2Cognitive Objectives5-3.1 Describe the function of the musculoskeletal system.5-3.2 Differentiate between an open and a closed painful, swollen, deformed injury.5-3.3 List the emergency medical care for a patient with a painful, swollen, deformed extremity.5-3.4 Relate mechanism of injury to potential injuries of the head and spine.(1 of 2)
3Cognitive Objectives5-3.5 State the signs and symptoms of a potential spine injury.5-3.6 Describe the method of determining if a responsive patient may have a spine injury.5-3.7 List the signs and symptoms of injury to the head.5-3.8 Describe the emergency medical care for injuries to the head.(2 of 2)
4Affective Objectives5-3.9 Explain the rationale for the feeling patients who have need for immobilization of the painful, swollen, deformed extremity.Demonstrate a caring attitude towards patients with a musculoskeletal injury who request emergency medical services.(1 of 2)
5Affective ObjectivesPlace the interests of the patient with a musculoskeletal injury as the foremost consideration when making any and all patient care decisions.Communicate with empathy to patients with a musculoskeletal injury, as well as with family members and friends of the patient.(2 of 2)
6Psychomotor Objectives Demonstrate the emergency medical care of a patient with a painful, swollen, deformed extremity.Demonstrate opening the airway in a patient with suspected spinal cord injury.Demonstrate evaluating a responsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury.Demonstrate stabilizing of the cervical spine.
7Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Describe the mechanisms of injury for musculoskeletal injuries.Describe the need for body substance isolation techniques when examining or treating patients with musculoskeletal injuries.(1 of 4)
8Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Explain how to splint the following sites and injuries:Shoulder girdleDislocation of the shoulderElbow injuryInjury to the forearmInjury to the hand, wrist, or fingersPelvic fractureHip injuryInjury to the thighKnee injuryLeg injuryInjury to the ankle or foot(2 of 4)
9Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Explain the two types of head injuries.Describe the treatment of facial injuries.Explain the mechanism of spine injuries.(3 of 4)
10Knowledge and Attitude Objectives Describe the signs, symptoms, and treatment of the following injuries:Fractured ribsFlail chestPenetrating chest wound(4 of 4)
11Skill ObjectivesPerform body substance isolation techniques when treating a patient with musculoskeletal injuries.Examine a patient with musculoskeletal injuries.Evaluate the circulation and sensation of a patient with an extremity injury.Treat injuries of the face.(1 of 2)
12Skill Objectives Treat the following injuries of the chest: Fractured ribsFlail chestPenetrating chest injuries(2 of 2)
17Spine Consists of a series of separate bones called vertebrae Spinal cordNerves that carry messages to and from brainPasses through hole in center of each vertebraPrimary support structure for the entire body
18Muscular System Provides support and movement Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.Body has three types of muscles:Voluntary (skeletal): Controlled by personInvoluntary (smooth): Cannot be controlled by personCardiac: Found only in the heart
19Mechanism of Injury How injuries occur Causes of musculoskeletal injuries:Direct forceIndirect forceTwisting forcePSDE = Painful, swollen, deformed extremity
20Fractures Two types: Open Closed Both kinds injure adjacent soft tissues.Can result in bleeding
21Dislocations and Sprains A disruption tears the supporting ligaments of the joint.Very painful to moveSprainsJoint injury caused by excessive stretching of supporting ligamentsA partial dislocation
22Body Substance Isolation Patients with musculoskeletal injuries may have open wounds.Wear approved gloves.Use heavy rescue gloves if responding to scene involving broken glass.
23Signs and Symptoms of Extremity Injuries Pain at injury siteOpen woundSwelling and discoloration (bruising)Inability to move extremityDeformity or angulationTenderness at injury site
24Exam of an Injured Limb Check an injured limb for: Open wounds BleedingSwellingDeformityBruising(1 of 2)
25Exam of an Injured Limb Check the extremity for: Pulse Capillary refillSensationMovement(2 of 2)
26Treatment of Musculoskeletal Injuries All limb injuries are treated the same way in the field:Cover open wounds.Control bleeding if necessary.Splint limb.
27Principles of Splinting Remove clothing.Assess limb.Cover all open wounds with dressing.Do not attempt to move before splinting.Immobilize joint above and below injury.
28Splints Rigid splints Made from firm material (padded boards) Soft splintsInflatable, clear plasticTraction splintsHolds a lower extremity fracture in alignment
29Elbow InjuriesDo not move an injured elbow from the position in which you find it.Pillow splints help stabilize injured elbows.
30Hip Injuries Hip fractures Occur at the upper end of the femur Osteoporosis causes bones to become more fragile.Dislocated hipsExtremely painful
31Injuries of the ThighA fractured femur is very unstable and usually produces significant deformity.Often much bleeding and swellingTreat for shock and help prevent further injury.
32Injuries to the HeadCommon causes of death, paralysis, and permanent brain injuryMay occur from many different kinds of traumaTypes:Closed head injuryOpen head injury
33Signs and Symptoms of Head Injuries ConfusionUnusual behaviorUnconsciousnessDecreasing consciousnessNausea or vomitingUnequal pupilsParalysisSeizuresExternal head trauma:BleedingBumpsContusions
34Treatment of Head Injuries Stabilize head in a neutral position.Maintain an open airway using the jaw-thrust technique.Support patient’s breathing.Monitor circulation.(1 of 2)
35Treatment of Head Injuries Check to see if CSF or blood is seeping from wound, nose, or ears.Control bleeding.Examine and treat other serious injuries.Arrange for prompt transport.(2 of 2)
36Treatment of Facial Injuries Stabilize head in a neutral position.Maintain an open airway.Support breathing as needed.Monitor circulation.Control bleeding.Look for and stabilize other serious injuries.Arrange for prompt transport.
37Injuries to the Spine Mechanisms of injury Pressure on spinal cord from displaced vertebrae, swelling, or bleedingCord is severed, resulting in paralysis.Gunshot woundsFalls, motor vehicle collisions, and stabbing(1 of 2)
39Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Injuries Laceration, bruise, or other sign of injury to head, neck, or spineTendernessExtremity weakness, paralysis, or loss of movementLoss of sensation or tingling in any part of the body below neck
40Treatment of Spinal Injuries Stabilize head and neck in neutral position.Maintain an open airway.Support patient’s breathing.Monitor circulation.Assess pulse, movement, and sensation in all extremities.(1 of 2)
41Treatment of Spinal Injuries Examine and treat other serious injuries.Do not move patient.Assist in immobilizing patient onto a longboard.Arrange for prompt transport to an appropriate medical facility.(2 of 2)
42Motorcycle and Football Helmets In most instances, helmets do not have to be removed.Only remove helmet if:Face mask or visor interferes with adequate ventilation or airway management.Helmet is too loose, making immobilization inadequate.(1 of 2)
43Motorcycle and Football Helmets If you remove a football helmet, you should also remove the shoulder pads.You may have to provide extra padding to maintain neutral position.(2 of 2)
44Injuries to the ChestChest cavity contains lungs, heart, and several major blood vessels.Chest cavity is protected by chest wall.Chest wall is made up of the ribs, cartilage, and chest muscles.Common chest injuries include rib fractures, flail chest, and penetrating wounds.
45Treatment of Rib Fractures Place a pillow against injured ribs.Prevent excessive movement.Administer high-flow oxygen.Arrange for transport to hospital.
46Flail Chest Three or more ribs are broken in at least two places. Injured part moves opposite chest wall.Place a pillow firmly over flail section.Monitor breathing.Monitor and support ABCs.
47Penetrating Chest Wounds Results from penetration of chest wall by an objectIntroduces air and blood between lung and chest wallMay result in lung collapseSevere blood loss into chest cavity can produce hemorrhagic shock.(1 of 2)