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Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 03-Jan-2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 03-Jan-2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 03-Jan-2014

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 3  Discuss the various types of ELTs. (O)  Describe how an ELT can be detected. (O)  Describe how the aircraft DF works in both the Alarm and DF modes. (O)  Discuss using the DF during a typical ELT search (O) Response during initial phase, including signal fadeResponse during initial phase, including signal fade Response when getting closeResponse when getting close Response as you pass over the beaconResponse as you pass over the beacon Objectives

4 4  Describe the following ELT search methods: (O) HomingHoming Wing nullWing null AuralAural SignalSignal  Discuss signal reflection and interference. (O)  Describe how to silence an ELT and the legal issues involved. (O) Objectives (Continued)

5 5 Emergency Locator Transmitter Direction Finding for Aircrews Use Of Equipment Commonly Found In CAP Aircraft N98987

6 6 Objective the Elusive ELT  Automatic radio beacon (100 milliwatts) Roughly equal to that of a regular flashlightRoughly equal to that of a regular flashlight  Can be heard on a line-of-sight basis  Remember that the ELT may be attached to an aircraft or vessel in distress!

7 7  Activated by g-force (when armed) Some can be activated by the pilot in the cockpitSome can be activated by the pilot in the cockpit  Three frequencies: 121.5 MHz (VHF emergency)121.5 MHz (VHF emergency) 243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard)243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard) 406.025 MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB)406.025 MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB)  General types: General aviation aircraftGeneral aviation aircraft Military (“beepers” or “beacons”)Military (“beepers” or “beacons”) Marine EPIRBMarine EPIRB Test station (training practice beacon)Test station (training practice beacon) Advanced (406)Advanced (406) The ELT

8 8 ELT Aircraft Antenna

9 9 Most Aircraft Have ELTs Installed But they don’t always survive a crash

10 10 Most Aircraft Have ELTs Installed But they don’t always survive a crash

11 11  Most common type is the URT-33/C  Personnel ejecting/parachuting will have a 243 MHz beacon  Some downed pilots may be able to communicate via two- way radio on 243 MHz using a PRC-90 or later military survival radio Beacon mode transmits like an ELT on 243 MHzBeacon mode transmits like an ELT on 243 MHz Military Beacons

12 12  Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) or Personal Emergency Transmitter (PET): Intended for hikers and other remote wilderness travelersIntended for hikers and other remote wilderness travelers Use a 406 MHz transmitter and a 121.5 MHz homing signal (at only 25 milliwatts)Use a 406 MHz transmitter and a 121.5 MHz homing signal (at only 25 milliwatts) Many are also equipped with a built-in GPS receiver that provides lat/long coordinatesMany are also equipped with a built-in GPS receiver that provides lat/long coordinates Each PLB must be registeredEach PLB must be registered [See discussion of Advanced ELTs][See discussion of Advanced ELTs] Personal Beacons

13 13  Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon  Similar to an ELT, an EPIRB is used on ships and boats  Mandatory on certain commercial vessels  Some activate automatically and others are manually activated Marine EPIRB

14 14  Designed to operate with SARSAT/COSPAS 406.025 MHz beacons have data burst encoding that identifies each (registered) individual beacon406.025 MHz beacons have data burst encoding that identifies each (registered) individual beacon Also produces a 121.5 MHz homing signal and may transmit GPS coordinatesAlso produces a 121.5 MHz homing signal and may transmit GPS coordinates Sends a coded signal that can be used to obtain the owner's name, address and type of aircraft, so AFRCC can call the number to see if the aircraft is really missing (70% resolved)Sends a coded signal that can be used to obtain the owner's name, address and type of aircraft, so AFRCC can call the number to see if the aircraft is really missing (70% resolved) Advanced ELTs

15 15 Advanced ELTs (Continued) Since geostationary satellites process the signal it will be heard more quickly and allow a much faster response (~ 6 hours). If the unit has a GPS receiver, it can transmit lat/long coordinates to further speed the search. The signal can also penetrate dense cover (e.g., trees)Since geostationary satellites process the signal it will be heard more quickly and allow a much faster response (~ 6 hours). If the unit has a GPS receiver, it can transmit lat/long coordinates to further speed the search. The signal can also penetrate dense cover (e.g., trees) Still very expensive (~ three times as much as a 121.5 MHz ELT)Still very expensive (~ three times as much as a 121.5 MHz ELT)

16 16  Training Practice Beacons Includes ones used by CAPIncludes ones used by CAP  All should be converted from 121.6 to 121.775 MHz by now (if it isn’t, don’t use it)  During practice searches, avoid calling the practice beacon an ‘ELT’ when communicating over the radio May cause confusionMay cause confusion  Always use the term ‘Practice Beacon’ Practice Beacon

17 17  Can test the aircraft’s ELT within the first five minutes after each hour  Only allowed up to three sweeps  When was the last time you tested the ELT in your aircraft?  Do you regularly monitor 121.5 MHz after you land? Ensure your ELT didn’t activateEnsure your ELT didn’t activate This isn’t considered a test, by the way, but you can try this excuse if you likeThis isn’t considered a test, by the way, but you can try this excuse if you like Testing an Aircraft ELT

18 18  Excessively hard landings (Welcome aboard, Ensign!)  Inadvertent change of switch position  During removal/installation  Malfunction  Non-ELT source on 121.5 MHz (computers, broadcast stations, even pizza ovens!)  Monsieur Murphy Inadvertent Activation

19 19  Approximately 97% of received ELT signals are false alarms For 121.5 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 1000 are actual emergenciesFor 121.5 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 1000 are actual emergencies (2 in 100 composite alerts) For 406 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 10 are actual emergenciesFor 406 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 10 are actual emergencies  What’s the big deal? SARSAT can only monitor 10 ELTs at onceSARSAT can only monitor 10 ELTs at once Easy to overload the systemEasy to overload the system They block emergency communications on 121.5 and 243 MHz (guarded by towers, ARTCC, and the military)They block emergency communications on 121.5 and 243 MHz (guarded by towers, ARTCC, and the military) False Alarms

20 20

21 21 Detection Timeline

22 22  For a regular 121.5 MHz beacon: Said to be a 12-16 nautical mile radius (~ 452 square nm)Said to be a 12-16 nautical mile radius (~ 452 square nm) Actually an oval shape with a 50% probability of being 15 nm wide and 7 nm highActually an oval shape with a 50% probability of being 15 nm wide and 7 nm high System is more accurate North to South (latitude)System is more accurate North to South (latitude) Average six-hour detection/alertAverage six-hour detection/alert  For a 406 MHz beacon it’s a 1-3 nm radius (~ 12.4 square nm) with 45 – 60 minute detection/alert  For a 406 MHz beacon with GPS it’s a 0.05 nm radius (within 100 yards) with an average five-minute detection/alert Accuracy of SARSAT/COSPAS

23 23  AS AN EMERGENCY!  Its not possible to know whether an ELT signal is a distress signal or a false alarm  Although the statistics are against it, you must act as though it is a distress call  If you take advantage of them, every ELT mission allow you to keep your skills sharp! So how should I treat an ELT Mission?

24 24  Route or parallel track to pick up the signal  If no SARSAT hits or definitive LKP: 4,000 to 10,000 AGL4,000 to 10,000 AGL Large track spacing (start at 60 nm, then do halves)Large track spacing (start at 60 nm, then do halves)  Once signal is located, DF the signal Locating the ELT Signal

25 25 Direction Finder (DF) A direction finder compares signal strengths from two antenna patterns to let the user know:A direction finder compares signal strengths from two antenna patterns to let the user know:  When you are “centered” on a signal headed directly towards OR away from the signal sourceheaded directly towards OR away from the signal source  Which direction to turn when not centered  Similar to an ADF needle, but only points left or right, hence the term “left-right homing”

26 26 L - Tronics DF  Normal: Alarm toggle in ‘up’ position  DF: toggle is ‘down’

27 27 DF Antenna These are mounted on the bottom, but may be on top.

28 28 Step 1 Acquire the Signal  To hear the signal you can use your L-Tronics receiver or one of your comm radios  To acquire with a comm radio, turn the squelch OFF (pull out the volume knob out or flip the appropriate switch) The static you hear may be annoying, but it will allow you to hear the signal at the earliest possible timeThe static you hear may be annoying, but it will allow you to hear the signal at the earliest possible time Allows for a weak or distant signal to be heardAllows for a weak or distant signal to be heard  Proceed at a reasonable altitude to the SARSAT composite hit, or to the point designated by your incident commander

29 29 NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD! ELT Beginning the Search Altitude Selection  Higher altitudes allow for reception of the ELT signal at greater distances  ELTs transmit on 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz, both of which limit reception to “line of sight”  Terrain will block ELT signals  HIGHER is therefore usually BETTER to acquire a signal  Medium altitude is generally better for searching (after signal heard) - 3,000 to 5,000 AGL

30 30 Altitude Selection

31 Intersection Area

32 32 Step 2 Track (DF) the Signal  There are many different ways to DF an ELT signal: Left-Right DF Homing (L-Tronics DF)Left-Right DF Homing (L-Tronics DF) Wing Shadow MethodWing Shadow Method Aural SearchAural Search Metered SearchMetered Search Combinations of the above techniquesCombinations of the above techniques

33 33 Wing Shadowing  By flying the airplane in a circle, at some point the wing will block the ELT signal to the receiver antenna This causes an audible decrease in volume, called a “null”This causes an audible decrease in volume, called a “null”  Almost any VHF-AM aircraft communications radio may be used with this method

34 34 Wing Shadowing Antennas  To properly use the Wing Shadowing method, you MUST know where the antenna for the radio you are using is installed & located on the aircraft  Communications radio antennas are usually, but not always, located above the wings Can be above the fuselage, in the tail, etc.Can be above the fuselage, in the tail, etc.  L-Tronics Aircraft DF antennas may be above or below the aircraft Below the aircraft is the preferred installationBelow the aircraft is the preferred installation

35 35 Communications Antennas Above the Wing N98987 Antennas Above the Wing

36 36 DF Antennas Below the Wing N98987 Antennas Below the Wing

37 37 How to DF by Wing Shadowing  Fly a constant bank angle 360° turn  the audio will “null,”  or get significantly quieter,  when your wing blocks the antenna’s reception of the ELT signal N S E W 45 135 225 315

38 38 Wing Shadowing-Signal Blocking For Antennas Above the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

39 39 Wing Shadowing Antennas Above the Wing  Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume)  The ELT is 90º to your LEFT  SUBTRACT 90º from your heading N S E W 45 135 225 315 ELT

40 40 Wing Shadowing-Signal Blocking For Antennas Below the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

41 41 Wing Shadowing Antennas Below the Wing  Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume)  The ELT is 90º to your RIGHT: ADD 90º to your heading N S E W 45 135 225 315 ELT

42 42 Aural (Hearing) Search Method  This is based on the assumption that the area of equal beacon signal strength is circular: do NOT adjust volume during this search; you will need it to determine equal levels of signal  Begin by plotting your position as soon as you receive the ELT signal  Fly that course for a short distance, then turn 90º left or right and proceed until the signal fades  Turn around (180º) and mark where the signal fades on the other side of the circle  Plot chord lines similar to that of the diagram  Bisect the chord lines at a perpendicular  Plot a course to the location where the perpendicular lines intersect: this should be the location of the target!

43 43 Aural Search Equal signal strength circle: barely audible signal in aircraft receiver at search altitude chord 1 chord 2 chord 3 ELT commence low altitude pattern descending SIGNAL FADES SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL FADES

44 44 Metered Search Build & Fade Method  This search requires a signal strength meter (like that on the L-Tronics DF units-if the DF portion of the unit is inoperative you can still use this type of search as long as RECeive is OK  Note your signal strength when beginning the search  Fly a straight line until the signal gets lower, then increases to your original level  Turn 180º and return to the lowest level of signal, then turn 90º left or right  You should now be headed directly towards or away from the transmitter  If the signal increases in strength, you are headed directly for the ELT  If the signal decreases in strength, turn 180º

45 45 FADE MAXIMUM SIGNAL MAXIMUM SIGNAL THEN DROP FIRST SIGNAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 ELT 8.0 6.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 5.0 Metered Search

46 46 Left-Right DF Homing  Most CAP corporate aircraft have L-Tronics LA-Series Left-Right Homing DF units  These units operate virtually the same, but there are two major varieties: Single Meter ModelsSingle Meter Models Dual Meter ModelsDual Meter Models

47 47 L - Tronics DF Types Single Meter Model Dual Meter Model L-Tronics ALARM OFF 243 121.6 121.775 AUX 121.5   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF 243 121.6 121.775 AUX 121.5 DF REC

48 48 Frequency Switch  Selects frequency to be used  Use 121.5 MHz for actual ELTs/EPIRBs  243.0 MHz may also be used for all actual electronic searches  Use 121.775 MHz for training  Refer to owners manual for use of the “AUX” position L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF 243 121.6 121.775 AUX 121.5 DF REC

49 49 Mode Switch  Only Single-meter units have this switch Dual-meter units use two displays, so both REC and DF operate continuously and simultaneouslyDual-meter units use two displays, so both REC and DF operate continuously and simultaneously  REC is short for RECeive mode REC makes the unit’s dial work as a strength meterREC makes the unit’s dial work as a strength meter  DF is short for Direction Find DF gives left-right homing to the ELT/EPIRB signalDF gives left-right homing to the ELT/EPIRB signal  ALARM is for NON-MISSION flights only Use only during normal flying to alert the presence of an ELT or EPIRBUse only during normal flying to alert the presence of an ELT or EPIRB L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF 243 121.6 121.775 AUX 121.5 DF REC

50 50 Volume & Sensitivity  Volume controls the audio level to the speaker or headsets  Sensitivity controls the amount of signal that enters into the DF unit It is critical that the proper amount of signal enters the DF: half- scale, or the middle, is an optimum starting placeIt is critical that the proper amount of signal enters the DF: half- scale, or the middle, is an optimum starting place  As the signal gets stronger, reduce SENSITIVITY, not volume The DF will be unreliable as too much signal is received, so you must cut out part of it by reducing the sensitivityThe DF will be unreliable as too much signal is received, so you must cut out part of it by reducing the sensitivity More than three-quarters scale is too muchMore than three-quarters scale is too much L-Tronics ALARM OFF 243 121.6 121.775 AUX 121.5   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH

51 51 DF Settings For Single Meter Models  MISSIONS Select 121.5 (or 121.775 for training missions)Select 121.5 (or 121.775 for training missions) Select DF ModeSelect DF Mode Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise)Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-ScaleTurn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Needle Will Move Slightly Left and RightDF Needle Will Move Slightly Left and Right  NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select 121.5Select 121.5 Select Alarm ModeSelect Alarm Mode Turn Sensitivity To MaximumTurn Sensitivity To Maximum

52 52 DF Settings For Dual Meter Models  MISSIONS Select 121.5 (or 121.775 for training missions)Select 121.5 (or 121.775 for training missions) Ensure Alarm Toggle OffEnsure Alarm Toggle Off Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise)Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-ScaleTurn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Should Stay About CenteredDF Should Stay About Centered Strength Meter Will Move Up-Scale to RightStrength Meter Will Move Up-Scale to Right  NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select 121.5Select 121.5 Turn Alarm Toggle OnTurn Alarm Toggle On Turn Sensitivity To MaximumTurn Sensitivity To Maximum

53 53 Pre-Flight Functional Check  Just as you pre-flight the rest of the aircraft, you should preflight your DF when going on an ELT electronic search mission  These procedures are covered in the Mission Aircrew Reference Text.

54 54 Six Steps  Use these 6 steps for locating ELTs and EPIRBs with L- Tronics LA- series airborne DF equipment  Use the full procedure every time for the best results RECeiveRECeive HALFHALF DFDF TURNTURN CHECKCHECK SHOOTSHOOT  Each of these steps will be described in detail in the slides to follow

55 55 Step 1 - RECeive  Once you have started to receive the ELT or EPIRB signal on the proper frequency  If you have a single-meter unit, turn the mode selector to RECeive and turn the volume to a comfortable level  If you have a dual meter unit, refer to the STRENGTH window (no need to change modes)

56 56 RECeive Mode/Strength Window  In receive mode or in the strength window, the unit measures signal strength Needle to the left means low; to the right means highNeedle to the left means low; to the right means high  Values are relative depending on the sensitivity you have selected  You may still be able to use the strength meter even if the DF is not functioning perfectly It is possible to locate an ELT using only the Receive ModeIt is possible to locate an ELT using only the Receive Mode Utilize Aural Search/Metered Search methods to accomplishUtilize Aural Search/Metered Search methods to accomplish If the unit isn’t completely operable, try wing shadowing using one of the aircraft’s communications radios and use the DF unit’s strength meter as a backup using the aural/metered methodsIf the unit isn’t completely operable, try wing shadowing using one of the aircraft’s communications radios and use the DF unit’s strength meter as a backup using the aural/metered methods

57 57 Step 2: Half  Now that the unit is in RECeive mode and you have a good signal, turn the Sensitivity Knob to HALF SCALE This is in the center of the windowThis is in the center of the window  If you are flying with a dual-meter unit, turn the Sensitivity Knob so the needle reads HALF SCALE in the STRENGTH window  A half-scale strength reading will prevent too much signal (over sense) from entering the unit and will provide you with a good starting point  It is also the optimum for the DF homing antennas

58 58 Step 3: DF  For single-meter units, turn the mode selector knob to DF  In DF mode, you can think of the needle as always pointing Direct to the Flipping target.  For dual-meter models, simply refer to the DF window (no need to change modes)

59 A Direction Finding Primer Antenna Theory   Antennas can be more or less directional depending on their design   Imagine a car radio antenna: it is unidirectional Its pattern looks like the one on the left   A Satellite Dish is highly directional It would have a pattern like the one on the right car radio antenna (monopole) satellite dish (parabolic reflector)

60 60 DF Antenna  The aircraft DF unit has a 2 or 3 “element” antenna Commonly, we might call this two or three antennasCommonly, we might call this two or three antennas It just means there are two or three rods!It just means there are two or three rods!  This antenna setup is directional One element actually receives the signalOne element actually receives the signal The other elements (rods) reflect the signal away from the first rodThe other elements (rods) reflect the signal away from the first rod N98987 Antenna Elements

61 61 Antenna Reception Pattern  When viewed from the bottom, an antenna setup like the one pictured on the previous slide produces a reception pattern like the one shown here This pattern is called “carotid,” which means “heart-shaped”This pattern is called “carotid,” which means “heart-shaped”  The pattern is the same even if the antennas are mounted above the wing Element 123

62 DF Unit Antenna Pattern AIRCRAFT VIEW TOP VIEW RECEIVING ELEMENT REFLECTOR ELEMENTS DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA PATTERN

63 63 Direction Finding Mode/Window  The DF mode rapidly alternates the receiving and reflecting antenna elements It chooses one element as the receiver and the other two as the reflectors, then switches to the other setIt chooses one element as the receiver and the other two as the reflectors, then switches to the other set  This produces a carotid pattern each time the unit switches one is shown in blue, the other in yellowone is shown in blue, the other in yellow  By comparing the two patterns, the unit will determine when they are equal  When they’re equal, the needle centers!  When the needle is centered, the target is either directly ahead or behind you!

64 64 Step 4: Turn  Turn at least one FULL circle, noting where the DF needle centers  Under ideal conditions, the needle will center twice When facing directly at the source of the signalWhen facing directly at the source of the signal When facing 180º away from the targetWhen facing 180º away from the target  You will solve this problem (called ambiguity) in the next step

65 65 DF Centers Alternating Antenna Patterns Alternating Antenna Patterns When The Patterns Are Equal, The DF Needle Centers! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

66 66 Step 5: Check  Use Turn to Tell  Remembering that in DF mode the needle always points Direct to the Flipping target  When you have the needle centered, turn left or right If you turn left and the needle goes left, the ELT is 180º from your present headingIf you turn left and the needle goes left, the ELT is 180º from your present heading If you turn left and the needle turns right, the ELT is dead aheadIf you turn left and the needle turns right, the ELT is dead ahead

67 67 Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)  When Needle Centers ELT is Directly Ahead or BehindELT is Directly Ahead or Behind  This situation is called “ambiguity”  To Solve ambiguity:  Use Turn to Tell Make a turn left or rightMake a turn left or right The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target (DF!)The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target (DF!)

68 68 DF Needle ELT  Compare the YELLOW (LEFT) and the BLUE (RIGHT) antenna patterns  In this case, the LEFT pattern is stronger than the RIGHT  In DF mode, the needle would then point LEFT The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target!The needle always points Direct to the Flipping Target!

69 69 Solving Ambiguity  Actual ELT position is unknown to user  Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL”As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

70 70 Solving Ambiguity  Actual ELT position is unknown to user  Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL”As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL”  Example: TURN LEFTTURN LEFT needle goes leftneedle goes left ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

71 71 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 2)  Actual ELT position is unknown to user  Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL”As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL”  Example: TURN LEFTTURN LEFT If needle goes leftIf needle goes left ELT is to your left (behind you)ELT is to your left (behind you) ELT (Possibility 2)

72 72 Solving Ambiguity  If you turn Left and the needle moves Right  The ELT is in Front of you! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

73 73 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)  If you turn Left and the needle moves Right  The ELT is in Front of you!  Example: Turn leftTurn left Needle goes rightNeedle goes right

74 74 Solving Ambiguity ELT (Possibility 1)  Solution: If you turn Left and the needle moves RightIf you turn Left and the needle moves Right The ELT is in Front of you!The ELT is in Front of you!

75 75 Step 6: Shoot  Use your DG to determine a bearing to the target & follow it  You may need to fly through a zone of signal dropout  Be watchful for signs of signal passage If you get signal passage, consider using the “pinpointing the target” techniques listed in this presentationIf you get signal passage, consider using the “pinpointing the target” techniques listed in this presentation  Frequently repeat the full six steps to ensure you are heading in the right direction and that you didn’t inadvertently over fly the ELT N S E W 45 135 225 315

76 76 How an L - Tronics DF Unit Works -Summary-  Two Main Modes of Operation RECeiveRECeive DFDF  RECeive Mode is a Strength Meter Left is low, right is highLeft is low, right is high  DF Mode Centers on Signal Always points to the signalAlways points to the signal Use a Turn to Tell when solving ambiguityUse a Turn to Tell when solving ambiguity  Aircraft and ground units work the same way

77 77 Reflections  Reflections of an ELT signal work just like a flashlight off of a mirror  Any flat, hard, or wet object can cause signal reflections Mountains, especially cliff facesMountains, especially cliff faces Hangars and other metal structuresHangars and other metal structures Wet grass or snowWet grass or snow Large bodies of water or iceLarge bodies of water or ice  Power lines can also have a large effect on a low- powered signal such as an ELT

78 78 Beating Reflections  Check your sensitivity at half-scale or lower But ensure that its high enough to receive adequate signalBut ensure that its high enough to receive adequate signal  Reflections will generally be weaker than the most direct path to the target  Following reflections will generally take your closer to the target  If sensitivity is set to minimum, try DFing on a different frequency For example, if you are trying to locate an actual ELT on 121.5 MHz, try locating it on 121.6 or 121.775 MHz when you get closeFor example, if you are trying to locate an actual ELT on 121.5 MHz, try locating it on 121.6 or 121.775 MHz when you get close  When all else fails, fly somewhere else to get a good DF bearing-or try that at the first sign of problems!

79 Beating Reflections You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION If it looks like you’re finding an ELT, even if you can’t hear it, you have good DEFLECTION If it looks like you’re finding an ELT, even if you can’t hear it, you have good DEFLECTION Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF

80 80 Carrier-Only Signals You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find itYou don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it  A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissionsThis is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTIONYou can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DFGood needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF

81 Compare your deflection to another frequencyCompare your deflection to another frequency  If you are using 121.5 MHz, try it on 121.775 MHz If deflection is the same in both frequencies, you DON’T have a signal, just random noiseIf deflection is the same in both frequencies, you DON’T have a signal, just random noise If deflection is different, keep at it! You have the signalIf deflection is different, keep at it! You have the signal If a signal is only received on 243 MHz, it may be a malfunctioning antenna (e.g., an FAA tower). If you DF to the location (particularly on or near an airport) and you keep ending up at an antenna, investigate. Find out who owns the antenna and its purpose. Inform the IC and let the controlling agency troubleshoot the problem.If a signal is only received on 243 MHz, it may be a malfunctioning antenna (e.g., an FAA tower). If you DF to the location (particularly on or near an airport) and you keep ending up at an antenna, investigate. Find out who owns the antenna and its purpose. Inform the IC and let the controlling agency troubleshoot the problem. 81 Carrier-Only Signals

82 82 Vertical Reflections and Signal Dropout  The transmission pattern (similar to the reception pattern of the DF antennas, only for transmission) of an ELT is not a perfect circle or sphere  It has lobes, or, stronger and weaker points  This is accentuated when the ELT is transmitting from a location above the surrounding ground  When you get a good DF heading and the signal fades or drops out completely you may just be outside of one of the signal lobes  When you reacquire the signal, it should be stronger than when you lost it

83 83 Signal Dropout NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD  If you encounter a signal dropout, continue to fly on your last good DF heading  You should reacquire the signal in a few minutes Actual time will depend upon your distance to the targetActual time will depend upon your distance to the target  If you are unable to reacquire, return to where you last heard the signal and re-DF

84 84 Signal Strength  The rate of change in signal strength increases as you get closer to the transmitter, and RECeive mode or the STRENGTH window measures signal strength  This is due to Maxwell’s inverse square law: When you double the distance from an object, the energy it you receive from it is 1/4 of what you originally received, or the inverse square: 1/(2 2 ) = 1/4When you double the distance from an object, the energy it you receive from it is 1/4 of what you originally received, or the inverse square: 1/(2 2 ) = 1/4  After Scottish Physicist James Clerk Maxwell, 1831-1879  You will therefore need to turn down the sensitivity to keep the unit at half scale in the RECeive mode or STRENGTH window much more often as you get close to the source of the signal This should let you know that you’re getting closeThis should let you know that you’re getting close

85 85 Signal Strength Rate of Change   SENS  VOL 1 2 345 6 7

86 86 “Cone of Confusion” Cone of Confusion  Antennas receive best when the pole is perpendicular to the signal  When you approach the directly overhead position on an ELT, your DF will become unreliable It may swing left and rightIt may swing left and right It may center regardless of your headingIt may center regardless of your heading  You should practice to see what this “station passage” reading looks like It is similar to crossing a VORIt is similar to crossing a VOR

87 87 Reception in the “Cone of Silence” antenna signal GOOD POOR  You may also get a significant drop in ELT signal since the antennas don’t receive well directly off of their tips  Although called a cone of silence, you will probably only see & hear a large decrease in signal instead of complete silence

88 88 Pinpointing the ELT  If you get a station passage indication, make an approximate 180 degree turn and DF back to the target  Repeat this process using different approach angles each time, remembering that your path may be curved due to wind (like uncorrected NDB holding)  The point where station passage is received several times should be the location of the target 1 2 3

89 89 Pinpointing the ELT  After you think you have the target located make a low pass over the suspected location and visually scanmake a low pass over the suspected location and visually scan if signal strength decreases significantly or drops out, climb back and try againif signal strength decreases significantly or drops out, climb back and try again this is not the target: sometimes false targets will appear due to reflections or other interferencethis is not the target: sometimes false targets will appear due to reflections or other interference  If you hear the ELT at low altitude, you probably have the right place a low pass down a runway might be a good idea if you suspect a particular airporta low pass down a runway might be a good idea if you suspect a particular airport

90 Becker SAR-DF 517  Completely different theory of operation from L-Tronics DF Pseudo Doppler ShiftPseudo Doppler Shift Beyond the scope of this courseBeyond the scope of this course The advanced ELT course has an explanationThe advanced ELT course has an explanation  Easy to use  Displays a delayed average heading to the beacon  Can be used on 121.5, 243.0, or 406.025 MHz  Able to process newest ELTs, EPIRBs, & PLBs

91 Becker Operation   Power   Mode   Page   Tune   Squelch   DF   Locate

92 Power   POWER Press the ON/OFF button—unit should power up and illuminate   Be prepared to execute the next steps…   If you’re not fast enough, you may need to recycle power (turn it off and back on)

93 Mode   MODE Using the PAGE knob (upper right knob), select: EMERGENCY for an actual SAR or TRAINING for a training mission This setting can only be changed on power up   Recycle power to change the Mode   After setting EMERGENCY or TRAINING, just WAIT until the unit automatically goes to the next page   The “wait time” is about 15 seconds   Don’t push any buttons or turn any knobs during this period

94 Page   Use the PAGE knob to cycle to desired page   Page 1 is most like an ADF   Page 2 is good for forward quarter only   Page 3 is most easily read by the entire crew, but only in relative bearing

95 Tuning   The lower-right +/- knob changes the frequency   You want 121,500 for an actual SAR or 121,775 for training   You can alternately use 243,000 or 243,550 respectively   You will only be able to select training frequencies while in the training mode   Similarly, you can only select actual SAR frequencies in the emergency mode   156,800 is for Marine Band Channel 16 EPIRBs   Notice the commas: the Becker is made in Europe; the commas replace a decimal point

96 Squelch  Adjust the squelch knob on the upper left of the unit  The squelch knob may be marked SQL or DIM (depending when your Becker was made)  Adjust the small triangle arrow until it is pointing barely above the solid bar  The solid bar represents static or ambient noise, but you will want to listen and make sure that the “static” is not actually a signal  When trying to acquire a signal, you may want the squelch all the way down  You may also want to do this to make sure you can hear audio from the Becker  Turn the lower left knob to adjust the volume to a comfortable listening level Squelch Knob Squelch Setting Triangle Ambient Noise Level

97 Direction Finding (DF)  Follow the relative bearings to the ELT  Use homing procedures like an ADF  Correct for strong winds, if known  Remember that these are RELATIVE bearings with the nose of the aircraft being 360°/ 000° !!!  If you are showing a >006> that means turn right 6°  If the unit shows <354<, then turn LEFT 6°  This is similar to a fixed-card ADF  “Rub The Tub” RB + TH = TB  Relative Bearing + True Heading = True Bearing  This is also true if we replace magnetic bearing and heading instead of the trues: RB + MH = MB  Therefore if the Becker DF indicates >010> and you are flying a 270° heading, the magnetic bearing of the ELT is 280°. Add right, subtract left.

98 Becker Direction Finding Notes   The clear marbles indicate when the Becker first and last receives the ELT signal in its circle   Watching the clear marbles will give you an indication of how coherent your DF solution is The marbles will always jump around; if they jump around a LOT you don’t have a good DF You can test this by seeing what your indications are when you reduce the squelch enough to “DF” static The clear marbles will jump all over the place Static can sometimes look like a carrier-only signal   The dark marble should be fairly stable on an actual signal because of signal-averaging software >020> DARK MARBLE CLEAR MARBLES

99 Locate   After flying over the ELT, you should get a “station passage” indication   Turn around and re-DF to locate the target   This is similar to locating with the L-Tronics DF   If you keep the signal at 090 or 270, you can fly a “turn around a point” using the DF   If the target isn’t visually significant, this will give your Scanner(s) the opportunity to put eyes on the target

100 Bearing on more than One Transmitter   If bearing from a long distance, the DF will be pointing at the middle of the two transmitters   This is because the Becker averages the signals it gets   Exactly in the middle between two transmitters, the DF will display an unusable bearing value   The clear marbles will swing WIDE (180 degrees or more) when in the middle of 2 averaged signals   Exactly over one transmitter the DF will be pointing to another (garbling cone)   Tactic for this situation: don’t fly the approach exactly following the indicated averaged bearing: fly about 20 degrees left or right

101 Becker Thoughts   The Becker unit is not as sensitive as the L-Tronics DF, so you must be significantly closer to the ELT to get initial signal   Because it uses averaging functions, it will not instantaneously point to an ELT like the L-Tronics unit—there is definitely a delayed reaction   The displays on the Becker lead you to believe that it is a pseudo- RMI or ADF type pointer. This is not the case. Even when the complete circle (page 1) is displayed, the arrow only indicates left or right, NOT how much (such as an ADF). The same is true for the “pie” display, page 2   Look to the “dark marble” to indicate the relative direction of the signal; this acts as an ADF-type pointer

102 Becker Thoughts   Look to the “dark marble” to indicate the relative direction of the signal; this acts as an ADF-type pointer   If you do not have an operable training beacon to practice with, pick an AWOS, ASOS, or other continuously-transmitting source that is within the training frequency range. If you tune it in (see the manual, training mode only) you can DF it. A caution with this method, however, is that an AWOS transmits at least 250 times the power level of an ELT. This makes DFing an AWOS much easier than an ELT   Be careful with the unit as it costs roughly $10,000. MAKE SURE THE UNIT IS OFF DURING ENGINE START/SHUTDOWN. Some installations have the DF independent of the avionics master and the unit is sensitive to surges from start/shutdown.   The complete user manual is available at http://www.beckerusa.com

103 103 After Locating the ELT  After location, coordinate with ground teams to bring them on-scene  Use radio communication and relay GPS coordinates  Pick up the ground team at a predetermined location and lead them to the target  Alternately, coordinate a pick up point on the radio  Practice your air-to-ground coordination skills often try it both with and without radio communicationtry it both with and without radio communication  Air-to-ground is CAP’s best unique ES skill!

104 104  Many times the ELT is located at an airfield where it is easier for you to land and locate the ELT than it is to get a ground team to the scene  You can use a hand-held radio or hand-held DF unit  The most commonly used in CAP is the Little L-Per  You did remember to put one of these (with charged batteries) in the aircraft before you left, didn ’ t you? DF Upon Landing

105 105  Six Steps ReceiveReceive HalfHalf DFDF CenterCenter TurnTurn ShootShoot Little L - Per

106 106  You land at an airport with multiple hangars and each hangar is full of aircraft  This can make it difficult to find the ELT  Two methods can help: Signal-offsetSignal-offset Using a hand-held radio without its antennaUsing a hand-held radio without its antenna  If the suspect aircraft has an external DF antenna and you can ’ t get inside to turn the ELT off, try placing an aluminum foil ‘ sleeve ’ over the antenna to see if the signal strength decreases significantly Which of these planes is it in?

107 107  Signal-offset: reflected signals are generally weaker so by tuning your radio further away from the primary frequency you can isolate the signal: Assume ELT transmitting on 121.5; set to 121.55Assume ELT transmitting on 121.5; set to 121.55 As you home in set in 121.6 (you may even work up to 121.7)As you home in set in 121.6 (you may even work up to 121.7) As you get further away from 121.5 the area where the signal will break through the squelch becomes smaller and smaller (you can even turn up the squelch to get further isolation)As you get further away from 121.5 the area where the signal will break through the squelch becomes smaller and smaller (you can even turn up the squelch to get further isolation) Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

108 108  Using a hand-held radio without its antenna: Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennasOnce you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Turn the volume down until you just hear the signalTurn the volume down until you just hear the signal Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed!Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed! Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antennaMove to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraftIf the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antennaMay also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna Can also combine this with the signal-offset methodCan also combine this with the signal-offset method Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

109   Use Little L-Per or… Use Body Shielding With any hand held aviation band radio, you can locate an ELT A Jetstream radio also works great Same concept as wing null method, you are just using your body to block the signal to the antenna When you get very close, there will be too much signal to get a null Use Frequency Offset Method—try 121.6 instead of 121.5 As you home in, tune in 121.6—you can tune further away the closer you get Which of these planes is it in? (Continued)

110 How to Body Shield - The Null NULL! ELT   No Signal To Your Receiver The Sound Gets Softer! The ELT Is Directly To Your Back Throw your thumb over your shoulder to point to the ELT SIGNAL

111  Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas  Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal  Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed  Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna  If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft  May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna  Can also combine this with the frequency-offset method Airmobile UDF Team 101

112 112  ELTs are usually located in or near the rear of the aircraft. Also look for remote switches. Single-engine Cessna: right side of the upper baggage area immediately aft of the baggage doorSingle-engine Cessna: right side of the upper baggage area immediately aft of the baggage door Multi-engine Cessna: left side of the fuselage just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. Accessed through a small push-plate on the side of the fuselage.Multi-engine Cessna: left side of the fuselage just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. Accessed through a small push-plate on the side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Piper: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage.Single- and multi-engine Piper: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Bonanza: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage.Single- and multi-engine Bonanza: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Large piston twins (e.g., King Air) and small jets: if installed its probably in the rear section. No visible antenna. May have a small round push-plate that lets you manipulate the ELT switch.Large piston twins (e.g., King Air) and small jets: if installed its probably in the rear section. No visible antenna. May have a small round push-plate that lets you manipulate the ELT switch. Where is the thing?

113 113  The preferred method is to have the owner (or someone designated by the owner) turn it off and disconnect the battery  Second best is to just turn it off The owner may take the switch to ‘Off’ and then back to ‘Armed’The owner may take the switch to ‘Off’ and then back to ‘Armed’ If this is done, stick around and monitor 121.5 to ensure it doesn’t go off againIf this is done, stick around and monitor 121.5 to ensure it doesn’t go off again  If you can ’ t find the owner, you may have to build a foil ‘ tent ’ (refer to CAPP-2) Silencing the ELT

114 114 Silencing the ELT (Continued)  Foil Tent  1’ x 5’  Encloses antenna  Flaps at least 18” beyond antenna on fuselage  Securely taped (masking tape preferred)

115 115  Ensure that the owner is notified that the ELT was disabled  If you can ’ t get a phone number, you can place a note on the aircraft (not the window) Silencing the ELT (Continued)

116 116  Per CAPR 60-1 Chapter 1, CAP members will not enter private property and should not do anything that could cause harm or damage to the distress beacon or aircraft/boat  Entry to the ELT should be made by the owner or operator or law enforcement  A transmitting ELT is under the legal authority of the FCC, and federal law requires that it be deactivated ASAP (a crashed aircraft is under the authority of the NTSB)  CAP members do not have the authority to trespass onto private property, either to gain access to the aircraft or to enter the aircraft to gain access to the ELT  Besides the owner/operator, some owners give FBO personnel permission to enter their aircraft Legal Issues

117 117  While entry upon private property may be justified if such an act is for the purpose of saving life, every effort should be made to obtain the controlling agency's and/or the property owner's consent  If you need entry onto private property in order to search for an ELT, law enforcement authorities such as local police, the county sheriff's office or game wardens may be contacted for assistance. Legal Issues (Continued)

118 118  Normally, local law enforcement officials are happy to assist you; if they are not familiar with CAP and your responsibilities, a simple explanation often suffices  If this doesn't work, try calling AFRCC and have them explain the situation  The most important aspect is the manner in which you approach the matter  The local civil authorities are in charge, if they tell you go home, then phone the IC and/or AFRCC and close the mission Legal Issues (Continued)

119 QUESTIONS? ALWAYS THINK SAFETY!


Download ppt "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Jun-2007 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 03-Jan-2014."

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