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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 People on the Move (Chapter 12)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions What is migration? What are the major categories of migration? What are some examples of the new immigrants in the United States and Canada?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is migration? Migration is the movement of a person or a group of people from one place to another Migration is of interest to anthropologists and others because migration affects all areas of human life and is related to all other areas of culture
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Economic and reproductive systems Religion and expressive culture Health and human development Politics and social order Marriage and household formation Migration is related to all other areas of culture Communication
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Anthropologists interested in migration study… The kinds of people who migrate Causes of migration Processes of migration Health and psychosocial adaptations to new locations How migration affects economic and social status, identity, language, religion Implications for planning and policy
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Methods of anthropologists studying migration Multisited research Fieldwork in more than one location in order to understand life in the place of origin as well as the migration destination
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Methods of anthropologists studying migration Combines micro and macro perspectives Village or neighborhood research combined with research on national and global economic, political, and social forces
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Methods of anthropologists studying migration Research tends to be applied Anthropologists have been at the forefront of efforts to address the situation of people forced to move by war, environmental destruction, and massive building projects such as dams
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Categories of Migration Categories based on spatial boundaries Internal migration – movement within state boundaries International migration – moving to a different country Transnational migration – movement in which a person regularly moves back and forth between two or more countries and forms a new cultural identity transcending a single geopolitical unit
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Categories of Migration Categories based on reason(s) for moving Labor migration – migrating for labor/work Displacement – being forced to move, involuntary migrants Institutional migration – people who move into a social institution, either voluntarily or involuntarily
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Internal Migration Rural-to-urban migration is the dominant form of internal migration throughout the world A major reason why people migrate to urban areas is the availability of work
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Internal Migration Push-pull theory of labor migration An explanation for rural-to-urban migration that emphasizes people’s incentives to move based on a lack of opportunity in rural areas (the “push”) compared to urban areas (the “pull”) Individual decision making – believe will have a better quality of life and better lifestyle in cities Structural factors – inability of family farmers to support themselves when faced with competition from corporate farms Negative aspects – stress, health problems, high rates of hypertension
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Internal Migration Can also get internal migration due to other factors Development projects O’Hare expansion City of Chicago purchased about 550 homes in Bensenville to make way for O’Hare expansion plans The people who leave their homes become internal migrants!
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 International Migration Grown in volume and significance since 1945 Nearly 2 percent of the world’s population (around 100 million people) lives outside of their home countries Most of the voluntary migrants in this category move for work-related reasons Often move from less developed to more developed countries in search of better jobs May move to the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina Other destinations are popular as well Increasing numbers of involuntary international migrants, especially refugees and trafficked persons Racist and politicized policies in many of the major destination countries May limit non-White immigration
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Transnational Migration Defined as migration in which a person regularly moves back and forth between two or more countries Is increasing along with other aspects of globalization Much contemporary transnational migration motivated by economic factors “Astronauts” – corporate executives who spend most of their time flying among different countries for work Transnational migrant laborers who spend substantial amounts of time working in different places and whose movements depend on the demand for their labor
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Transnational Migration Remittances, or transfers of money from migrants to their families back home, are increasingly a large part of a country’s economy and are often sent “home” by migrant laborers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Example of the importance of remittances: 60 percent of the gross domestic product of the Kingdom of Tonga comes from remittances
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Labor Migrants Labor migrants migrate to obtain work/labor Usually work in that location for a specified period of time (a few weeks to a few years) Do not have permanent residence in area where they migrate to Often have few legal protections where they work Circular migration – a regular pattern of population movement between two or more places May occur within or between countries e.g. Circulation of male labor from villages in Haiti to work on sugar estates in the neighboring Dominican Republic A matter of debate how free the “choice” is to migrate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Labor Migrants There are about 35 million migrant workers worldwide Asian women are the fastest-growing category of migrant workers (1.5 million Asian women working abroad) Domestic service jobs, factories, teachers, nurses
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Displaced Persons or Involuntary Migrants Displaced persons are people who are evicted from their homes, communities, or countries and forced to move elsewhere Colonialism, slavery, war, persecution, natural disasters, and large-scale mining and dam building are major causes of population displacement
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Displaced Persons or Involuntary Migrants Refugees are internationally displaced persons Many refugees are forced to relocate because they are victims or potential victims of persecution on the basis of their race, religion, nationality, ethnicity, gender, or political views Constitute a large and growing category of displaced persons Probably more than 10 million refugees worldwide (about 1 in 500 people) ¼ of the world’s refugees are Palestinians Women and children form the bulk of refugees and are vulnerable to abuse in refugee camps, including rape and children trading sex for food Have little or no choice as to when and where they will move
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Displaced Persons or Involuntary Migrants Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are people who are forced to leave their home and community but who remain within their country Are the fastest-growing category of displaced people Are displaced for many of the same reasons as refugees Many IDPs, like refugees, lived for extended periods in camps with miserable conditions and no access to basic supports such as health care and schools About 20 million people worldwide are IDPs Most within Africa – in particular Sudan UN and other international bodies have limited authority over problems faced by IDPs because they do not cross state boundaries
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Example of IDPs: Maya people in Guatemala displaced due to political violence
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Displaced Persons or Involuntary Migrants Development-Induced Displacement (DID) is forced migration due to development projects Development projects often cause people to become IDPs Large dam construction, mining, shopping centers, airports, and other projects have displaced millions in the past several decades Dam construction alone is estimated to have displaced around 80 million people since 1950 2 million people will be displaced by the Three Gorges Dam project in China Largest engineering project in the world Often DID occurs against the will of the local population, and government compensation for loss of homes, land, and livelihood is often inadequate Local population displaced rarely reaps the benefits from dams or other development projects
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Three Gorges Dam project
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Institutional Migrants Institutional migrants are people who move into a social institution, either voluntarily or involuntarily Include monks in a monastery and nuns in a convent, the elderly in nursing homes, members of the military, students at a boarding school or going to college, etc. Stress and other physical/mental health problems can accompany institutional migration, just like with other forms of migration
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Protecting Migrants’ Health Health risks to migrants are many and varied, depending on the wide variety of migrant types and destinations They may face vast challenges in their journey Dangerous journeys Drowning threats, sharks, alligators, lions, warfare, etc. When they get to their destination they may experience new diseases, mental health issues as may get cultural shock and be separated from family and friends Of special concern is maintain the health of those whose livelihoods depend on mobility and migrations – foragers, pastoralists, and horticulturalists
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Map of the Sahel: most of the people are pastoralists, and they frequently experience food shortages and political violence; many are refugees or IDPs
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 New Immigrants The term new immigrant refers to a person who moved internationally since the 1960s. Trends among new immigrants include… Globalization – more countries involved in international migration, leading to increased cultural diversity in sending and receiving countries Acceleration – growth in numbers of migrants has occurred worldwide Feminization – woman are a growing percentage in all types of migration
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants Trends since the 1990s Globalization Acceleration Feminization
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 New Immigrants to the U.S. A wave of immigration began in the 1960s with amendments to the Immigration and Nationalization Act Made it possible for far more people from developing countries to enter the U.S., especially if they were professionals or trained in some desired skill Family reunification provision allowed permanent residents and naturalized citizens to bring in close family members Most of the new immigrants in the United States are from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, although increasing numbers are from Eastern Europe, especially Russia
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants to the United States and Canada The New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean The New Immigrants from Asia The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean Since the 1960s, substantial movements of the Latino population have occurred, mainly to the United States Latinos are about 10 percent of the U.S. population Mexico is by far the major source of foreign- born immigrants to the United States About 11 million foreign born Mexicans live in the U.S. (number doubled from 1990 to 2000) Most live in California, Texas, and Illinois, although other destinations such as Georgia and North Carolina are also becoming more common
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 New Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean Other Latino immigrants in the U.S are from Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and El Salvador Chain migration is a form of population movement in which a first wave of migrants comes, which then attracts relatives and friends to join them in the destination place Popular among Dominicans in the U.S. as well as other immigrant groups Migrating for greater economic opportunities or to escape wars/violence Often face economic, social, and linguistic challenges when arrive in the U.S., though
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Map of El Salvador, home country of many new immigrants to the US
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from Asia: Hong Kong Chinese in Canada Urban clustering Have shopping centers, television and radio stations, newspapers, country clubs geared towards Hong Kong immigrants Tend to be economically well-off in Canada Relatively secure economic status before migrating Tend to have high level of education Still may have a difficult time finding employment early on – as time goes on get more disposable income to increase consumption
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from Asia: Hong Kong Chinese in Canada
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the US Three distinct subgroups and patterns of adaptation shows how difficult it is to generalize about an immigrant group’s experience based just on their ethnicity or country of origin 1975-era elite – generous financial assistance from the U.S., good education and English language skills, most found good jobs in the U.S. Boat people – little financial assistance from the U.S., less well educated, less resources, didn’t speak English well Ethnic Chinese – difficult time in the U.S. because lacked a Western style education and sometimes suffered from discrimination against
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the US
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from Asia: South Asians in the US South Asian Indians Highly educated first wave concentrated in professional fields Less educated later waves in family business or service industry Considered an immigrant success story – place high value on children’s education, have few children to invest more in them Hinduism attempting ritual flexibility to appeal to youth
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union: Soviet Jews in the US Features Over 300,000 Soviet Jews have settled in the U.S. since the 1960s Closer to the “racial” mainstream in the U.S. Have good educations and access to prosperous communities of American Jews Challenges Have to find new ways of meeting needs in the market economy Finding a job commensurate with their education and previous work experience Marriage options – cultural norms promote intraethnic marriages
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Migration Politics, Policies, and Programs in a Globalizing World National policies that set quotas on the quantity and types of immigrants who are welcome and that determine how they are treated are largely dictated by political and economic interests Labor flow – cheap, including illegal, immigrant labor is used around the world to maintain profits for businesses and services for the better off Undermine labor unions and the status of established workers There are an estimated 12 million illegal immigrants living in the U.S. this year
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Migration Politics, Policies, and Programs in a Globalizing World Governments undertake a cost-benefit analysis of how much will be gained and how much will be lost through their quotas Lifeboat mentality – a view that seeks to limit enlarging a particular group because of perceived resource constraints Working-class racism – emerges out of competition with immigrants for jobs and other benefits Governments show their political support or disapproval of other governments through their immigration policies
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Example of increasing numbers of immigrants in Palermo, Italy, and degrees of tolerance among local people
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Migration and Human Rights Several questions arise about migration and human rights… Is migration forced or voluntary? Forced migration may be considered a violation of a person’s human rights Is migrating for economic reasons voluntary? If the choice is to migrate or starve, can migrating really be considered a voluntary choice? Do displaced groups have a guaranteed right of return? Right of return – a person’s ability to return to and live in his or her homeland Is considered by the United Nations to be a human right in theory In reality displaced persons may not be able to return to their homeland Those displaced within their home country Indigenous people in the U.S. Blacks displaced by Hurricane Katrina Palestinians displaced from Israel
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Migration Politics, Policies, and Programs in a Globalizing World Inclusion Exclusion Human Rights Palermo Working-class racism Lifeboat mentality Right of return
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The BIG Questions Revisited What is migration? What are the major categories of migration? What are examples of the new immigrants in the United States and Canada?
Industrialization and Economic Development. What is economics? Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption.
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