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Memory and Learning Types of learning Types of memory Neural basis of learning and memory Learning – changes future behavior. Memory - ability to remember.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory and Learning Types of learning Types of memory Neural basis of learning and memory Learning – changes future behavior. Memory - ability to remember."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory and Learning Types of learning Types of memory Neural basis of learning and memory Learning – changes future behavior. Memory - ability to remember the past. LEARNING MEMORY

2 Learning Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s dogs

3 Learning Classical Conditioning Baby “Albert” (~1920) Rat Noise Albert

4 Learning Operant Conditioning

5 Memory Sensory Memory STM LTM (<2 sec) (<1 min) (years!) needs rehearsal Types of LTM Declarative MemoryNon-declarative (explicit) (implicit) 1+1= Tashi delek = ??

6 In humans, the hippocampus is critical for the formation of explicit memories. Hippocampus Amgdala Temporal lobe

7 Memory Memory stored in multiple locations in the brain: medial temporal lobe (facts/events) striatum (skills and habits) neocortex (sensory) amygdala (emotional memories) cerebellum (simple association learning) brain stem/spinal cord (simple learning)

8 Studying Memory Aplysia californica (Eric Kandel; Nobel Prize in 2000) 10,000 neurons in nervous system; can learn Large neurons located in ganglia; control behavior (withdrawal; sensitization)

9 Studying Memory STM: short term biochemical changes that lead to larger PSP (“stronger connection between neurons”). Changes are NOT permanent. LTM: changes in protein synthesis and gene regulation involves structural modifications: increased branches; more synapses

10 Studying Memory PET brain scan during an object location test. (from A. M. Owen, et al., J. Cog. Neurosci. 8:6, , 1996.) Hippocampus

11 Studying Memory As a teenager H.M. suffered from epilepsy. At the age of 27, in 1953, he had a bilateral removal of his temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and amygdala, to treat his epilepsy.

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13 Studying Memory Patient HM= Henry G. Molaison After surgery, HM was never able to form new memories, but old memories fine. Consolidation vs storage? Patient HM Normal Hippocampus ?

14 Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes memory loss and other intellectual deficits. Dr. Alois Alzheimer Auguste D. 1906

15 Alzheimer’s Disease causes atrophy of the hippocampus and cortex Healthy AD Courtesy of Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Hippocampus; entorhinal cortex; perirhinal cortex

16 What are the similarities and differences between Auguste D. and H.M.? Auguste D. H.M.

17 Memory List 1: read, pages, letters, teacher, school, study, read, stories, sheets, cover, pen, pencil, learn, paper, words List 2: house, pencil, apple, shoe, book, flag, rock, train, ocean, hill, music, water, glass, school "book" on list 1? Only pencil and school were on list 1. List 1: sheets, pillow, mattress, blanket, comfortable, room, dream, lay, chair, rest, tired, night, dark, time List 2: door, tree, eye, song, pillow, juice, orange, radio, rain, car, sleep, cat, dream, eat "sleep" was on list 1? Only pillow and dream were on list 1.

18 Memory

19 OR

20 Memory “Chunking” or (5 or 2) or (8 or 2)

21 Memory

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23 Conversion of short-term memory to long-term memory requires rehearsal Information Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Consolidation Rehearsal

24 Memory Association

25 Memory ???.…. …… ……

26 Memory snake - apple - arrow - baby - bird - book - butterfly - car - corn - flower - hammer - house - money - microscope - ocean - pencil - rock - shoes - table - window anger - belief - boredom - chance - concept - effort - fate - freedom - glory - happiness - honor - hope - idea - interest - knowledge - mercy - mood - moral - theory - truth ator - botam - crov - difim - firap - glimoc - ricul- hilnim - jolib - kepwin - leptav - lumal - mib - natpem - peyrim - rispaw - stiwin - tubiv - vopec - yapib

27 Memory

28 Spatial Memory LONDON

29 Spatial Memory MRI Maguire, EA et al. PNAS 2000;97:

30 Spatial Memory


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