with their operations–either as part of a commitment to corporate responsibility or to attract green consumers. They have no legal requirement to participate. -Voluntary carbon standard VCS -Plan Vivo -Gold standard, etc….
Regulatory Market - Clean Development Mechanisms - Joint implementation CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM)
The Clean Development Mechanism Flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol Two goals: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions Assist sustainable development in developing countries Cooperation between Annex-1 countries and non-Annex 1 countries
Kyoto Protocol Establishes legally binding commitments for the reduction of GHGs Adopted in 1997, Ratified in July 2004, entered into force in February 2005,and had to expire in 2012 ( As of august 2011, 191 Countries are parties to KP) Protocol to the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Requires Annex 1 countries (West and Eastern Europe, North America, Japan, New Zealand, Australia – industrialised countries) to reduce overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5.2% during 2008 – 2012 Voluntary participation of Non-Annex 1 countries (China, India, etc. – “developing countries”) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) involves Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 countries
GHGs covered by KP cont… GHGDescription Carbon Dioxide(CO2)The most Important GHG Generated from fossil fuel burning and deforestation Methane(CH4)Comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas operations and agriculture Nitrous Oxide(NH20)Emitted from the use of nitrogen fertilizers, from burning fossil fuels and some industrial and waste management processes Sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6)Used in electrical insulator, freezing agent and heat conductor Hydro-fluorocarbons(HFCs) and These are groups of gazes used as alternative to ozone-depleting in refrigeration systems Per fluorocarbons (PFCs)
INTRODUC TION TO CDM Each GHG has a different Global Warming Potential Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) GWP: 1 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) GWP: 1 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Methane (CH 4 ) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) GHGs covered by the KP GWP: 21 GWP: 310 GWP: 9,200 GWP:11,700 GWP: 23,900
Eligibility criteria 1.Reduction in GHG Emissions covered by the KP 2.Host country (Rwanda) must be a Party to the Kyoto Protocol 3.Contribution to Sustainable Development of Rwanda 4.Additionality 5.Emission reduction must be real, measurable and long term 6.Sector must be eligible
Eligible sectors Energy industries (Production &Distribution) Manufacturing industries Construction Transport Mining/mineral production Metal production Fugitive emissions from fuels (solid, oil and gas) Fugitive emissions from production and consumption of halocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride Solvent use Waste handling and disposal Afforestation and reforestation Agriculture
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