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Hawaiian *Subglacial Strombolian *Phreatic Vulcanian * Lava Dome Peléan Plinian Surtseyan Submarine.

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Presentation on theme: "Hawaiian *Subglacial Strombolian *Phreatic Vulcanian * Lava Dome Peléan Plinian Surtseyan Submarine."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hawaiian *Subglacial Strombolian *Phreatic Vulcanian * Lava Dome Peléan Plinian Surtseyan Submarine

3 A lava Dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped bulge on top of the volcano. It slowly lets out lava from the volcano.

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5 A Hawaiian eruption is a type of volcanic eruption where lava flows from the vent in a relative gentle low level eruption. It gets its name because it is very similar to the volcanoes on Hawaii. Key: 1. Ash plume 2. Lava fountain 3. Crater 4. Lava lake 5. Fumaroles 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Sill 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Dike

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7 Strombolian eruptions are driven by the bursting of bubbles within the magma. These bubbles within the magma accumulate into large bubbles that grow large enough to rise through the lava column. When the bubbles reach the surface, the difference in air pressure causes the bubble to burst with a loud pop. During eruptions, these blasts can happen as often as every few minutes. Picture Key: 1. Ash plume 2. Lapilli 3. Volcanic ash 4. Lava fountain 5. Volcanic bomb 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Sill 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Dike

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9 In a Vuncanian Eruption active magma make it hard for gasses to escape and a build up of gasses in the volcano leads to the explosion of the cap holding the magma down sending fragment of rocks anywhere from 3 to 6 miles high. Key: 1. Ash plume. Lapilli 3. Lava fountain 4. Volcanic ash rain 5. Volcanic bomb 6. Lava flow 7. Layers of lava and ash 8. Stratum 9. Sill 10. Magma conduit 11. Magma chamber 12. Dike

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11 In Peléan eruptions, a large amount of gas, dust, ash, and lava fragments are blown out the volcano's central crater. An early sign of a eruption is the growth of a lava spine, a bulge in the volcano's summit. The material collapses on itself forming a fast-moving flow (known as a block-and-ash flow) that moves down the side of the mountain at speeds over 93mph. Key: 1. Ash plume 2. Volcanic ash rain 3. Lava dome 4. Volcanic bomb 5. Pyroclastic flow 6. Layers of lava and ash 7. Stratum 8. Magma conduit 9. Magma chamber 10. Dike

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13 The Plinian eruptions starts the where dissolved gases are stored in the magma. The gases accumulate as they rise through the magma conduit. These bubbles stick together and once they reach a certain size (about 75% of the total volume of the magma conduit) they explode. When the bubbles explode all the force of the explosion is pushed out the top of the conduit. Key: Ash plume 2. Magma conduit 3. Volcanic ash rain 4. Layers of lava and ash 5. Stratum 6. Magma chamber

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15 A Surtseyan eruption is a type of volcanic eruption caused by shallow-water interactions between water and lava. Surtseyan eruptions are the "wet" equivalent of ground-based Strombolianeruptions, but because of where they are taking place they are much more explosive. This is because as water is heated by lava, forms steam and expands violently fragmenting the magma. Key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Compressed ash 3. Crater 4. Water 5. Layers of lava and ash 6. Stratum 7. Magma conduit 8. Magma chamber 9. Dike

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17 Submarine eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption that occurs underwater. An estimated 75% of the total volcanic eruptive volume is generated by submarine eruptions near mid ocean ridges. Submarine eruptions are generated by seamounts (underwater volcanoes), and are driven by one of two processes. 1. Volcanoes near plate boundaries and mid- ocean ridges are built by the melting of mantle rock that floats up to the crustal surface. 2. Eruptions near subducting zones, meanwhile, are driven by subducting plates that adds volatiles to the rising plate, raising its melting point. key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Water 3. Stratum 4. Lava flow 5. Magma conduit 6. Magma chamber 7. Dike 8. Pillow lava

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19 Subglacial eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption characterized by interactions between lava and ice, often under a glacier. It usually occurs at areas of high latitude and high altitude. Subglacial volcanoes that are not actively erupting often dump heat into the ice covering them, producing “meltwater”. This meltwater mix means that subglacial eruptions often generate dangerous floods. key: 1. Water vapor cloud 2. Crater lake 3. Ice 4. Layers of lava and ash 5. Stratum 6. Pillow lava 7. Magma conduit 8. Magma chamber 9. Dike

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21 Phreatic eruptions is a type of eruption driven by the expansion of steam. When cold ground or surface water coming into contact with hot rock or magma it superheats and explodes, fracturing the surrounding rock creating a mixture of steam, water, and ash. Key:1. Water vapor cloud 2. Volcanic bomb 3. Magma conduit 4. Layers of lava and ash 5. Stratum 6. Water table 7. Explosion 8. Magma chamber

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23 Lava Dome 1.Torfajökull – Iceland 2.NeaKameni – Greece 3.Mount St. Helens - U.S.A Hawaiian 1.Mount Etna, Italy 2.Mount Mihara 3.PuʻuʻŌʻo Strombolian 1.Mount Erebus - Antarctica 2.Mount Etna – Italy 3.Parícutin – Mexico Surtseyan 1.Surtsey – Iceland 2.Ukinrek Maars in Alaska 3.Mount Tarawera in New Zealand Vulcanian 1.Irazú Volcano in Costa Rica 2.Tavurvur - Papua New Guinea 3.Sakurajima – Japan Peléan 1.Mount Lamington 2.Mayon Volcano - the Philippines 3.Mount Pelée – Martinique Plinian 1.Pinatubo in the Philippines 2.Hekla in Iceland 3.Mount Vesuvius Submarine 1.Loihi Seamount 2.Bowie Seamount 3.Cross Seamount

24 Info: Pictures: ano-diagramhttp://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/images/uploaded/custom/volc ano-diagram


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