Presentation on theme: "Bound for South Australia 1836 Work Onboard the Ships Week 7 Poor Jack" (sailor) engraved by A.H.Payne after a picture by Simonsen, published in Payne's."— Presentation transcript:
Bound for South Australia 1836 Work Onboard the Ships Week 7 Poor Jack" (sailor) engraved by A.H.Payne after a picture by Simonsen, published in Payne's Book of Art.. Galleries of Munich, 1849.
Overview Between February and July 1836 nine ships left Britain bound for the newly created province of South Australia. On-board the ships were passengers who over many long months braved the perils of the ocean, including some of the most treacherous seas in the world to begin a new life on the other side of the world. This resource uses the stories from these nine ships as recorded by the passengers and crew in their personal journals.
Introduction Many of this week’s diary entries make reference to work onboard. This week we look at the different jobs that were required to enable these ships to set sail. There were always jobs to be done, some of which were paid and others unpaid. Captain Morgan makes reference to workers who were refusing to continue with their jobs as they were not happy with the conditions and wanted to receive payment for their work. These men had agreed to contracts prior to setting sail, so were not in a position to dispute their situation. What is your opinion on this matter?
Journal entries Monday 4 April 1836 John Pirie journal writer, on board the John Pirie wrote. This Morn g Lloyd’s Surveyor, and two other Gentlemen, came on board, to look at the Damage, our Vessel had received in the late tremendious Gale’s, and found that amongst other disasters, the Fore-top-Mast was Sprung, and in the Afternoon sent Workmen to commence repairs __ At 2, P,M, we were very much surprised, at receiving a visit from S l Stephens Esq r C.M. who had left the Duke of York in Tor Bay, which is not more than 5 Miles distant from this place and where She has been all the late bad Weather, but has broke her Windlass, and lost an Anchor, _________ The Weather is very fine to Day, with a gentle Air of Wind, from the Northward ___Windlass
Monday 4 April 1836 Captain Robert Morgan, on board the Duke of York wrote: At dawn of day I gave orders to the chief officer to get up the seacond anchor he returned said the people wished to speak with me after reading the word of God as usall and commending my all to the God of all grace I then went out to the people they told me they whould not go out of the port without monthly wages I said they aught to have considered this before they signed articles I asked them if they whould move the ship in a safe place or a safe harbour they refused to sail out of torbay M r Stevens read the articles to them M r Stevens and myself went on shore for advice from the agent came on board and offered the people fivety pounds if they would proced and if Whales came in the way to heave allarticles
lumber over board that whould stop us Whale ing for that was thier princable grevance but they refused and whould not remove the ship to a safe harbour M r Stevens went on shore went to Dartmouth and returned with Capt n Talbert of the royal navy and M r Inkston Loyds agent he had on his uniform with his men with brace of pistols he called for me to bring the articles and call the mens names over I did so he asked the men if they signed these articles which they replyd they did he questioned them if they had any complaints to make of my conduct towards them they said no they where satisfied with the ship and officers said the desipleing was good Capt n Talbert took Prichard the ringleader on shore with him all the rest on board with the exception of Riley agreed to go to thier duty – …articles
Wednesday 6 April 1836 Captain George Martin, on board the John Pirie wrote. Letter from Martin to Angas Dartmouth, April 6 th 1836 To / G.F. Angas Esq r … The following day being Sunday, I requested all the Passengers with some of the crew, to come on shore to church, to render thanks for our safe delivery from the dangers we had escaped; when to my great surprice one of them (Steven Session) has absconded & I have not seen or heard of him since, he being completely terified to death at the sea, & which I dont wonder at, I am sorry that he is gon, as he was one of the best of the company’s servants on board, one of the crew has also run away, the name of wood, but as he was a useless fellow I have not made any serch for him, but has shipt another in his place, the carpenter & the cook I am afraid they will not be sufiscantly recovered to take to sea with me, therefor beg you will not Pay
the Carpenters note that I gave in London, and indeed it would be a great benifet to the company to get clear of hime, for he is a very useless and good for nothing fellow, & not by any means worth half his Wages –; should you see M r Simpson Father of my second mate, you give very great hopes of the Prospects of his son, who I am happy to say is a very praysworthy & promising young man, and in fact the best I have in the Vessel, & I shall loose no oppertunity in putting him forward, On Monday I had a survey, the result of which I hereby inclose you a Copy, & am getting every thing repaird as fast as possible, & I expectsurvey I shall be all ready by next monday, I with pleasure beg to inform you that I have received every possible assistance & attention from M r Hingston of this place; and very Difrent from that received from M r Fox at Falmouth, who was only by chance shewn to me once in passing, though I made it a rule to call at the Office every day we layd in that Port – I was greatly surprised at meeting M r Stephens in the street, & he was eaqually surprised at meeting me, he informed me the unpleasant situation they were placed in respecting the crew on board of the Duke of York, I emidiately went with him & M r Hingston on board, having
first got the The Commander of the preventetive service to follow us, with his boats crew armed, and after having calld the men Aft, questioning them if they would get the Vessel underweigh, one of them being a spokesman or ringleader, answared for the whol, & sayd they would not without being put on Monthly Wages, finding it useless to contend with them, I persuaded Capt n Morgan, to Make an example of him in the first place, to the utmost extent of the law, to see how that would work with the rest, & which I am happy to say had the desired effect, for Capt n Morgan acordingly gave him in charge of the Naval Officer, who very kindly offerd every assistance, & he was taken before a Majistrate, I attended with M r Stephens & the mate; where he was sentenced to 21 days hard labour in Exceter Prison, two of the crew having run away, the remainder very peasably went to their duty….The Commander of the preventetive serviceAft
Thursday 7 April 1836 Boyle Travers Finniss, on board the Cygnet wrote: 7th. Still beating off Portland! Wind N.W. Remark 1. Nearly 3 weeks at sea between decks, still lumbered up, also the deck, Kingston complaining of the dirt below. I suggested that with troops, the men were ordered to parade with bare feet. He immediately determined to act upon this, and gave an order accordingly, Adams did not think proper to obey, but after some warning did so. The married passengers Chapman, Bristow, Hoare, Brown etc did not appear.
Inquiry Questions What were some of the occupations of people onboard these vessels? What jobs were needed for a vessel to ‘set sail?’ (think beyond the workers onboard) What may have been the reasons workers absconded from a vessel?
"The House of Correction &c. for the County of Devon" engraved after a picture by G.B.Campion, published in History of Devonshire..., 1830
"Cape Verd Islands" drawn and engraved by J.Bartholomew, published by A. Fullarton & Co. in a gazetteer, about 1856
Glossary of Terms Aft The stern or rear of a ship Articles When seafarers joined a ship they signed the articles. The captain signed them as well and they formed a contract that set out conditions of employment including how much crew would be paid, what food they would be given, and what hours they would be expected to work. The articles would also say that if a ship was in danger, the normal expectations of work would be set aside and the captain could call on his crew for whatever was needed to save the ship. The articles could form the basis for shipboard discipline, giving the captain authority to punish seafarers who broke them. Commander of the preventetive service The preventative service was the establishment of coastguards at numerous stations along the coast of the United Kingdom for the prevention of smuggling. It reported to Customs, which also had control of the revenue cutters which cruised off-shore. Commander of the preventetive service Survey To survey a ship is to inspect and determine the structural condition of it. Windlass A machine with a horizontal axle for hauling or hoisting: in this case it refers to the device used to hoist the anchor on the John Pirie. A windlass is different from a capstan, which has a vertical axle Return to Journal Entries