1) Important People Three Sage- Kings: Yao, Shun, and Yu. These kings laid the foundation of Chinese society. 1) King Yao- influence brought harmony to all the states in China (2) King Shun- succeeded Yao. continued Yao’s work by ordering the 4 seasons in the year and instituting uniform weights, measures, and units of time. (3) King Yu- rescued China from the waters of the Yellow River by making a canal, which led the water into the sea without devastating the countryside. Dynasties- Xia, Shang, and Zhou. brought China under unified rules. (1) Xia Dynasty- first efforts to organize public life in China. By extending formal control, established a monarchy rule. (2) Shang Dynasty- Bronze metallurgy transformed Chinese society; enabled to displace the Xia dynasty. managed to dominate the production of bronze in the Yellow River but controlling the access to copper and tin ores by producing large amounts of bronze axes, knives, and spears. (3) Zhou Dynasty- delivered taxes and tributes that counted toward a major part of Zhou’s finances. could not maintain control over the political systems. In the early 18th century B.C.E Zhou rulers faced serious problems that brought the dynasty to the point of collapse. By the 5th century BCE, territories ignored the central Gov’t and used their own resources the strengthen themselves. They fought with high hope that they would lead.
Kong Fuzi- first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of political and social order in a straightforward way. Also known as Confucius. taught people how to live in an increasingly complex world, by sticking to several fundamentals. Educator and political advisor.Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciple. Laozi- founder of Daoism Shang Yang (390-338 BCE) - participated actively in Chinese political affair. was a legalist (devoted their attention exclusively to the states. Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.)- The first emperor. established centralized imperial rule.also worked on the project of connecting and extending the Great Wall. buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin. Qin Dynasty- Emperor Qin Shihuangdi. Located in west China, adopted Legalist policies, agriculture resulted in strong economy. Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons. Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. The collapse of the Qin dynasty was due to massive public works generated tremendous illness among the people and waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E. Han dynasty- Liu Bang persistent and disciplined, restored order by 206 B.C.E. Han Wudi, the Martial Emperor (reigned 141-87 B.C.E.), emphasized centralization and expansion. Han Dynasty charged taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries. They established Confucian educational system for training bureaucrats.
The later Han dynasty (25-220 C.E.)- They revolted due to problems of land distribution which led to the collapse of the Han. Afterwards Divisions at court paralyzed the central government and the Han Empire dissolved China was divided into regional kingdoms. 2) Important Places: Yellow River- contains Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow". Also called "China's Sorrow" because of extensive flooding The Yangzi valley- was a dependable river. Provided two crops of rice per year’ 3) Important Event: Shang Dynasty- 1766 to 1122 B.C.E. Zhou Dynasty- Zhou forces toppled the Shang Gov’t in 1122 B.C.E. In 256 B.C.E, the Zhou Dynasty ended, when the last king renounced his position. Xia Dynasty- Came in to being about 2200 B.C.E. Period of Warring States (403-221 BCE)- the violent century of the Zhou Dynasty 1200 B.C.e- Bronze metallurgy and horse-drawn chariots reached China. 1st millennium B.C.E- the technology of iron metallurgy spread to China. The production of iron expanded. 771 B.C.E- nomadic people invaded China from the west. Beginning of the 6th century B.C.E- iron production increased dramatically in China. Iron Materials became useful in everyday life. 19th century B.C.E- peasants working in the field around Anyang, discovered many oracle bones with inscription in archaic Chinese writing.
JAPAN: developed a system of feudalism, Feudalism was accompanied by a set of political values that emphasized mutual ties, obligations, and loyalties. The Japanese elites - who came to be known as daimyos - found military talent in the samurai, professional warriors who swore loyalty to them. Samurais lived by a warrior's code - the bushido -that required them to commit suicide (seppuku) by disembowelment if they failed their masters. Shintoism -This native religion venerated ancestors, but also had a host of nature spirits and deities. Confucianism and Buddhism did not replace Shintoism, and it remained as an important religion in Japan. KOREA: The oldest pottery on the Korean peninsula by archaeologists dates back to c. 8,000 BCE, and is found across the peninsula. The usage of bronze as a weapon made banding together in groups necessary, and the Mumun pottery period marks the beginning of complex societies in Korea. Remains of villages from this time have been found, as well as the development of iron technology. The end of the Mumun Pottery period marks the beginning of the Proto-Three Kingdoms period or Several States period. Many small states emerged at this time as a result of the fall of Korea’s first dynasty, the Gojoseon dynasty, which, according to legend, was founded during the Jeulmun Pottery period in 2,333 BCE. Jeulmun Pottery Period: c. 8,000 BCE - 1,500 BCE Mumun Pottery Period: c. 1,500 BCE - 300 BCE
VOCABULARY: Tian: Chinese word meaning heaven. Monarchial: The act of being monarch. Loess Soil: A rich soil that is easy to work with and build stuff. Excavation: an area in which excavating has been done or is in progress, as an archaeological site. Monopolize: to obtain exclusive obsession of. Steppes: An extensive plain Oracle Bones: a group of inscribed animal bones and shells discovered in China and used originally in divination by the ancient Chinese, during the Shang Dynasty Dynasty: a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group: the Ming dynasty. Hieroglyphics: designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented. Confucian: an adherent of the teachings of Confucius. Daoism: philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-Tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events Dao- key element on Chinese Philosophy that means the “ way of nature” or the “way of the cosmos” Li- Confucian concept, a sense of prosperity
1.HAVING REGULATIONS No country is permanently strong. Nor is any country permanently weak. If conformers to law are strong, the country is strong; if conformners to law are weak, the counrry is weak.... Any ruler able to expel private crookedness and uphold public law, finds the people safe and the state in order; and any ruler able to expunge private action and act on public law, finds his army strong and his enemy weak. So, find out men following the discipline of laws and regulations, and place chem above the body of officials. Then the sovereign cannot be deceived by anybody with fraud and falsehood.... Therefore, the intelligent sovereign makes the law select men and makes no arbitrary promotion himself. He makes the law measure merits and makes no arbitrary regulation himself. In consequence, able men cannot be obscured, bad characters cannot be disguised; falsely praised fellows cannot be advanced, wrongly defamed people cannot be degraded. To govern the state by law is to praise the right and blame the wrong. The law does not fawn on the noble....Whatever the law applies to, the wise cannot reject nor can the brave defy. Punishment for fault never skips ministers, reward for good never misses commoners. Therefore, to correct the faults of the high, co rebuke the vices of the low, to suppress disorders, to decide against mistakes, to subdue the arrogant, to straighten the crooked, and to unify the folkways of the masses, nothing could match the law. To warn the officials and overawe the people, to rebuke obscenity and danger, and to forbid falsehood and deceit, nothing could match penalty. If penalty is severe, the noble cannot discriminate against the humble. lf law is definite, the superiors are esteemed and not violated. If the superiors are not violated, the sovereign will become strong and able to maintain the proper course of government. Such was the reason why the early kings esteemed Legalism and handed it down to posterity. Should the lord of men discard law and practice selfishness, high and law would have no distinction Summary: This document can be believed for a variety of reasons. This document was written a by a master Master Han Fei during the time of the Qin Dynasty. During the Qin dynasty there was a legalist view on government. The legalist view was quite different then Confucian and Daoist of the time as it did not focus on personal behavior and conduct but rather on expanding and strengthening the state. The legalist view also had a basis on strict laws and serves punishment for even small crimes. This document was most likely written to promote the dynasty and pretty much was an early form of propaganda.
2. Peasants’ Protest(from the Book of Songs written during Zhou Dynasty) Source: James Legge,trans. The Chinese Classics, 5 vols. London: Henry Frowde, 1893, 4:171-72 Large rats! Large rats! Do not eat our millet. Three years have we had to do with you. And you have not been willing to show any regard for us. We will leave you, And go to that happy land. Happy land! Happy land! There shall we find our place. Large rats! Large rats! Do not eat our wheat. Three years have we had to do with you. And you have not been willing to show any kindness to us. We will leave, And go that happy state. Happy state! Happy state! There shall we find ourselves aright. Large rats! Large rats! Do not eat our springing grain! Three years have we had to with you, And you have not been willing to think of our toil. We will leave you, And go to those happy borders. Happy borders! Happy borders! Who will there make us always to groan? Summary: This poem was written during the Zhou Dynasty. The poem describes the peasants hatred of their leaders who took their harvests but never helped them. Peasents in this time did almost all of the hard labor in society and many times even started rebellions against heir leaders. This poem can be believed as it shows the realistic thoughts of peasants who viewed their rulers as rats.
3. Confucius on Good Government Source:James Legge, translation. The Chinese Classics, 7 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893, 1:145, 146, 152, 254, 258-59, 266 The master said, “he who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place, while all the stars turn toward it…” The master said, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but will have no sense of shame. “If they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good...” The duke Ai asked, saying, “What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?” Confucius replied, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and then people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and then the people will submit.” Ji Kang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithfull to him, and to go on to seek virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them with gravity; then they will reverence him. Let him be filial and kind to all; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous…” Zigong asked about government. The master said, “The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler.” Zigong said, “If it cannot be helped, and one of these must be dispensed with, which of the three should be foregone first?” “The military equipment,” said the master. Zigong again asked, “If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which one of them should be foregone?” The master answered, “Part with the food. From olden times, death has been the lot for all men; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing cause for the state...” Ji Kang asked Confucius about government, saying” What do you say to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled?” Confucius replied, “Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use killing at all? Let your evinced desires be for what is good, and the people will be good. The relation between superiors and inferiors is like that between the wind and the grass. The grass must bend when the wind blows it…” The master said, “When a prince’s personal conduct is correct, his government is effective without the issuing of orders. If his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders, but they will not be followed.” Document Overview- This document was written from a speech from Confucius. This doctrine shows that Confucius thought that by good conduct and behavior a ruler will have an effective government, people who have faith and submit to the ruler, and that his people will be good. This document is believeable because Confucious didn’t like the ways of government and rather believed in good conduct and behavior being most important to have a competent state and ruler.
4. Shujing (Classic of Documents or Classic of History) Source:The Sacred Books of China: The Texts of Confucianism, in F. Max Mueller, ed., The Sacred Books of the East, 50 vols., (Oxford: Clarendon, 1879-1910), Vol 3. pp. 92-95, repr. in Alfred J. Andrea and James H. Overfield, The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Vol 1, 2d. ed., (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), pp. 25-27 In the twelfth month of the first year... Yi Yin sacrificed to the former king, and presented the heir-king reverently before the shrine of his grandfather. All the princes from the domain of the nobles and the royal domain were present; all the officers also, each continuing to discharge his particular duties, were there to receive the orders of the chief minister. Yi Yin then clearly described the complete virtue of the Meritorious Ancestor for the instruction of the young king. He said, "Oh! of old the former kings of Xia cultivated earnestly their virtue, and then there were no calamities from Heaven. The spirits of the hills and rivers alike were all in tranquility; and the birds and beasts, the fishes and tortoises, all enjoyed their existence according to their nature. But their descendant did not follow their example, and great Heaven sent down calamities, employing the agency of our ruler- who was in possession of its favoring appointment. The attack on Xia may be traced to the orgies in Ming Tiao... Our king of Shang brilliantly displayed his sagely prowess; for oppression he substituted his generous gentleness; and the millions of the people gave him their hearts. Now your Majesty is entering on the inheritance of his virtue; -- all depends on how you commence your reign. To set up love, it is For you to love your relations; to set up respect, it is for you to respect your elders. The commencement is in the family and the state.... "Oh! the former king began with careful attention to the bonds thar hold men together. He listened to expostulation, and did not seek to resist it; he conformed to the wisdom of the ancients; occupying the highest position, he displayed intelligence; occupying an inferior position, he displayed his loyalty; he allowed the good qualities of the men whom he employed and did not seek that they should have every talent...."He extensively sought out wise men, who should be helpful to you, his descendant and heir. He laid down the punishments for officers, and warned those who were in authority, saying, 'If you dare to have constant dancing in your palaces, and drunken singing in your chambers, -- that is called the fashion of sorcerers; if you dare to see your hearts on wealth and women, and abandon yourselves to wandering about or to the chase, -- thar is called the fashion of extravagance; if you dare to despise sage words, to resist the loyal and upright, to put far from you the aged and virtuous, and to seek the company of...youths, -- that is called the fashion of disorder. Now if a high noble or officer be addicted to one of these three fashions with their ten evil ways, his family will surely come to ruin; if the prince of a country be so addicted, his state will surely come to ruin. The minister who does not try to correct such vices in the sovereign shall be punished with branding.'... "Oh! do you, who now succeed to the throne, revere these warnings in your person. Think of them! -- sacred counsels of vast importance, admirable words forcibly set forth! The ways of Heaven are not invariable: -- on the good-doer it sends down all blessings, and on the evil-doer it sends down all miseries. Do you but be virtuous, be it in small things or in large, and the myriad regions will have cause for rejoicing. If you not be virtuous, be it in large things or in small, it will bring the ruin of your ancestral temple." Document Overview: This document is guidance to wealthy leaders of what they should do. The document warns the rulers from putting their hearts on unmoral things like money and women as those who do bad things are evtually punished while those doing good benefit. This is a true document because it was written to make good leaders and provide example as bad leaders could cause disaster for a state and dynasty.
5. Lessons for Women Ban Zhao [Pan Chao, ca. 45-116] Source: Nancy Lee Swann, trans, Pan Chao: Foremost Woman Scholar of China, (New York: Century Co., 1932), pp. 82-90. Ban Zhao was the younger sister of Han court historian Ban Gu. When he died in 92 CE, she completed his work on a history of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 8 CE). She composed Nu Jie [Lessons for Women], from which the following is extracted in about 80 CE. Source: Nancy Lee Swann, trans, Pan Chao: Foremost Woman Scholar of China, (New York: Century Co., 1932), pp. 82-90. I, the unworthy writer, am unsophisticated, unenlightened, and by nature unintelligent, but I am fortunate both to have received not a little favor from my scholarly Father, and to have had a cultured mother and teachers upon whom to rely for a literary education as well as for training in good manners. More than forty years have passed since at the age of fourteen I took up the dustpan and the broom in the Cao family [her husband's family]. During this time with trembling heart I feared constantly that I might disgrace my parents, and that I might multiply difficulties for both the women and the men of my husband's family. Day and night I was distressed in heart, but I labored without confessing weariness. Now and hereafter, however, I know how to escape from such fears. Being careless, and by nature stupid, I taught and trained my children without system. Consequently I fear that my son Gu may bring disgrace upon the Imperial Dynasty by whose Holy Grace he has unprecedentedly received the extraordinary privilege of wearing the Gold and the Purple, a privilege for the attainment of which by my son, I a humble subject never even hoped. Nevertheless, now that he is a man and able to plan his own life, I need not again have concern for him. But I do grieve that you, my daughters, just now at the age for marriage, have not at this time had gradual training and advice; that you still have not learned the proper customs for married women. l fear that by failure in good manners in other families you will humiliate both your ancestors and your clan. I am now seriously ill, life is uncertain. As I have thought of you all in so untrained a state, I have been uneasy many a time for you. At hours of leisure I have composed... these instructions under the title, "Lessons for Women." In order that you may have something wherewith to benefit your persons, I wish every one of you, my daughters each to write out a copy for yourself. From this time on every one of you strive to practice these lessons.
HUMILITY On the third day after the birth of a girl the ancients observed three customs: first to place the baby below the bed; second to give her a potsherd [a piece of broken pottery] with which to play; and third to announce her birth to her ancestors by an offering. Now to lay the baby below the bed plainly indicated that she is lowly and weak, and should regard it as her primary duty to humble herself before others. To give her potsherds with which to play indubitably signified that she should practice labor and consider it her primary duty to be industrious. To announce her birth before her ancestors clearly meant that she ought to esteem as her primary duty the continuation of the observance of worship in the home. Let a woman retire late to bed, but rise early to duties; let her nor dread tasks by day or by night. Let her not refuse to perform domestic duties whether easy or difficult. That which must be done, let her finish completely, tidily, and systematically, When a woman follows such rules as these, then she may be said to be industrious. Let a woman be correct in manner and upright in character in order to serve her husband. Let her live in purity and quietness of spirit, and attend to her own affairs. Let her love not gossip and silly laughter. Let her cleanse and purify and arrange in order the wine and the food for the offerings to the ancestors. When a woman observes such principles as these, then she may be said to continue ancestral worship. HUSBAND AND WIFE If a husband be unworthy, then he possesses nothing by which to control his wife. If a wife be unworthy, then she possesses nothing with which to serve her husband. If a husband does not control his wife, then the rules of conduct manifesting his authority are abandoned and broken. If a wife does not serve her husband, when the proper relationship between men and women and the natural order of things are neglected and destroyed. As a matter of fact the purpose of these two [the controlling of women by men, and the serving of men by women] is the same. RESPECT AND CAUTION As Yin and Yang are not of the same nature, so man and woman have different characteristics. The distinctive quality of the Yang is rigidity; the function of the Yin is yielding. Man is honored for strength; a woman is beautiful on account of her gentleness. Hence there arose the common saying: "A man though born like a wolf may, it is feared, become a weak monstrosity; a woman though born like a mouse may, it is feared, become a tiger."
Now For self-culture nothing equals respect for others. To counteract firmness nothing equals compliance. Consequently it can be said that the Way of respect and acquiescence is woman's most important principle of conduct. So respect may be defined as nothing other than holding on to that which is permanent; and acquiescence nothing other than being liberal and generous. Those who are steadfast in devotion know that they should stay in their proper places; those who are liberal and generous esteem others, and honor and serve them. Furthermore, affairs may be either crooked or straight; words may be either right or wrong. Straightforwardness cannot but lead to quarreling; crookedness cannot but lead to accusation. If there are really accusations and quarrels, then undoubtedly there will be angry affairs. Such a result comes from not esteeming others, and not honoring and serving them. If wives suppress not contempt for husbands, then it follows that such wives rebuke and scold their husbands. If husbands stop not short of anger, then they are certain to beat their wives. The correct relationship between husband and wife is based upon harmony and intimacy, and conjugal love is grounded in proper union. Should actual blows be dealt, how could matrimonial relationship be preserved? Should sharp words be spoken, how could conjugal love exist? If love and proper relationship both be destroyed, then husband and wife are divided. WOMANLY QUALIFICATIONS A woman ought to have four qualifications: (1) womanly virtue; (2) womanly words; (3) womanly bearing; and (4) womanly work. Now what is called womanly virtue need not be brilliant ability, exceptionally different from others. Womanly words need be neither clever in debate nor keen in conversation. Womanly appearance requires neither a pretty nor a perfect face and form. Womanly work need not be work done more skillfully than that of others. To guard carefully her chastity; to control circumspectly her behavior; in every motion to exhibit modesty; and to model each act on the best usage, this is womanly virtue. To choose her words with care; to avoid vulgar language; to speak at appropriate times; and nor to weary others with much conversation, may be called the characteristics of womanly words.
To wash and scrub filth away; to keep clothes and ornaments fresh and clean; to wash the head and bathe the body regularly, and to keep the person free from disgraceful filth, may be called the characteristics of womanly bearing. With whole-hearted devotion to sew and to weave; to love not gossip and silly laughter; in cleanliness and order to prepare the wine and food for serving guests, may be called the characteristics of womanly work. These four qualifications characterize the greatest virtue of a woman. No woman can afford to be without them. In fact they are very easy to possess if a woman only treasure them in her heart. The ancients had a saying: "Is love afar off? If I desire love, then love is at hand!" So can it be said of these qualifications. IMPLIClT OBEDIENCE Whenever the mother-in-law says, "Do not do that," and if what she says is right, unquestionably the daughter-in-law obeys. Whenever the mother-in-law says, "Do that," even if what she says is wrong, still the daughter-in-law submits unfailingly to the command. Let a woman not act contrary to the wishes and the opinions of parents-in-law about right and wrong; let her not dispute with the them what is straight and what is crooked. Such docility may called obedience which sacrifices personal opinion. Therefore the ancient book, "A Pattern for Women," says: "If a daughter-in- law who follows the wishes of her parents-in-law is like and echo and shadow, how could she not be praised? Summary: This document was written by Ban Zhao who was the younger sister of Han court historian Ban Gu. After her brothers death she wrote this explaining the position and duty of women in society. During this time period women had low equality and were made to be subservient to men. Men practically have total control of women and older family members also do. This document is believable as women in this time period had no freedom and if she had wrote something against the current social system she would most likely have been punished.
East Asia Continuities: Political: Social distinctions Cultural Traditions Military Support Economy: Dependence on agriculture Centralized government Trade routes with many other regions Free market economy Religion/Social: Built temples, worship gods (Buddah) Intellectual/Arts/Technology: Use metallurgy for tools and make military armies stronger Statues to represent beliefs Pottery
EAST ASIA CHANGES: Political: By 3 rd millennium bce larger states begin forming in China. Xia, Shang, and Zhou were major dynasties during time of ancient China The Zhou dynasty needed more than one central court to entrust power, authority, tribute, and military support to the government Kings established bases of power, ruled territories not only as kings but as traditional governors: set up regional bureaucracies, armies, and tax systems which allowed them to consolidate their rule Economic: Agriculture enabled individuals to maintain wealth and preserve within their families Many dynasties kept their weaponry in parts of the region that only made it inaccessible to the public By Zhou times, many people lived in cities where they obtained at least elementary education Better standard of living Free artisans and craftsmen traded in Ancient East Asia Trade routes Free market economy Religious/Social: Concept of Tao: forces of nature Everything in nature has two forces that were in contrast to each other: Yin and Yang Legalist view that made government and chastisement the most important virtue of people in order to ensure a powerful state Intellectual/Art/Technological: Chinas earliest writing served interest of rulers not traders Oracle bones were used by fortune tellers Most Zhou writings were destroyed Pictographs are earliest form of writing in East Asia