7 Pahoehoe Pahoehoe (puh-hoy-hoy) When mafic lava cools rapidly, the surface of the flow forms a crust that is wrinkled by movement. This is solidified mafic lava with a wrinkled surface.Pahoehoe means “ropy” in Hawaiian.
9 AAAA (ah-ah)Lava that is deformed rapidly or grows too thick to form wrinkles, and the surface breaks into jagged chunks. Jagged chunks of lava formed by rapid cooling on the surface of a lava flow.AA refers to the sharp, blocky texture of the volcanic rock.
15 Volcanic Rock Fragments Pyroclastic materials are thrown into the air when felsic lava explodes.Pyroclastic materials are rock fragments ejected from a volcano.Volcanic ash is pyroclastic material less than 2mm in diameter.Volcanic dust is material less than .25mm in diameter.
17 Volcanic Rock Fragments Lapilli (luh-pil-ie) is material that is less than 64mm in diameter.Means “little stones” in Latin.Volcanic bombs are large, spindle shaped clots of lava thrown out of the volcano.Volcanic blocks are the largest possible pyroclastic material that is formed from solid rock blasted from a volcanic fissure.
19 Volcanic ConesVolcanic cones are piles of ejected material that build up around the vent and there are three main types.Shield volcanos are broad at the base and have gently sloping sides.These types of volcanos cover a large area.
21 Volcanic ConesCinder cones are made of solid fragments ejected from the volcano, are very steep, and are rarely more than a few hundred meters high.Composite or Stratovolcano is a steep sloped volcanic material deposited with alternating layers of hardened lava flows and pyroclastic materials.
24 Craters & Calderas Craters & Calderas A crater is a funnel shaped pit at the top of a volcanic vent.Craters are formed when material is blown out of the volcano by explosion.A caldera forms when the magma chamber below a volcano is emptied and the volcano collapses leaving a large basin shaped depression.