Presentation on theme: "Project BLISS Boundary Layer In-Situ Sensing System Kyle Corkey Devan Corona Grant Davis Nathaniel Keyek-Franssen Customer Dr. Suzanna Diener Northrop."— Presentation transcript:
Project BLISS Boundary Layer In-Situ Sensing System Kyle Corkey Devan Corona Grant Davis Nathaniel Keyek-Franssen Customer Dr. Suzanna Diener Northrop Grumman Faculty Advisor Dr. Donna Gerren Robert Lacy John Schenderlein Rowan Sloss Dalton Smith Team 1
Outline Project Overview Major Changes and Status Update Test Readiness ▫Delivery System ▫Measurement System ▫Cloud Observation System Budget Update 2
Project Deliverables 3-Dimensional U-, V-, W- inertial wind vector data inside the measurement cylinder Cloud base altitude and cloud footprint data above the measurement cylinder Measurement Cylinder 3
Levels of Success 4 Delivery SystemMeasurement SystemCloud Observation System Level 3: Execute flight plan following points spaced no more than 30 meters apart spanning the defined airspace in the 15 minute time limit with Measurement System onboard and collecting data Level 3: Deliver U-, V-, W- inertial wind velocity vector field with temporal and spatial location for each measurement accurate to 1 m/s with a resolution of 0.1 m/s. Level 3: Deliver time-stamped cloud footprint images and cloud base altitude measurements at 1/4 Hz during the 15 minute test period.
Concept of Operations 100 m 200 m Legend Within Project Scope NG model wind vector Physical Wind Vector Wind Vector of in-situ data 100 m 200 m 100 m 200 m 100 m 200 m Airspace Test Volume Subject To Modeling Northrop Grumman Wind Model Results In-Situ Relative Wind Velocity Data Collection and Cloud Imaging Inertial Wind from In-Situ Data and Cloud Base Altitude Wind Vector and Cloud Data Used to Verify Northrop Grumman Model 5 100 m
Functional Block Diagram Aircraft State & Wind Pressure Inertial U-,V-,W- Wind Vector Field Post Processing Algorithm Northrop Grumman Wind Model Delivery System Pixhawk Flight Controller Motor GPS Antenna Electrical Power System Power Module Speed Controller 14.8V Manual Commands 5V GPS Coordinates Elevon Servos Elevon Servos Serial Command PWM Measurement System Pressure Transducers Inertial Navigation System Arduino Due SD Card Relative Wind Electrical Power System 5-Hole Probe Thermistor Aircraft State & Wind Pressure SPI 9V Analog Voltage Air Pressure Analog The Measurement System is packaged in the Delivery System 6 14.8V
Functional Block Diagram Continued Vertical Camera Internal SD Card Cloud Observation System Northrop Grumman Wind Model Computer with Post Processing Algorithm Vertical Camera Battery Internal SD Card Left and Right.RAW Images Cloud Base Altitude & Footprint.RAW Image Power X Cloud Base Camera Field of View Camera Field of View Battery 7
Critical Project Elements 8 CPERequirementMotivation Obtaining a COA4.1.1UAV cannot legally fly without a COA Determining Flight Path and maintaining it in flight 220.127.116.11, 3.1To meet required spatial and temporal measurement resolution Rapid Prototyping 5-hole probe1.2Used to measure wind Calibrated 5-hole probe1.2.3Need to geometrically calibrate the probe to accurately measure wind Aircraft State Knowledge1.2.2Needed to convert relative wind to inertial wind Wind Post Processing Algorithm1.2.1Needed to convert relative wind to inertial wind. Cloud Observation Algorithm2.2.2Deliver cloud data within required error bounds
9 MSR TRR Detailed Schedule up to TRR Calibration fell behind schedule due to issues with electrical and mechanical design ▫However reducing the number of data points allowed us to get back on track and collect all necessary data ▫Only calibration algorithm remains and will be completed this week Assembling the UAV was moved forward due to extra resources available
10 TRR UAV testing also moved forward ▫Early flight testing allows for margin due to inclement weather and resources needed ▫Allows for more resource allocation to Cloud Observation System
11 Detailed Test Schedule All tests have built in margin due to unforeseen errors and availability of facilities and resources ▫This is especially true with all flight related tests. Each flight test below should only take 1 day. TRR
Delivery System Test Overview 12 Manual and Autonomous Control Tests, Range Test, Software in the Loop Manual Flight Test, Autonomous Flight Test, Flight Path Test Final Data Collection Flight ●Purpose: To transport the Measurement System through the measurement cylinder within the required 30 meter spatial resolution and 15 minute time limit ●Status: UAV is flight ready. Ground tests have been accomplished and flight tests can now commence. Complete In Progress Scheduled in Future
Manual Flight Test 13 Purpose:To validate that power consumption is adequate for flight time. Building block for autonomous flight Requirement:3.1 – Delivery system must fly for 15 minutes Method:Collect Power Consumption Data during climb and descent. Facilities:Table Mountain, Pilot James Mack Expected Results:Power consumption during flight is similar to predicted. Verify battery will last for >20 minutes during data collection. Aircraft is shown to be airworthy. Impact:Aircraft is ready for autonomous flight testing.
Manual Flight Test Procedure Procedures: 1.Setup ground control station (GCS) in open area close to launch and landing sites. 2.Perform ground testing of control response prior to launch. 3.With pilot ok, launch aircraft. 4.Pilot performs helix climb and descent at flight velocities. 5.Instruct pilot to land aircraft. 14
Autonomous Flight Test 15 Purpose:Validate autopilot control of aircraft during ascent and descent during loiter. Requirement:3.1 – Delivery system must fly for 15 minutes Method:Record ascent and descent rates during autonomous flight. Facilities:Table Mountain, Pilot James Mack Expected Results:Ascent and descent rates within 1 m/s of expected 1.66 m/s. Impact:Aircraft is ready for flight plan testing.
Autonomous Flight Test Procedure Procedures: 1.Setup GCS in open area close to launch and landing sites. 2.Perform ground testing of control response prior to launch. 3.Load box pattern and loiter waypoint to Pixhawk. 4.With pilot ok, launch aircraft. 5.Instruct pilot to transition to autonomous flight 6.After flight path completion, instruct pilot to land aircraft. 16
Flight Path Flight Path Test 17 Purpose:Validate ability to fly data collection flight path. Requirement:3.1 – Delivery system must fly measurement system to all measurement locations in the 15 minute requirement Method:Command modified data collection flight path and record path and compare to SITL flight plan. Facilities:Table Mountain, Pilot James Mack Expected Results:Vertical velocity as a function of time differs by no more than 1 m/s from SITL flight path, loiter radius remains constant. Impact:Aircraft is ready for data collection.
Flight Path Test Procedure Procedures: 1.Setup GCS in open area close to launch and landing sites. 2.Perform ground testing of control response prior to launch. 3.Load modified flight path. 4.Run through preflight checklist. 5.With pilot ok, launch aircraft. 6.Instruct pilot to transition to autonomous flight 7.After flight path Completion, instruct pilot to land aircraft. 18
Measurement System Test Overview 19 Verification of Individual Components, Wind Tunnel Characterization INS test, Calibration of Probe Verification of Calibration, Flight Testing ●Purpose: Verify the Measurement System will satisfy the 1 m/s accuracy of inertial wind measurements ●Status: INS test and calibration will be completed this week. Verification of calibration and flight testing with the measurement system is scheduled for next week. Everything is on schedule. Complete In Progress Scheduled in Future
Calibration of 5-hole probe 20 Purpose:Calibrate probe by creating matrix of reference pressure coefficients Requirement:1.2.3 – Probe must be calibrated to determine relative wind Method:Collect 5 hole pressure data at a 90° span of yaw and 180° span of roll angles Facilities:ITLL Wind Tunnel Expected Results:Total pressure measured by probe is within 20% of the wind tunnel total pressure Impact:Probe can now determine U-,V-,W- wind velocity
Calibration data collection 21 ●Procedures: 1.Set probe to -45° yaw angle and zero roll 2.Set wind tunnel to 25 m/s. Take data from BLISS Arduino and wind tunnel at the same time 3.Roll the probe 5° 4.Set wind tunnel to 25 m/s. Take data from BLISS Arduino and wind tunnel at the same time 5.Repeat steps 3 and 4 until a roll angle of 180° is reached 6.Set roll back to 0°. Move yaw angle 5° 7.Repeat steps 2-6. Positive 45° is the final yaw angle ●Animation of probe moving in tunnel Roll Yaw
Calibration of 5-hole probe Analytical prediction of pressure on the probe developed to give a baseline prediction of pressures ▫Assumes ideal flow around an ideal two dimensional cylinder Comparison shows a similar trend between analytical and wind tunnel data. The trend shown by the data is less pronounced, possibly due to: ▫Ideal 2D flow assumption vs. real 3D viscous flow ▫Imperfect geometry of the probe tip Angles beyond 30° are not shown because analytical prediction breaks down due to flow separation ▫Analytical solution becomes less accurate approaching 30° due to small flow separation 22 5 2 1 3 4 Probe tip
Calibration of 5-hole Probe 23 Pressure data meets expectation when rolling the probe at a fixed yaw angle Plotted data at 20° yaw, where flow has not separated from the probe tip ▫Port 5 remains unchanged because its orientation relative to flow is fixed during roll ▫Pressure on ports 1-4 varies as the ports are exposed to more or less of the flow 5 2 1 3 4 Probe tip
Verification of Calibration 24 Purpose:Verify flow velocity components measured by probe match expected results from a known flow. Requirement:1.2.3 – Probe must be calibrated to determine relative wind Method:Following Calibration Data Collection Procedure, Set probe at various yaw/roll orientations, measure pressures Facilities:ITLL Wind Tunnel Expected Results:Pressure data will correspond to orientation within 3.0° in alpha and 3.5° in beta Impact:Probe can now determine U-,V-,W- wind velocity, ready for testing β V∞V∞ u v w Probe tip α
Purpose:Verify the INS is outputting values corresponding to known orientation Requirement:1.2.2 – Record necessary aircraft state data Method:Mount INS in moving vehicle, measure Euler angles, angular rates, GPS position and velocity in known orientations Expected Results:GPS will display the route and velocity the car drives. The Euler angles will match up to output from potentiometers. Impact:INS is now ready for flight testing INS Test 25
INS Test 26 ●Procedures: 1.Drive to the corner of Jay Road and Highway 119 and pull over 2.Verify that GPS is functioning 3.Verify Euler angles under static conditions 4.Drive down Highway 119 to Niwot on cruise control 5.Verify GPS position and velocity agree with route and speedometer 6.Repeat route 7.Verify Euler angles correspond to readings from potentiometer accounting for elevation change in the road
UAV Interface and Flight Testing 27 Purpose:Verify measurement system components measure expected values when UAV flies Requirement:1.2 – 1 m/s accuracy in U-,V-,W- wind velocities Method:Following the Manual Flight Test Procedure, fly delivery system with 5-hole probe/transducers, thermistor and INS collecting data Expected Results: Measurement system reports wind data consistent with ground based weather station. Impact:Delivery and Measurement Systems are ready for final data collection
Cloud Observation System Test Overview 28 Benchtop TestingSmall Scale TestingFinal Configuration Test ●Purpose: Verify the COS can measure cloud base altitude within 10% error as defined by REQ. 2.2.3 ●Status: All parts machined, cameras hacked; Small scale testing expected completion 3/13 Complete In Progress Scheduled in Future
COS Small Scale Testing 29 Picture Purpose:Verify the COS meets 10% error requirement on ¼ scale test Requirement:2.2.3 – Less than 10% error for clouds up to 2 km Method:Set up system on angle to view points on buildings that are up to 0.25 km away. Expected Results:Measurements will be within 10% error requirement Impact:Algorithms can be improved without special access to University facilities until results verified on a small scale
COS Small Scale Testing 30 Camera Mount Procedures: 1.Level and align COS brackets, tilt each same amount until building in view 2.Run imaging scripts on both cameras, run for 3 min 3.Process image sets 4.Compare COS measurements to actual measurements
COS Final Configuration Testing 31 Purpose:Verify the COS meets 10% error requirement on a full scale test Requirement:2.2.3 – Less than 10% error for clouds up to 2 km Method:Measure cloud base altitude from top of Duane Physics, compare results with CU ATOC Ceilometer Facilities:Roof of Duane Physics Building Expected Results: COS altitude measurements are within 10% of ATOC ceilometer measurements Impact:COS is verified to measure cloud base altitude, ready for final data collection
COS Final Configuration Testing 32 Procedures: 1.Test on a day with cumulous clouds 2.Setup COS on roof of physics building, align mounts and level 3.Start imaging scripts, run for 3 min 4.Process image sets 5.Compare COS measurements ceilometer data
COS Final Configuration Testing 33 up to 2km 40m ●Compute distance measurement with COS ●COS measurements expected to be within 10% of ceilometer reading ATOC Ceilometer Bliss COS
Budget Update 34 Estimated Expenses at time of CDR: $4708.29 Total Expenditures thus far: ~ $4300 Remaining Margin: ~ $700 Notable savings from shipping budget allocation Many unexpected small purchases have led to considerable additional spending
Budget Update 35 Future ExpendituresExpenses To Date
Summary Delivery System status: ▫Ground tests have been completed. ▫UAV is flight ready and can begin tests when James Mack is available and weather is good. Measurement System status: ▫All calibration data has been taken. Algorithm for the data sets is in progress and on schedule. ▫INS test to be completed this week. Cloud Observation System status: ▫Cameras have been hacked and the mounts have been assembled. ▫Final distancing algorithm is in progress and the CU ATOC ceilometer validation test is scheduled in 3 weeks. The margin in the budget is currently at $712 and a final planned margin is $462 36
Acknowledgements We would like to thank all of the PAB, our advisor Dr. Gerren, our customer Dr. Diener from Northrop Grumman, Trudy Schwartz, Bobby Hodgkinson, Matt Rhode, James Mack, and Gabe LoDolce for all their help in preparation for this TRR. 37
Motivation Northrop Grumman Atmospheric Boundary Layer Model Verification ▫Boundary layer inertial wind data, cloud base altitude used in verification Boundary Layer Wind Model Applications: ▫Airborne pollution monitoring ▫Prediction of forest fire advances ▫Facilitating soldiers in battle 40
Experimental Setup 100 m 200 m ≤ 30 m BLISS Measurement and Delivery System Data points – Spaced at most 30m radially in 3D space Legend Physical Wind Velocity Vector Field (u-,v-,w-) Cloud observations constrained to the measurement cylinder’s vertical projection Atmospheric clouds located high above test volume In-Situ relative wind velocity data collection Cloud Observation System stereovision cameras 41
Levels of Success 42 Level 1: Certified to operate in an airspace defined as a cylinder with a 100 meter radius and 200 meter height above ground level. Level 2: Executes flight plan following points spaced no more than 30 meters apart spanning the defined airspace in the 15 minute time limit. Level 3: Execute level 2 flight plan with Measurement System onboard and collecting data Delivery System Motivation: The measurement system needs to be transported through the measurement cylinder to meet special and temporal requirements.
Levels of Success 43 Level 1: Wind measurement system collects relative wind data with resolution of 0.1 meter/second. Level 2: Post-process the relative wind data from a ground test to compute the U, V, W inertial wind velocity vector components. Measurement System Motivation: Provide Northrop Grumman with data precise enough to verify a boundary layer wind model. Level 3: Deliver U-, V-, W- inertial wind velocity vector field with temporal and spatial location for each measurement accurate to 1 m/s with a resolution of 0.1 m/s.
Levels of Success 44 Level 1: Image the cloud footprint above a 100 meter radius cylinder at 1/4 Hz for a 15 minute period. Level 2: System is tested in full scale to take distance measurement with less than 10% error up to 2km Level 3: Deliver time-stamped cloud footprint images and cloud base altitude measurements at 1/4 Hz during the 15 minute test period. Cloud Observation System Motivation: Provide Northrop Grumman with cloud observation data to correlate with wind vector field measurements.
Ground Testing Preliminary and preflight ground testing conducted to assure aircraft response to manual and autopilot control. Will test elevon directional response to control input and prop rotational direction. Ground testing ensures readiness for flight testing. 46
Ground Test Procedure Arm Aircraft Control Surfaces in Manual Mode Input Roll Command and Record Elevon Response Input Pitch Command and Record Elevon Response. Switch to ALTCTL Mode Pitch Aircraft and Record Elevon Deflection. Note: Deflection will be opposite motion to restore aircraft to level flight. Roll Aircraft and Record Elevon Deflection. 47
Range Test Conducted to verify maximum radio range is greater than the maximum distance BLISS DS will travel from the ground station. Will be conducted on Kittredge Field. Range test prepares for flight readiness. 48
Range Test Procedure Setup GCS on North East Corner of Kittredge Field. Disconnect Motor from ESC. Arm Aircraft. Have Test Assistant Carry Aircraft Away From GCS while inputting RC control to elevons every 5 seconds. When Test Assistant is unable to observe RC input return to GCS. If Link is Lost from GCS to Aircraft at Any Point, Measure that Distance as Max Range. 49
Preflight Checklist ****** Airframe ****** ☐ ☐ Ensure fuselage is fully assembled, screws tightened, comm antenna bends forward ☐ ☐ Check Prop For Damage and Loose Bolts ****** Auto-Pilot ****** ☐ ☐ Turn on Aircraft and start Qgroundcontrol ☐ ☐ Connect Aircraft to Qgroundcontrol ☐ ☐ Verify Battery Level Acceptable for Flight ☐ ☐ Ensure Data and Comm Link ☐ ☐ Ensure Correct Airframe Configuration ☐ ☐ Ensure RC Remote calibrated and assigned correctly ☐ ☐ Ensure Sensors are connected and calibrated ☐ ☐ Verify Mission Waypoints ☐ ☐ Save Mission Waypoints and Gains ☐ ☐ Verify GPS Lock ☐ ☐ Verify Manual Controls ☐ ☐ Check pitot port by blowing into it and seeing the airspeed response 50 ****** Prelaunch ********* ☐ ☐ If using Autonomous Takeoff ensure waypoint reachable and loiter waypoint exists ☐ ☐ Arm Control Surfaces ☐ ☐ Recheck control surface deflections in manual and ALTCTL ☐ ☐ Load vehicle on catapult ☐ ☐ Enter Manual Mode ☐ ☐ Signal ready to backup pilot; if autonomous launch, pilot will switch to Auto Mode; clear for launch ****** Pre-Autonomous Flight Checks ****** ☐ ☐ 15 s after liftoff, verify Flying mode ☐ ☐ Verify that aircraft heading displays correctly and that GPS is locked ☐ ☐ Track first autonomous waypoint (usually home loiter) ☐ ☐ Inform pilot of expected autonomous behavior ☐ ☐ Direct pilot to desired handoff flight path and authorize handoff to autonomous flight
Flight Plan Simulation Skywalker X8 has been implemented into Software in the Loop (SITL) 4 Helix Flight Path can be completed without stalling 51 VariableMax Value in SITL Flight Time12.5 Minutes Pitch Angle11° Roll Angle31°
Autopilot Flight Plan Design 52 Switch to Autopilot Control Enter Ascending Helix 1 Complete Ascending Helix 1 Complete Ascending Helix 1 Enter Descending Helix 1
Measurement System Test - completed Wind tunnel characterization test completed and data presented in MSR Electrical component verification completed : ▫Bench top testing of pressure transducers ▫Wind tunnel testing of incorporated transducers, probe, and tubing Calibration stand function testing completed: ▫Stand fit with wind tunnel base ▫Probe range of motion ▫Data verification of integrated system 61
Port orientation to the flow 62 ψ Flow Lower Pressure Higher Pressure 5 2 1 3 4 Probe tip 5-hole probe
Purpose of Calibration Calibration is necessary to determine the unknowns of the flow ▫Angularity ▫Total Pressure Calibration creates a dataset for comparison to determine unknowns ▫The five pressures measured on the probe are unique to a certain total pressure and angularity ▫Trend fitting matches the 5 pressures to the most similar form the calibration set to determine unknowns 63
Measurement System: Pitot Tubes – Calibration The 5 pressure readings from the probe (one from each port) can be related to the orientation of the probe through non-dimensional coefficients To do this: ▫Independent non-dimensional coefficients are calculated as a function of the 5 recorded pressure values from the probe ▫dependent non-dimensional coefficients are calculated as functions of total pressure and static pressure. Coefficients are stored in a matrix. During testing, the independent coefficients act as look-up tables, which allow determination of orientation, total pressure and static pressure. 64 Dependent coefficients Independent coefficients
Angularity Test At zero yaw angle, rolling the probe would show if there is an angularity in the wind tunnel The trend shown is not consistent with an angularity, but can be attributed to imperfect mounting of the probe 65
INS Factory Calibration All sensors (accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetometers) are calibrated for axis misalignment, scale factor, and bias at the manufacturer. ▫Calibration is stored onboard and applied in real time during operation The performance specifications for the IMU and GPS are validated through ground and air vehicle testing against high-end fiber optic gyro based INS units at the manufacturer 66