Convergent Plate Boundary “Compressional” Nazca Plate moving under portion of South American Plate Why does the Nazca plate move under the South American plate? *HINT* What types of plates are they?
Transform Plate Boundary Cause Earthquakes San Andreas fault in California What two plates cause this fault?
When do Volcanoes Happen? 1)Divergent Plate Boundaries 2) Convergent Plate Boundary 3) Hot Spots 3) Hot Spots
Hot Spots Fixed spots Magma = low pressure + shallow depth Plate moves Geologist Tuzo Wilson Emperor Seamounts
Speaking of HotSpots… Trip to Yellow Stone anybody? http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/su pervolcano/interactive/interactive.html
The Low-Down on LAVA Three Types: Three Types: 1- Pillow -Mid-Ocean Ridges -Mid-Ocean Ridges -Why does it form like -Why does it form like this? this? 2- Pahoehoe 2- Pahoehoe - Characteristics? - Characteristics? - How does it form? - How does it form? 3- Aa 3- Aa - Characteristics? - Characteristics? Coast of Kilauea Sub-Glacial Pillow Lava Mauna Ula Mauna Loa
Pahoehoe Lava VS. Aa Lava * How do they form? * How do they form? *Where do they go? *Where do they go? *How does surrounding rock help? *How does surrounding rock help? Lava Tube VS. Lava Channel
Pillow Lava – Coastal Flows Large front Lava tubes Lobes Foreset beds
Common Volcanoes Crater Lake Mount Saint Helen Una Una
Leveling E.D.M. Surveys Leveling E.D.M. Surveys Laser light Where can this be found? How can this be useful? Measures horizontal and vertical distances Benchmarks
Global Positioning System System of: - Orbiting satellites - Receivers on volcanoes - Receivers on volcanoes - Computers - Computers Time information between satellite and receiver How does this information help scientists? help scientists?
Seismicity Gas Geochemistry Seismicity Gas Geochemistry What does it measure? How does this help? Harmonic Tremor Fumaroles What is measured? How does this help?
Fun Facts! Ringing Church Bells Heat in Iceland Nutrients for the Earths Soils
Different Earthquake Waves Primary Wave Secondary Wave Rayleigh Wave Love Wave
Different Faults Strike-Slip Faults Thrust/ Reverse Fault Normal Faults
Earthquake Video http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/41268 09.stm
Why are earthquakes in New York so dangerous? Population and building structure Transmission of shaking Water Pressure -More fires
East Coast vs. West Coast Drill holes in Manhattan and Los Angeles Temperatures difference Two plates rubbing cause volcanic activity Hotter temp. makes damps out propagation of seismic waves waves What does this mean?
Works Cited "A Teacher's Guide to the Geology of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park." Volcano. 14 Feb 2007. Volcanoes National Park." Volcano. 14 Feb 2007. Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007. Hawaii Natural History Assossication. 21 Feb 2007. Dalgleish, Sharon. Volcanoes. Bothell, WA: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill, 1999. Daryl, "Earthquake Waves." Daryl's EarthSci Demo Page. 2 Feb 2007. Daryl's Science. 5 Mar 2007. "Fault Types." Basic Earthquakes. 15 Sep 2006. US.GS.. 12 Mar 2007. Wood, Jenny. Volcanoes: Facts, Stories, Projects. First Ed. Great Britian: Two-Can Pulishing, Ltd., 1990.