Presentation on theme: "1 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dr. Sultan T. Abu-Orabi Secretary General Association of Arab Universities 1 st Arab-Malaysian."— Presentation transcript:
1 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD Dr. Sultan T. Abu-Orabi Secretary General Association of Arab Universities 1 st Arab-Malaysian Global Higher Education Summit 3-6 October 2012 Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia - Malaysia
The Arab World 22 Countries: Asia :12Africa: 10 2
Higher education in the Arab World Higher education in Arab countries is considered recent. In the past decades, most Arab students used to study mainly at few Arab universities spread in the Arab World in addition to universities in Turkey, Pakistan, Europe, USA and India. 3
According to the Middle East Brief, no.36 May 2009, Higher learning is deeply rooted in the history and societies of the Arab Middle East. After the seventh century and the islamization of the Arab world, local religious schools known as madrasa became the main institutions of higher learning in the Middle East. They established and disseminated educational standards that are still applied in present-day universities, such as the separation of master’s from doctorate programs, tenure, and protections for academic freedom. 4
Madrasas like al-Azhar in Cairo (Egypt, 970AD) and the Qarawiyyun in Fez (Morroco 859AD), Al Mustansiryah in Iraq (1227 AD) originated in intellectual movements such as humanism and scholasticism, which nurtured the subsequent flourishing of Western scholarship after the twelfth century. 5
7 During the same period, other institutions of the Arab world such as hospitals, libraries, observatories, and private homes known as “academies” undertook the development of the nonreligious sciences, inspired by the ancient Greeks. The most famous of these academies was the Beit al Hikma (House of Wisdom) in Baghdad, where numerous fields within the sciences (astronomy, physics, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, geography) flourished until the sixteenth century.
Yet the Ottomans, who ruled the Arab world throughout this period, strove as early as the eighteenth century to get their Empire back into the academic game. In 1720, the Sultan Ahmed III sent delegations of scholars to Europe in order to obtain translations of Western scientific books. This pattern reached its peak during the reign of Mohamed Ali (r. 1805–49), when dozens of modern institutions of higher learning were established on the European model, mainly in Egypt. 8
9 Meanwhile—in fact, since the eighteenth century—European missionaries, followed by American Christians, were founding dozens of schools and institutions of higher learning in the Middle East, while the French established institutions of higher learning in North Africa. Thus, neither the globalization of higher education nor “Westernization” is a new trend in the Middle East.
Until 1953, only 13 public and private universities were established in the Arab World. Most existing private universities were very old and mostly foreign. For example, in Lebanon there were two pioneering institutions, namely the American university in Beirut in 1866 and Saint Joseph University in 1875. 11
It is recorded that Al-Azhar University in Cairo is the oldest formal university known (970AD) and it is also argued that Al-Qarawiyyin University in Fez is the first university in the world ever established (859 AD). Those universities were funded by the Islamic Waqf (Endowment) 12
Arab Universities founded before 1950 COUNTRYName of University Egypt1- The Egyptian University (present Cairo University) 2- University of Farouk the First in Alexandria (present Alexandria University) 3- Al Azhar Univeristy 4- Ain Shams University 5- The American University Syria6-The Syrian University (present Damascus University) Algeria7-University of Algier Morocco8-Al-Qarawiyeen University Tunisia9-Al Zaytounah University Lebanon10-The American University 11-Saint Joseph University Sudan12- Khartoum University 13
During the last twenty five years, private universities increased rapidly and absorbed around 30% of students enrolled in Higher Education. While private non-profit universities in Lebanon date from the 19 th century, Jordan opened its first private for-profit university in 1990, followed by Egypt, Syria and the Gulf Region. At present, there are more than 190 private universities in the Arab World. This represents 45% of the total number of Arab universities. 15
In some Arab Countries, Private universities and HE institutions managed at one time to take over 40% of total enrollment. In some Far Eastern countries as Japan and South Korea, enrollment percentage of Private HE exceeds 50% while in most Western European Countries, Private higher education is still around 30% of the total higher education. In USA, private higher education is around 20% of total enrollment. 16
Quantitative Development of Arab Universities, Students and Faculty Staff 1 – The number of Arab universities expanded from 233 Universities in 2003 to about 286 Universities in 2006, of which are 153 governmental and 133 private. The number of students was about 4,400,000 and the number faculty staff members was 183.000 of whom were 78% Humanities, 22% scientific studies. In 2011 the number rose to 399 universities, around 8 million students and 230,000 faculty members. 17
Damascus University in Syria Established in 1923 18
Quantitative Development of Arab Universities, Students and Faculty Staff 2 – The percentage of the student to the faculty member is about 21:1 and in some universities up to 100:1, while in the Gulf States it reaches up to 17:1 to 41:1. Some statistics indicates that they are up to 10:1. However, the global ideal level is 15:1 student to faculty member. 3 – The number of undergraduate students is 90% of the total students number, 10% of them are graduate students. 19
4- The cost of a university student in the Arab world is about $ 2700 a year and it might reach $ 550 in some countries. In the Gulf countries, the student’s cost is between 7000-15000 dollars. 5 – The Budget allocated to higher education in the Arab world is up to $ 11 billion. 6- The proportion of expenditure on university education in the Arab world is about 1.3% of the total national income. 20
Higher Education in the Arab World 1.The number of students raised from 3.2 Million in 1996 to 7.2 million in 2006. 2.There are 2230 students per 100.000 population. 3.The number of Universities exceeded at present 400, but the percentage of universities to population is still less than global average. ( 1 university per million population). 4.There are 10,000 universities in the world for about 6.7 Billions population. 5.There are 125.000 staff members in the Arab world, of which 25% are females. 6.The ratio of students to teachers are as follows: Industrial World: 1:14 World Average: 1:16 Arab World: 1:30 UNESCO Science report 2010 21 Number of Universities in Arab Countries, Their Type (governmental/private) and Date of Their Establishment CountryBefore 195019731993 GovPrivTotalGov.PrivTotalGov.Priv.Total Egypt41571812113 Iraq---5-512- Jordan---1-15813 Palestine----33178 Lebanon-22145189 Syria1-13-34-4 Bahrain------2-2 Kuwait---1-11-1 Oman------1-1 Qatar---1-11-1 Saudi Arabia ---4-47-7 UAE------1-1 Algeria1-13-313- Morocco1-13-313- Tunisia1-12-26-6 Libya---2-211- Sudan1--2-216- Yemen---2-2426 Djibouti------1-1 Mauritania------1-1 Somalia---1-11-1 TOTAL93123884611426140
Statistics on Higher Education in the Arab World for the Year 2011 (Association of Arab Universities) 22 Country 20032011 Gov.Priv.Total Gov. PrivateTotal No. of Students No. of Faculty Staff Tunisia81422131932360000 21210 Iraq14- 25833397784 31990 Bahrain2-2281035848 3100 Yemen781581321300000 10000 UAE2572192159333 1861 Morocco13114 418419885 12085 Sudan27128 735500000 9700 Lebanon118191 20205000 12700 Oman112178800004100 Kuwait123145345601705 Saudi Arabia8-82383166700021320 Syria5-5510152824849500 Egypt13619201535280000067000 Palestine2911213151966255900 Jordan810181118293360008898 Libya14- 92 11 2640009000 Somalia1233 11 144147195 Comoros---1 - 1-- Mauritania1-11 - 1250001175 Djibouti1-11 - 115000580 Qatar1-11 6 7155001100 Algeria26- 34 2 36114989919500 TOTAL15677233206 193 3998148065252619
Yala Islamic University, Thailand Founded in 2007 23
As a result of Globalization, competitiveness and accelerating expansion of private Higher Education, it is vital to take several actions such as : To establish national quality assurance frameworks and to develop current established ones in order to guarantee the quality of education and control its outcomes. To develop, enhance and review current internal quality management systems. 25
To encourage establishing regional quality assurance networks to help promoting QA of higher education in the region. To build capacities for education quality assurance systems To develop action plans on quality assurance of higher education institutions. To enhance international cooperation in fields of Higher education quality assurance. 26
Role of AARU in Quality Assurance Due to the importance of the topic of quality assurance, the Council of AARU agreed in its meeting in Algeria 2006 to establish a council for quality assurance and accreditation (QAAC) for member universities to adopt the policies of the Association in this regard. The Vision of the QAAC of AARU is to:- “Guarantee a high quality precision for higher education institutes of AARU members”. 27
Its mission is to assist Arab Universities to improve their quality, through spreading of the culture of QA, preparing QA guides, provide advice and training to support the process of QA and Accreditation for institutes and programs. So far, the council has issued six reference manuals and guides related to self and external assessment and general accreditation in addition to performance indicators and criteria and weights to measure the performance indicators. 28
AArU cooperates with national accreditation bodies to discuss and plan together in order to create an Arab umbrella to take the responsibility of quality assurance, while making all efforts with UNESCO and relevant organizations, to give effect to the Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees and other Academic Qualifications in Higher Education in the Arab States to ensure promoting academic mobility and strengthening international understanding. 29
The importance of these indicators is the fact that Arabs lack readiness to strongly compete in the twenty-first century. The Arab world must start reform in order to meet the challenges that globalization has imposed upon it. With all these problems, our educational institutions should set new precisions and criteria to guarantee a high quality educational systems and programs, and to integrate new technologies to be able to compete with other institutions all over the world especially after the influence of globalization 30
The Second Challenge facing Arab universities is poor Scientific Research Arab’s expenditures on scientific research are about 0.2-0.4% of the national income GDP, while it is around 3-5% in developed countries. The number of researchers per million inhabitants is 450 in the Arab Countries, whereas in the developed countries the number is 5000 per million. 32
33 Note: for Jordan, Sudan, Libya & Saudi Arabia, the data are a head count; for the remainder of countries, data are full-time equivalent; for Sudan, the data are estimation; for Tunisia, the data are overestimated; for Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya & Saudi Arabia, the data are underestimated for partial; for Oman & Mauritania, the data concern FTE researchers at government universities; for Yemen, the data exclude FTE researchers at government universities. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics database, July 2010; for Mauritania, Oman, Qatar and Yemen: Saleh (2008) S&T indicators in the Arab States. 33 Researchers per million inhabitants (2007)
34 Number of Publications per million inhabitants (2008) Source: Thomson Reuters (Scientific) Inc. Web of Science. Science Citation Index Expanded, complied for UNESCO by the Observatoire des Sciences et des techniques for population data; World Bank (2010) World Development Indicators. 34
% of World Contribution for Scientific Articles UNESCO Report 2003 Country% USA 30.8 Japan 8.2 UK 7.9 Germany 7.2 France 5.7 Israel 1.1 Egypt 0.3 Saudi Arabia 0.1 Lebanon 0.04 Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Tunisia 0.03 Jordan, Syria 0.02 Bahrain 0.01 Yemen, Oman, UAE 0.008 35
Scientific Articles Published in the Arab World in 2005 Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) CountryNumber of Research Egypt3459 Saudi Arabia1715 Lebanon1563 Jordan959 Syria224 Qatar138 Iraq100 Libya81 Palestinian Authority63 36
Number of Patents registered in some Countries USA Patents Office 2008 Country20071963-2007 USA79.5273.460.775 UK3.292126.663 Japan33.354692.181 Israel1.10715.641 India5463.445 South Korea6.29550.420 37
Number of Arab Patents registered in USA over 10 years (2009) ARAB COUNRTIESPATENTS Saudi Arabia147 Kuwait118 Egypt116 Lebanon73 Morocco71 United Arab Emirates66 Tunisia23 Jordan22 Syria20 Algeria13 Iraq10 Oman8 Sudan7 Qatar6 Bahrain4 Libya4 Mauritania3 Yemen 3 38
Islamic University in Gaza, Palestine Founded in 1978 39
Other Challenges Facing Scientific Research Low rates of Expenditure on Scientific Research. Low outputs of Scientific research (publications and patents). Adopting the method of transferring and memorizing knowledge rather that getting it through research. Scientific research of graduate students is rather traditional and does not tackle socio-economic development. Non-compliance with the implementation of a national policy or a clear strategic plan for scientific research. 40
Lack of cooperation and coordination among universities as well as lack of exchange of information, experiences, publications and co-research. Disconnection between scientific research and national sustainable development plans. Ignoring quality and innovation in promotion requirements at some universities. However the requirements are based rather on spending a specific period of time and submitting specific number of scientific research. 41
Lack of scientific research activities and its impact on sustainable development. Fragility of university education systems in general due to its novelty where most universities have been established in the last quarter of the 20 th century and at the beginning of the 21 st century. Low quality of education due to the inflation of student number and limited number of available staff members. 42
Unemployment of research results in economic projects due to weak links between research institutes and production sectors. Lack of specialized centers for scientific research. An over –inflated ego in researchers and lack of interaction with team work. Lack of universities’ autonomy, governance and institutional performance. Weak quality of HE outputs. 43
Role of AARU in Supporting Scientific Research Funding Scientific Research: Any worthwhile research must necessarily be based on the following pillars: vision, strategy, logistics, human resources that include well qualified researchers and meaningful research priorities directed towards problem-solving rather than just publishing. The Arab world today faces a host of hurdles when it comes to scientific research including a lack of clear focus in research priorities and strategies, insufficient time and funding to meet research goals, low awareness of the importance and impact of good scientific research, inadequate networking opportunities and databases, limited international collaborative efforts, and of course, the brain-drain. 45
One of the solutions to meet the challenges is to increase the budget for scientific research, select meaningful priority areas for research, lay down workable strategic goals and action plans, establish adequate databases and networking capabilities, and robustly encourage private sector input and participation. In a step to support financing scientific research at Arab Universities, a decision was adopted in March 2012 during the last meeting of AArU in Morocco to launch The Scientific Research Fund at the headquarters of AArU. We are working to seek the support of various bodies to make this Fund effective. 46
Islamic University Bangladesh Founded in 1986 47
The Third Challenge is Brain Drain losses at Arab Universities 31% of the total brain drain from developing countries are from the Arab countries, 50% of them are doctors and 32% are engineers. 15% of Arab talents went to Europe and America. 48
34% of physicians working in the UK are Arabs and Muslims. 75% of the total scientific talent migration in Canada, USA and Britain are Arabs and Muslims. 54% of Arab students who study abroad do not return to their home countries. 49
Main Reasons of Brain Drain in Arab Countries Political instability. Social Injustice. Absence of appropriate environment to conduct research. Lack of research facilities and low quality research standards. Lack of freedoms. Lack of work motivations and incentives. Low salaries. 50
54 Islamic World composed: 22% of the world population having 70% of energy resources 40 % of natural resources The contribution of OIC countries towards world income is only 8%. 39 % of the Islamic countries population live below the poverty level 22 of the 50 least developed countries in the world are OIC Member States. The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World
55 The Research and Development manpower of Muslim countries is only 1.18% of the total science and technology manpower, noting that OIC makes 22% of the world population. Only two scientists from Islamic states have won Nobel Prizes, Abdus Salam, a Pakistani (Physics, 1979) and Ahmed Zewail, an Egyptian (Chemistry, 1999). Both carried out their research outside Islamic countries. Islamic countries have approximately 450 researchers per million population compared to 2200-4500 per million in the developed countries. The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World
56 The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World Whereas Japan, the United States, Germany, and other Western countries spend 2 % - 4% of their gross domestic product (GDP) annually on research; no Muslim country spends more than 0.5 % of its GDP on research. The OIC countries have about 1700 universities in total compared to 1,000 in Japan, including 120 in Tokyo alone, 170 universities in Thailand.
International Islamic University Islamabad Founded in 1980 58
59 The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World The number of researchers 450 researchers for one million Arab populations 100 researchers per million African Muslims 570 researchers per million Asian Muslims.
60 Of the 28 lowest producers of scientific articles, half are muslim countries (according to the US National Science Foundation in 2006). In 2003, the world average production of articles per million inhabitants was 137; the average of Muslim countries was only 13 with the highest publication rates being in Turkey and Iran. According to the (World Bank Development Indicators of 2006), of the top 15 countries which have submitted international applications under the patent cooperation treaty, not one of them are Muslim country. The Muslim rate of enrollment in higher education is fully 45 % lower than that for the Third World countries. The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World
61 The Status of Scientific Research & Higher Education in Islamic World United Nation Development Programe (UNDP) has grouped countries of the world in terms of technology into: leaders Potential leaders Dynamic adopters Marginalized countries. 1.Only Malaysia and Turkey are classified among potential leaders. 2.The rest of the OIC countries fall under the category of marginalized countries.
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Founded in 1983 62
63 One of the criticisms of the Unv. ranking is its bias towards: The natural sciences, and science journals, such as the articles published by Science or Nature. Or the number of Nobel prize winners (which are predominantly awarded to the Natural sciences. The total number of universities and institutions of higher education and research in the Muslim world is only just above 1700 (The Federation of Universities of the Islamic World has membership of 217 universities). Academic Ranking of World Universities
64 According to 2007 academic ranking of the world universities, only 2 universities from Islamic world were listed in the top 500 universities: World rankInstitutionsCountry 403-510univ. IstanbulTurkey www.istanbul.edu.tr 403-510Cairo Univ.Egypt www.cu.edu.eg
King Fahd University for Petroleum & Minerals Founded in 1963 65
66 QS World University Rankings The Times Higher Education Supplement "THES"( a British publication), publishes annually the THES-QS world university rankings, a list of 400 ranked universities from around the world. QS ranking faces criticism due to the more subjective nature of its assessment criteria, which are largely based on a "peer review" system of 1000 academics in various fields.
67 According to 2008 QS World university rankings, below are the Muslim universities mentioned in the list of top 500 universities. Rank institutions country 230 University Malaya (UM) Malaysia 250University Kebangsaan MalaysiaMalaysia 287University of IndonesiaIndonesia 313University Sains MalaysiaMalaysia 315Bandung institute of technologyIndonesia 316University of Gadjah MadaIndonesia 320 University of Putra Malaysia Malaysia 338King Fahd University of petroleum & mineralsSaudi Arabia 356University Teknologi MalaysiaMalaysia 374Bilkent UniversityTurkey 376Istanbul Technical universityTurkey 376=National university of science and technologyPakistan 401-500Cairo UniversityEgypt 401-500 Istanbul university Turkey 401-500 KOC University Turkey 401-500University of LahorePakistan 401-500Sabanic UniversityTurkey 401-500University of TehranIran 401-500United Arab emirates universityUnited Arab Emirates
Islamic Azad University - Tehran Established in 1987 68
69 Webometrics of world universities Rank institutions country 292 King Saud university Saudi Arabia 302 King Fahd University of petroleum & minerals Saudi Arabia offers information about more than 4,000 universities according to their web-presence (a computerized assessment of the size and sophistication of the website). According to 2009 Webometrics of world universities, below are the Muslim universities mentioned in the list of top 500 universities.
70 According to 2009 Web-based popularity ranking for universities in the world, below are the Muslim universities mentioned in the list of top 200 universities. RankInstitutionsCountry 23Institut Teknologi Bandung Indonesia 30Cairo University Egypt 33 Bilkent Ü niversitesi Turkey 34 Gazi Ü niversitesi Turkey 36 Istanbul Teknik Ü niversitesi Turkey 37 Bogazi ç i Ü niversitesi Turkey 46Ankara niversitesi Turkey 51Ain Shams University Egypt 54 Bah ç esehir Ü niversitesi Turkey 132 Anadolu Ü niversitesi Turkey 146Universitas Gadjah Mada Indonesia
71 COMSTECH Ranking Table 1: Top 10 Most Scientifically Productive Countries in the Muslim World* Country10-yr PublicationsTop Discipline 1.Turkey82,407Medicine 2.Egypt27,723Mathematics 3.Iran19,114Chemistry 4.Saudi Arabia17,472Medicine 5.Malaysia10,674Crystallography 6.Morocco10,113Chemistry 7.Nigeria9,105Food Science & Technology 8.Pakistan7,832Plant Sciences 9.Jordan6,384Chemical Sciences 10.Kuwait5,930Medicine OIC standing committee on S & T cooperation has classified Muslim states and their universities according to publications frequency between 1995-2005. Top 10 most scientifically productive countries in the Muslim world Source: COMSTECH As measured by publications frequency between 1995-2005
List of Internet Usage statistics in the Arabic Countries Population (2009 Est.) Usage, in Dec/2000 Internet Usage, Latest Data (2009) % Population (Penetration) User Growth (2000-2009) 1Egypt78,866,635450,00012,568,90015.9%2693.1% 2Morocco31,285,174100,00010,300,00032.9%10200.0% 3Saudi Arabia28,686,633200,0007,700,00026.8%3750.0% 4Sudan41,087,82530,0004,200,00010.2%13900.0% 5Algeria34,178,18850,0004,100,00012.0%8100.0% 6Syria21,762,97830,0003,565,00016.4%11783.3% 7UAE4,798,491735,0002,922,00060.9%297.6% 8Tunisia10,486,339100,0002,800,00026.7%2700.0% 9Jordan6,269,285127,3001,500,50023.9%1078.7% 10Kuwait2,692,526150,0001,000,00037.1%566.7% 76
List of Internet Usage statistics in the Arabic Countries 11Lebanon4,017,095300,000945,000215.0%1.6% 12Oman3,418,08590,000465,000416.7%0.8% 13Qatar833,28530,000436,0001353.3%0.8% 14Bahrain728,70940,000402,900907.3%0.7% 15Yemen22,858,23815,000370,0002366.7%0.6% 16Palestine(W. BK.)2,461,26735,000355,500915.7%0.6% 17Libya6,324,35710,000323,0003130.0%0.5% 18Iraq28,945,56912,500300,0002300.0%0.5% 19Eritrea5,647,1685,000200,0003900.0%0.3% 20Somalia9,832,017200102,00050900.0%0.2% 21Mauritania3,129,4865,00060,0001100.0%0.1% 22Gaza Strip1,551,859n/a Total 349,861,2092,515,00054,615,8005836.9% 77
79 Problems & Challenges in Res. & Higher Edu. In Muslim World? Distribution. Distribution. The number of research scientists and engineers remains below that of rich countries. Science and engineering students are drawn from urban middle- income backgrounds; few of the much larger number of poor students can pursue research careers. Language. Language. About 80% of the world's scientific literature is in English, Published literature in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and other languages is inadequate for teaching students as well as researchers. Scientific work, therefore, requires a competence in reading, writing, English. Education. Education. Most Universities focus on teaching rather than research. Few strong doctoral programs or research centers of academic excellence exist. Overcrowded universities have been unable to environment & resources for research.
80 Problems & Challenges in Res. & Higher Edu. In Muslim World? Research. Research. Muslim world have no shortage of scientists, but it does have a scarcity of career researchers, lack of ability to train young researchers. University-industry collaboration University-industry collaboration There is a gap between academia & private sector. Resources. Resources. A lack of financial resources and incentives has been a major barrier to research. Even where funds are available, research-management capabilities are in short supply.
81 Problems & Challenges in Res. & Higher Edu. In Muslim World? Regional cooperation. Some oil-rich countries are short of researchers, while other countries (Egypt and Pakistan) export them. Also, most Muslim countries have similar & shared interests. of applied-research needs and priorities, such as solar energy, desertification, and desalination, should produce Government support. Applied-research units in government, should provide fund & support for infrastructure & research development. Brain-Drain of qualified scientists & researchers
82 Achievement in Some Muslim countries Malaysia…. a regional education hub Malaysia…. a regional education hub √ The UN has announced an international centre for South‐South cooperation in science, technology and innovation based in Malaysia. √ Promotes research collaboration, technology transfer and the development of industries in fields such as IT, biotechnology and nanotechnology. √ Malaysia is developing an education city that to be partially operational by 2013. Located in Nusajaya, Iskandar Malaysia, the 129-hectare EduCity could eventually have eight universities, each with one specialised faculty. √ According to the Institute of International Education, Malaysia has 2% of the world's international student population. It is currently the world's 11th most preferred study destination with almost 70,000 international students from more than 150 countries -
84 Iran Iran stands 11, 13, 15, 19, 22 and 32 in the world rankings of the scientific fields of math, mechanic, polymer, chemistry, chemical engineering and physics, respectively. Achievement in Some Muslim countries
85 Achievement in Some Muslim countries Saudi Arabia ranked 7th in higher education Saudi Arabia ranked 7th in higher education The Economist Magazine has placed Saudi Arabia on seventh place ahead of France, Russia, Italy, Spain, Malaysia and many other countries in the field of higher education and scientific research. This is due to: √ The amount of fund spent on students in the field of higher education, √ T he percentage of allocations for higher education in the general budget, √ T he total number of external students, and the number of business administration institutes. √ The launch in September 2009 of a graduate university in Saudi Arabia, The King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), which have ~ US $ 10 billion endowment – the sixth largest in the world.
86 The Dubai International Academic City √ Includes universities and research & development centres from developing countries, such as India, Iran and Pakistan, as well as industrialized countries, such as Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom. √ US$10 billion Foundation to narrow 'Arab knowledge gap' √ The Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation support establishing scientific research centres in Arab universities, offer research grants to Arab researchers Achievement in Some Muslim countries
87 Achievement in Some Muslim countries √ 'US$1 billion Higher education city' in Bahrain 2010) to boost for Middle East science √ Aims to encourage educational innovation to fill the skills gaps in labour markets. √ To include laboratories, an international centre for research, a specialist academy as well as branches of foreign universities √ The first Internet-based 'e-University' for Asia and the Middle East.
88 Achievement in Some Muslim countries Qatar. leading university-industry partnership Qatar. leading university-industry partnership √ Qatar has officially opened its US$800 million science park, to attract start-up enterprises in the fields of energy, environment, health sciences, and information and communication technology. √ The park has an innovation and technology transfer centre, It encourages the transfer of technology, knowledge and skills to companies, and start-up enterprises.
The Association of Arab Universities The Association of Arab Universities is the result of an initiative adopted by the Arab League. The idea first came out during a seminar that was held in Benghazi, Libya in 1964 to study the problems of higher and university education in the Arab world and to set frameworks of cooperation among Arab universities. Fortunately, the seminar ended up in establishing the Association of Arab Universities. Following the approval of the AARU's By-law by the Arab League, a temporary Secretariat General was formed. In 1969, the First General Conference was convened in Alexandria and a resolution was adopted to designate a permanent Secretariat General. At that time, the number of Arab Universities was 23. 90
Role of AARU in Enhancing Internationalization Internationalization: in order to facilitate cooperation between Arab universities and relevant regional and international universities, and to keep pace with the various developments in learning techniques and patterns, AArU will organize several activities: (1) AArU will organize in cooperation with the Islamic Science University of Malaysia (USIM) a periodical Arab-Malaysian Summit for Arab and Malaysian universities’ presidents in addition to countries of South Eastern Asia to be held from 2-6 October 2012 in Malaysia, provided that it will be hosted the following year by one of the Arab universities. 91
(2) AArU will organize in cooperation with the Turkish Universities a similar periodical Summit for Arab and Turkish universities’ presidents during 2012. (3) In view of the importance of enhancing cooperation between scientists, technologists and researchers working in various educational and research institutions, organizations and centers related to teaching and scientific research abroad, and its counterparts in the Arab world, 92
AArU will organize in cooperation with King Saudi University in Saudi Arabia a conference for Arab scientist abroad aiming at activating their role through conducting joint scientific research focusing on applied research; Participating in the supervision of postgraduate programs at Arab Universities; Evaluating scientific research published in Arab journals and research papers submitted to academic promotion; Participating in conferences and seminars held either abroad or at their homelands and exchanging outcomes of these activities. 93
(4) The Association of Arab universities also seeks to enhance cooperation with European universities through The Association of Arab and European Universities. Ultimate goal is to develop human resources and promote understanding between cultures and exchanges between the civil societies involved, A meeting for members of both sides will be organized during next year in Lebanon, Beirut. 94
At the End, Arab countries need to face all these challenges. Sooner or later they will be forced to commence reform plans to ensure equity, quality and efficiency to both public and private institutions within a regulatory framework that introduces incentive mechanisms and grant some degree of autonomy. 95
United Arab Emirates University Founded in 1976 96
Institutions affiliated to AArU 1 - The Arab Council for Training of Arab Universities Students (hosted by University of Jordan). 2- The Arab Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research (hosted by Cairo University). 3- The Arab Council for Students Activities (hosted by South Valley university, Egypt). 97
4- The Council of Quality Assurance and Accreditation (at the premises of AArU). 5- The Center for Reserving University Theses (hosted by University of Jordan). 6- The Arab Periodicals Center (hosted by Yarmouk University, Jordan). 7- Fund of Supporting Palestinian Universities, (hosted by University of Jordan). 8- The Societies of Counterpart Faculties at Arab Universities. 98
Societies of Counterpart Faculties at Arab Universities Twenty one Societies have been established so far, namely: 1- Society of Faculties of Physical Education, which is hosted by the Faculty of Physical Education at the University of Jordan. 2- Society of Faculties of Veterinary Medicine, which is hosted by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Science and Technology, Jordan. 3- Society of Faculties of Medicine, which is hosted by the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Jordan. 99
4- Society of Faculties of Pharmacy, which is hosted by the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Damascus, Syria. 5- Society of Faculties of Arts, which is hosted by the Faculty of Arts at Yarmuk University,Jordan. 6- Society of Faculties of Tourism and Hotel Management, which is hosted by the Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management at the Suez Canal University, Egypt. 7-Society of Faculties of Engineering, which is hosted by the Faculty of Engineering at Baghdad University, Iraq. 100
8- Society of Faculties of Dentistry, which is hosted by the Faculty of Dentistry at Saint Joseph University, Lebanon. 9- Society of Faculties of Education, which is hosted by the Faculty of Education at Damascus University, Syria. 10-Society of Faculties of Fine Arts, which is hosted by the Faculty of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University, Palestine. 11-Society of Faculties of Business Administration and Commerce, which is hosted by the Faculty of Business Administration and Commerce at Saint- Esprit University, Lebanon. 101
12-Society of Faculties of Agriculture, which is hosted by the Faculty of Agriculture at Khartoum University, Sudan. 13-Society of Faculties of Science, which is hosted by the Faculty of Science at Bahrain University, Bahrain. 14-Society of Faculties of Nursing, which is hosted by the Faculty of Nursing at Al-Zaytoonah Jordanian Private University, Jordan. 15-Society of Faculties of Shari'a, which is hosted by the Faculty of Shari'a at Algeria University, Algeria. 16-Society of Faculties of Computers and Informatics, which is hosted by the Faculty of Computers and Informatics at Suez Canal University, Egypt. 102
17-Society of Faculties of Law, which is hosted by the Faculty of Law at Cairo University, Egypt. 18-Society of Faculties of Physiotherapy, which is hosted by the Faculty of Physiotherapy at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon. 19-Society of Faculties of Mass Media, which is hosted by the Faculty of Mass Communication at Cairo University, Egypt. 103
20-Society of Faculties of Languages, which is hosted by the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Albaath University, Syria. 21-Society of Faculties of Social Work, which is hosted by Faculty of Education and Social Work at the Modern University of Business and Science (MUBS), Lebanon. 104
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD Professor Sultan T. Abu-Orabi Secretary General of the Association of Arab Universities, Jordan E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org@email@example.com Abstract Any worthwhile research must necessarily be based on the following pillars: vision, strategy, logistics, human resources that include well qualified researchers and meaningful research priorities directed towards problem-solving rather than just publishing. The Arab world today faces a host of hurdles when it comes to scientific research including a lack of clear focus in research priorities and strategies, insufficient time and funding to meet research goals, low awareness of the importance and impact of good scientific research, inadequate networking opportunities and databases, limited international collaborative efforts, and of course, the brain-drain. 105
According to statistical data in the Arab Knowledge Report of 2009, the total investment of the entire Arab world in research and development is a meager 0.2-0.3% of its GDP (Gross Domestic Product) compared to 2.0 to 4.9% in the UK, Germany, Sweden, Israel, Japan, and the USA, individually. Also, as opposed to other parts of the world where private sector plays a significant role, most Arab countries depend on government funding for scientific research. The 2003 UNESCO report indicated that the Arab world contributes only between 0.01-0.3% to global scientific publishing compared to Israel – 1.1%, Japan – 8.2%, and the USA – 30.8%. Such figures are self-explanatory and serve to reinforce the view that severely low levels of investment in research are directly responsible for the deplorable lack of innovation in Arab countries. 106
Another negative aspect is the emigration of intellectuals that accounts for about one-third of the total brain-drain from Arab countries to primarily the West. Studies have shown that 50% of newly qualified scientists are lost each year, with almost three-quarters of them moving to the UK, USA, or Canada. Also, almost 45% of Arab students studying abroad do not return to their home countries after graduation, thus making the West a beneficiary, by default, of highly qualified Arab scientists each year. It must be noted however, that the drain brain, is not happening in a vacuum but rather as a result of several underlying causes, just two of which are low salaries by international standards and a dismal lack of research opportunities. It seems that the only clear solutions would be to increase the budget for scientific research, select meaningful priority areas for research, lay down workable strategic goals and action plans, establish adequate databases and networking capabilities, and robustly encourage private sector input and participation. 107