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Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Layers of the Earth  Three Layers:  Crust  Mantle  Core.

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Presentation on theme: "Earthquakes & Volcanoes. The Layers of the Earth  Three Layers:  Crust  Mantle  Core."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earthquakes & Volcanoes

2 The Layers of the Earth  Three Layers:  Crust  Mantle  Core

3 The Earth ’ s Core The Earth ’ s Core  Two layers:  Inner Core  Outer Core  Lithosphere  Asthenosphere

4 Continental Drift  WHO: Alfred Wegner  WHEN: 1912  WHAT: Pangea  HOW: - Fossils - Rocks - Rocks - Glaciers - Glaciers - Polar Regions - Polar Regions

5 Explaining Continental Drift GLACIERS MAGNETIC POLES

6 Questions that Arose…  No Mechanism  Earth’s spin  Strength of rocks  Wind and Ocean currents  Arthur Holmes  Convection Currents  How plates move  Trench  Ridge

7 The Jig-Saw Puzzle  Two Types of Plates  Ocean Plates  Thin  Dense  Land Plates  Thick

8 Sea Floor Spreading  Harry Hess  Ridge  Trench  Robert Dietz  Lithosphere NOT Crust  What are the differences between Wegner’s hypothesis and Hess and Dietz’?

9 Sea Floor Spreading and Magnetics…  Ocean’s floor and Earth’s magnetic field  Positive Magnetic Anomalies  Negative Magnetic Anomalies

10 Positive VS. Negative Magnetic Strips

11 SUBDUCTION  Ocean plate goes under land plate  Pushed into Asthenosphere  Stratovolcanoes  Earthquakes  Edge of plate  Asthenosphere

12 Plate Boundaries  How are they found?  Earthquake depth  Shallow  Intermediate  Deep

13 RING OF FIRE  How do the trenches relate to the Ring of Fire?

14 Plate Boundaries  Plates Moving Away  Divergent Plate Boundary  Plates Moving Toward  Convergent Plate Boundary  Plates Sliding Past  Transform Plate Boundary

15 Divergent Plate Boundary  “Extensional”  Mid-Atlantic Ridge

16 Convergent Plate Boundary  “Compressional”  Nazca Plate moving under portion of South American Plate  Why does the Nazca plate move under the South American plate? *HINT* What types of plates are they?

17 Transform Plate Boundary  Cause Earthquakes  San Andreas fault in California  What two plates cause this fault?

18 When do Volcanoes Happen? 1)Divergent Plate Boundaries 2) Convergent Plate Boundary 3) Hot Spots 3) Hot Spots

19 Hot Spots  Fixed spots  Magma = low pressure + shallow depth  Plate moves  Geologist Tuzo Wilson  Emperor Seamounts

20 Why and Where???

21 Speaking of HotSpots… Trip to Yellow Stone anybody?  http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html

22 The Low-Down on LAVA Three Types: Three Types: 1- Pillow -Mid-Ocean Ridges -Mid-Ocean Ridges -Why does it form like -Why does it form like this? this? 2- Pahoehoe 2- Pahoehoe - Characteristics? - Characteristics? - How does it form? - How does it form? 3- Aa 3- Aa - Characteristics? - Characteristics? Coast of Kilauea Sub-Glacial Pillow Lava Mauna Ula Mauna Loa

23 Pahoehoe Lava VS. Aa Lava * How do they form? * How do they form? *Where do they go? *Where do they go? *How does surrounding rock help? *How does surrounding rock help? Lava Tube VS. Lava Channel

24 Pillow Lava – Coastal Flows  Large front  Lava tubes  Lobes  Foreset beds

25 Common Volcanoes  Crater Lake  Mount Saint Helen  Una Una

26 Volcanic Rocks  Intrusive  Granite  Extrusive  Basalt

27 Volcanic Debris  Bombs  Blocks  Lapilli  Cinders  Ash  Scoria  Pumice  Thread lace scoria  Pele’s Hair  Spatter

28 Components of a Volcano

29 Volcanic Landforms SHIELD VOLCANOES  Low viscosity  Thin basalt  Gentle slopes  Mauna Loa  7.5 miles from vent  Powerline poles

30 Volcanic Landforms Stratovolcanoes   Andesite and Dacite   High silica = viscous   Gas buildup causes   Violent eruptions   Lots of ash   Subduction zones   Mount Saint Helens

31 Volcanic Landforms Cinder Cones  What are they made from?  Height  Fire Fountains Kohala Fire Fountain Puu Lilinue, Hawaii

32 Volcanic Landforms Lava Domes  Steep sides  Highly viscous  What type of volcanoes can these be commonly found in? Mt. Saint HelensMt. Uzen

33 Volcanic Landforms Volcanic Spine Where?What? What type of lava? Mount Pelee, Martinique Mt. Saint Helens

34 Volcanic Landforms Flood Basalts “Lava Plains” Flat sheets Fluid lava How do these compare to shield compare to shield volcanoes? volcanoes? Columbia River flood basalts

35 Volcanic Landforms Composite Volcanoes Layered What part is steep? How is the slope? http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~salters/GLY10 00/9Volcanoes/Slide36.jpg

36 Early Detection?... Tiltmeter

37 What measures the tilt?

38 Leveling E.D.M. Surveys Leveling E.D.M. Surveys  Laser light  Where can this be found?  How can this be useful?  Measures horizontal and vertical distances  Benchmarks

39 Global Positioning System  System of: - Orbiting satellites - Receivers on volcanoes - Receivers on volcanoes - Computers - Computers  Time information between satellite and receiver  How does this information help scientists? help scientists?

40 Seismicity Gas Geochemistry Seismicity Gas Geochemistry  What does it measure?  How does this help?  Harmonic Tremor  Fumaroles  What is measured?  How does this help?

41 Volcanoe Video…  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ 4972366.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ 4972366.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ 4972366.stm

42 Earthquakes  Vibration and Shaking  Faults  Shock Waves  Elastic Strain

43 Points to know…  Focus  Epicenter

44 Earthquake History Earthquake History  Northridge 1994  San Andreas 1906  Loma Prieta 1989

45 Measuring Earthquakes  Seismograph:  Pen  Rotating Paper Drum  Mercalli Scale  Richter Scale

46 Fun Facts!  Ringing Church Bells  Heat in Iceland  Nutrients for the Earths Soils

47 Different Earthquake Waves  Primary Wave  Secondary Wave  Rayleigh Wave  Love Wave

48 Different Faults  Strike-Slip Faults  Thrust/ Reverse Fault  Normal Faults

49 Earthquake Video  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm

50 Why are earthquakes in New York so dangerous?  Population and building structure  Transmission of shaking  Water Pressure -More fires

51 East Coast vs. West Coast  Drill holes in Manhattan and Los Angeles  Temperatures difference  Two plates rubbing cause volcanic activity  Hotter temp. makes damps out propagation of seismic waves waves  What does this mean?

52 Works Cited  "A Teacher's Guide to the Geology of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park." Volcano. 14 Feb 2007. Volcanoes National Park." Volcano. 14 Feb 2007. Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007. Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007.  Dalgleish, Sharon. Volcanoes. Bothell, WA: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill, 1999.  Daryl, "Earthquake Waves." Daryl's EarthSci Demo Page. 2 Feb 2007. Daryl's Science. 5 Mar 2007.  "Fault Types." Basic Earthquakes. 15 Sep 2006. US.GS.. 12 Mar 2007.  Wood, Jenny. Volcanoes: Facts, Stories, Projects. First Ed. Great Britian: Two-Can Pulishing, Ltd., 1990.


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