Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Volcanism The study of volcanoes and their activities.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Volcanism The study of volcanoes and their activities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanism The study of volcanoes and their activities


3 5/18/80 - Before

4 “Vancouver, Vancouver, this is it!” During

5 May 18, 1980


7 July 22, 1980

8 After

9 The Lahar

10 Cascade Volcanic Peaks Adams Lassen Hood Baker

11 Rainier Shasta Shuksan St. Helens A picturesque, cone-shaped structure that periodically erupts violently!

12 Are all eruptions explosive?

13 Why the difference? Temperature – hotter is less viscous Composition – the more silica, the more viscous Dissolved gases – gases increase fluidity and decrease viscosity Viscosity increases explosiveness

14 Materials extruded from volcanoes Lava – pahoehoe (ropy), aa (blocky) and pillow lava (water cooled rolling formation) Gases – 1-6% of the mass (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, sulfur, chlorine, hydrogen, argon, and methane) Pyroclastics – ejected fragments

15 Pahoehoe

16 A’a

17 Pyroclastic flow A pyroclastic flow is a ground- hugging avalanche of hot ash, pumice, rock fragments, and volcanic gas that rushes down the side of a volcano as fast as 100 km/hour or more. The temperature within a pyroclastic flow may be greater than 500° C, sufficient to burn and carbonize wood.


19 Pyroclastics Ash and dust Cinders Lapilli (little stones) Pumice (frothy lava) Blocks (large rocks) Bombs (blobs of lava)


21 Volcanic Cones Successive eruptions from a central vent result in a mountain- like accumulation of material called a volcano (cone) Let’s look at shield, cinder, and composite cone types!

22 This type of volcano can be hundreds of miles across and many tens of thousands of feet high. The individual islands of the state of Hawaii are simply large shield volcanoes. Mauna Loa, a shield volcano on the "big" island of Hawaii, is the largest single mountain in the world, rising over 30,000 feet above the ocean floor and reaching almost 100 miles across at its base. Shield volcanoes have low slopes and consist almost entirely of frozen lavas. They almost always have large craters at their summits.

23 Shield cone

24 Mauna Loa

25 As you might expect from the name, these volcanoes consist almost entirely of loose, grainy cinders and almost no lava. They are small volcanoes, usually only about a mile across and up to about a thousand feet high. They have very steep sides and usually have a small crater on top.

26 Cinder Cone


28 These volcanoes are typically tens of miles across and ten thousand or more feet in height. As illustrated in the figure above, they have moderately steep sides and sometimes have small craters in their summits. Volcanologists call these "strato-" or composite volcanoes because they consist of layers of solid lava flows mixed with layers of sand- or gravel-like volcanic rock called cinders or volcanic ash.

29 Composite Cone


31 Volcanic Hazards Explosion – Krakatoa Burial – Vesuvius (Pompeii) Nuee ardente – Pelee (St. Pierre) Lahar – Mt. St. Helens & Nevado del Ruiz Lava flow - Kilauea

32 Krakatoa before and after

33 Vesuvius and Pompeii

34 St. Pierre?

35 Poisonous Gases


37 Kilauea

38 Other Volcanic Landforms

39 Caldera


41 Volcanic dome Viscous magma Usually in association with existing cones Some independent, like Mono Craters CA

42 Volcanic neck Vent materials more resistant Flanks wear away “neck” left behind


44 Vents and pipes

45 Fissure flows

46 Columbia Flood Basalts

47 Pyroclastic flows

48 Distribution of Igneous Activity Zones of divergence (seafloor spreading) Zones of convergence (subduction) Therefore, crustal plate margins Hot spots (intraplate volcanism)







Download ppt "Volcanism The study of volcanoes and their activities."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google