Presentation on theme: "Memory and Learning Types of learning Types of memory Neural basis of learning and memory Learning – changes future behavior. Memory - ability to remember."— Presentation transcript:
Memory and Learning Types of learning Types of memory Neural basis of learning and memory Learning – changes future behavior. Memory - ability to remember the past. LEARNING MEMORY
In humans, the hippocampus is critical for the formation of explicit memories. Hippocampus Amgdala Temporal lobe
Memory Memory stored in multiple locations in the brain: medial temporal lobe (facts/events) striatum (skills and habits) neocortex (sensory) amygdala (emotional memories) cerebellum (simple association learning) brain stem/spinal cord (simple learning)
Studying Memory Aplysia californica (Eric Kandel; Nobel Prize in 2000) 10,000 neurons in nervous system; can learn Large neurons located in ganglia; control behavior (withdrawal; sensitization)
Studying Memory STM: short term biochemical changes that lead to larger PSP (“stronger connection between neurons”). Changes are NOT permanent. LTM: changes in protein synthesis and gene regulation involves structural modifications: increased branches; more synapses
Studying Memory PET brain scan during an object location test. (from A. M. Owen, et al., J. Cog. Neurosci. 8:6, 588-602, 1996.) Hippocampus
Studying Memory As a teenager H.M. suffered from epilepsy. At the age of 27, in 1953, he had a bilateral removal of his temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and amygdala, to treat his epilepsy.
Studying Memory Patient HM= Henry G. Molaison After surgery, HM was never able to form new memories, but old memories fine. Consolidation vs storage? http://thebrainobservatory.ucsd.edu/ Patient HM Normal Hippocampus ?
Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes memory loss and other intellectual deficits. Dr. Alois Alzheimer Auguste D. 1906
Alzheimer’s Disease causes atrophy of the hippocampus and cortex Healthy AD Courtesy of Florida Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Hippocampus; entorhinal cortex; perirhinal cortex
What are the similarities and differences between Auguste D. and H.M.? Auguste D. H.M.
Memory List 1: read, pages, letters, teacher, school, study, read, stories, sheets, cover, pen, pencil, learn, paper, words List 2: house, pencil, apple, shoe, book, flag, rock, train, ocean, hill, music, water, glass, school "book" on list 1? Only pencil and school were on list 1. List 1: sheets, pillow, mattress, blanket, comfortable, room, dream, lay, chair, rest, tired, night, dark, time List 2: door, tree, eye, song, pillow, juice, orange, radio, rain, car, sleep, cat, dream, eat "sleep" was on list 1? Only pillow and dream were on list 1.