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29: Musculoskeletal Care. 5-3.1Describe the function of the muscular system. 5-3.2Describe the function of the skeletal system. 5-3.3List the major bones.

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Presentation on theme: "29: Musculoskeletal Care. 5-3.1Describe the function of the muscular system. 5-3.2Describe the function of the skeletal system. 5-3.3List the major bones."— Presentation transcript:

1 29: Musculoskeletal Care

2 5-3.1Describe the function of the muscular system Describe the function of the skeletal system List the major bones or bone groupings of the spinal column, the thorax, the upper extremities, and the lower extremities Differentiate between an open and closed painful, swollen, deformed extremity (fracture). Cognitive Objectives (1 of 2)

3 Cognitive Objectives (2 of 2) 5-3.5State the reasons for splinting List the general rules of splinting List the complications of splinting List the emergency medical care for a patient with a swollen, painful, deformed extremity (fracture).

4 Affective Objectives 5-3.9Explain the rationale for splinting at the scene versus load and go Explain the rationale for immobilization of the painful, swollen, deformed extremity (fracture).

5 Psychomotor Objectives Demonstrate the emergency medical care of a patient with a painful, swollen, deformed extremity (fracture) Demonstrate completing a prehospital care report for patients with musculoskeletal injuries.

6 Anatomy and Physiology of the Musculoskeletal System

7 Skeletal System

8 Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries Fracture –Broken bone Dislocation –Disruption of a joint Sprain –Joint injury with tearing of ligaments Strain –Stretching or tearing of a muscle

9 Mechanism of Injury Force may be applied in several ways: Direct blow Indirect force Twisting force High-energy injury

10 Fractures Closed fracture –A fracture that does not break the skin Open fracture –External wound associated with fracture Nondisplaced fracture –Simple crack of the bone Displaced fracture Fracture in which there is actual deformity

11 Greenstick Fracture

12 Comminuted Fracture

13 Pathologic Fracture

14 Epiphyseal Fracture

15 Signs and Symptoms of a Fracture (1 of 2) Deformity Tenderness Guarding Swelling Bruising

16 Signs and Symptoms of a Fracture (2 of 2) Crepitus False motion Exposed fragments Pain Locked joint

17 Signs and Symptoms of a Dislocation Marked deformity Swelling Pain Tenderness on palpation Virtually complete loss of joint function Numbness or impaired circulation to the limb and digit

18 Signs and Symptoms of a Sprain Point tenderness can be elicited over injured ligaments. Swelling and ecchymosis appear at the point of injury to the ligaments. Pain Instability of the joint is indicated by increased motion.

19 Compartment Syndrome Most commonly occurs in a fractured tibia or forearm of children Elevated pressure within a fascial compartment Develops within 6 to 12 hours after injury Pain out of proportion with injury Splint affected limb, keeping it at the level of the heart. Provide immediate transport.

20 Severity of Injury Critical injuries can be identified using musculoskeletal injury grading system.

21 Minor Injuries Minor sprains Fractures or dislocations of digits

22 Moderate Injuries Open fractures of the digits Nondisplaced long bone fractures Nondisplaced pelvic fractures Major sprains of a major joint

23 Serious Injuries Displaced long bone fractures Multiple hand and foot fractures Open long bone fractures Displaced pelvic fractures Dislocations of major joints Multiple digit amputations Laceration of major nerves or blood vessels

24 Severe Life-Threatening Injuries (Survival Is Probable) Multiple closed fractures Limb amputations Fractures of both long bones on the leg (bilateral femur fractures)

25 Critical Injuries (Survival Is Uncertain) Multiple open fracture of the limbs Suspected pelvic fractures with hemodynamic instability

26 You are the Provider You and your EMT-B partner are dispatched to the local skateboarding rink for a fall injury. The scene is safe. You find an 18-year-old male who is holding his left arm close to his chest. He appears to be in a lot of pain. He is conscious, alert, and oriented with no external bleeding.

27 You are the provider continued What is the mechanism of injury? What questions should you ask to determine the patient’s possible injury? Should you stabilize the patient’s c-spine? What could you do to ease the patient’s pain?

28 Scene Size-up Carefully assess the MOI. Observe for hazards and threats to safety; take BSI precautions. Consider the need for spinal stabilization. Evaluate the need for law enforcement. Consider requesting ALS backup.

29 Initial Assessment (1 of 2) Ask patient’s chief complaint; assess level of consciousness. Ask about MOI. Injuries to head may cause inadequate breathing. You may administer oxygen to relieve anxiousness and improve perfusion. Do not let the injury distract you from caring for ABCs.

30 Initial Assessment (2 of 2) Treat patient for shock if signs of hypoperfusion are present. Bandage bleeding extremities with sterile dressings to control bleeding –Do not make so tight as to restrict distal circulation. Monitor bandage tightness by assessing circulation, sensation, and movement distal to injury. Swelling may cause bandage to become too tight.

31 Transport Decision Provide rapid transport if patient has airway or breathing problems. If patient had significant MOI, transport rapidly even if patient seems okay. Stabilize patient on a backboard.

32 You are the provider continued You assess ABCs, take c-spine precautions, and provide oxygen via nonrebreathing mask. Patient is a low-priority transport. He tells you he fell while on a skateboard. He used his right arm to break the fall. Heard a “pop” when he hit the concrete. Denies hitting his head or losing consciousness. Right forearm is angulated slightly in the middle. He asks you not to touch it.

33 You are the provider continued After your initial assessment, what should you do? Describe the next phase of your assessment.

34 Focused History and Physical Exam Use DCAP-BTLS. Contusions, abrasions, or tenderness may be only signs of an underlying injury.

35 Rapid Physical Exam for Significant Trauma If you find no external signs of injury, ask patient to move each limb carefully, stopping immediately if this causes pain. Skip this step if the patient reports neck or back pain. Slight movement could cause permanent damage to spinal cord.

36 Focused Physical Exam for Nonsignificant Trauma Evaluate circulation, motor function, sensation. If two or more extremities are injured, transport. –Severe injuries more likely if two or more bones have been broken Recheck neurovascular function before and after splinting. Impaired circulation can lead to death of the limb.

37 Assessing Neurovascular Status (1 of 4) If anything causes pain, do not continue that portion of exam. Pulse –Palpate the radial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses.

38 Assessing Neurovascular Status (2 of 4) Capillary refill –Note and record skin color. –Press the tip of the fingernail to make the skin blanch. If normal color does not return within 2 seconds, you can assume that circulation is impaired.

39 Assessing Neurovascular Status (3 of 4) Sensation –Check feeling on the flesh near the tip of the index finger. –In the foot, check the feeling on the flesh of the big toe and on the lateral side of the foot.

40 Assessing Neurovascular Status (4 of 4) Motor function –Evaluate muscular activity when the injury is near the patient’s hand or foot. –Ask the patient to open and close his or her fist. –Ask the patient to wiggle his or her toes.

41 Baseline Vital Signs/ SAMPLE History Obtain baseline vital signs as soon as possible. Shock is common. Attempt to obtain SAMPLE history without delaying transport. Extent of history depends on how quickly you need to transport.

42 Interventions Stabilize ABCs. Control serious bleeding. Secure patient to a backboard if critically injured. Provide prompt transport. If patient is not critically injured, splint on scene. Goal is to stabilize injury in most comfortable position that allows for maintenance of good circulation distal to site.

43 You are the provider continued (1 of 2) You begin a focused physical exam. You note tenderness, swelling, and crepitus with gentle palpation in the right mid-forearm. Patient can feel you touch his fingers. Distal pulse is found. Capillary refill is normal. Your partner manually stabilizes the injured extremity. You begin the SAMPLE history and assess vital signs.

44 You are the provider continued (2 of 2) Describe your emergency care.

45 Detailed Physical Exam Inspect and gently palpate other extremities and the spine to identify underlying fractures, dislocations, or sprains. Compare injured limb to opposite, uninjured limb.

46 Ongoing Assessment Repeat initial assessment and vital signs. Reassess interventions. Reassess neurovascular function and color of splinted injured extremity distal to injury site. Communication and documentation –Report problems with ABCs, type of fracture, and if circulation was compromised before or after splinting. –Document complete descriptions of injuries and MOIs.

47 Emergency Medical Care Completely cover open wounds. Apply the appropriate splint. If swelling is present, apply ice or cold packs. Prepare the patient for transport. Always inform hospital personnel about wounds that have been dressed and splinted.

48 Splinting Flexible or rigid device used to protect extremity Injuries should be splinted prior to moving patient, unless the patient is critical. Splinting helps prevent further injury. Improvise splinting materials when needed.

49 General Principles of Splinting (1 of 3) Remove clothing from the area. Note and record the patient’s neurovascular status. Cover all wounds with a dry, sterile dressing. Do not move the patient before splinting.

50 General Principles of Splinting (2 of 3) Immobilize the joints above and below the injured joint. Pad all rigid splints. Apply cold packs if swelling is present. Maintain manual immobilization. Use constant, gentle, manual traction if needed. If you find resistance to limb alignment, splint the limb as is.

51 General Principles of Splinting (3 of 3) Immobilize all suspected spinal injuries in a neutral in-line position. If the patient has signs of shock, align limb in normal anatomic position and transport. When in doubt, splint.

52 In-line Traction Splinting Act of exerting a pulling force on a bony structure in the direction of its normal alignment. Realigns fracture of the shaft of a long bone. Use the least amount of force necessary. If resistance is met or pain increases, splint in deformed position.

53 Applying a Rigid Splint (1 of 2) Provide gentle support and in-traction of the limb. Another EMT-B places the rigid splint alongside or under the limb. Place padding between the limb and splint as needed.

54 Applying a Rigid Splint (2 of 2) Secure the splint to the limb with bindings. Assess and record distal neurovascular function.

55 Applying a Zippered Air Splint Hold the injured limb, apply gentle traction and support the injury site. Partner should place splint around extremity. Zip up the splint. Inflate by pump or mouth. Test the pressure in the splint. Check and record distal neurovascular function.

56 Applying an Unzippered Air Splint Support limb. Place arm through splint and grasp hand or foot of injured limb. Apply gentle traction to hand or foot while sliding splint onto injured limb. Inflate by pump or mouth. Test pressure. Check and record pulse, motor, and sensory function and monitor.

57 Applying a Vacuum Splint Stabilize and support the injury. Place the splint and wrap it around the limb. Draw the air out of the splint and seal the valve. Check and record distal neurovascular function.

58 Traction Splints Do not use a traction splint under the following conditions: –Upper extremity injuries –Injuries close to or involving the knee –Pelvis and hip injuries –Partial amputation or avulsions with bone separation –Lower leg, foot, or ankle injuries

59 Applying a Hare Traction Splint (1 of 3) Expose the injured limb and check pulse, motor, and sensory function. Place splint beside the uninjured limb, adjust to proper length, and prepare straps. Support the injured limb as your partner fastens the ankle hitch.

60 Applying a Hare Traction Splint (2 of 3) Continue to support the limb as your partner applies gentle in-line traction to the ankle hitch and foot. Slide the splint into position under the injured limb. Pad the groin and fasten the ischial strap.

61 Applying a Hare Traction Splint (3 of 3) Connect loops of ankle hitch to end of splint as your partner continues traction. Carefully tighten ratchet to the point that splint holds adequate traction. Secure and check support straps. Assess distal neurovascular function. Secure the patient and splint to long board for transport.

62 Applying a Sager Traction Splint (1 of 3) Expose the injured extremity and check pulse, motor, and sensory function. Adjust the thigh strap of the splint. Estimate the proper splint length. Fit the ankle pads to the patient’s ankle. Place the splint along the inner thigh.

63 Applying a Sager Traction Splint (2 of 3) Secure the ankle harness. Snug the cable ring against the bottom of the foot. Pull out the inner shaft of the splint to apply traction.

64 Applying a Sager Traction Splint (3 of 3) Secure the limb to the splint. Secure patient to a long backboard. Check pulse, motor, and sensory function.

65 Hazards of Improper Splinting Compression of nerves, tissues, and blood vessels Delay in transport of a patient with a life- threatening condition Reduction of distal circulation Aggravation of the injury Injury to tissue, nerves, blood vessels, or muscle

66 Clavicle and Scapula Injuries Clavicle is one of the most fractured bones in the body. Scapula is well protected Joint between clavicle and scapula is the acromioclavicular (A/C) joint Splint with a sling and swathe.

67 A/C Separation With A/C separation, the distal end of the clavicle usually sticks out.

68 Dislocation of the Shoulder (1 of 3) Most commonly dislocated large joint Usually dislocates anteriorly Is difficult to immobilize

69 Dislocation of the Shoulder (2 of 3) A patient with a dislocated shoulder will guard the shoulder, trying to protect it by holding the arm in a fixed position away from the chest wall.

70 Dislocation of the Shoulder (3 of 3) Splint the joint with a pillow or towel between the arm and the chest wall. Apply a sling and a swathe.

71 Fractures of the Humerus Occurs either proximally, in the midshaft, or distally at the elbow. Consider applying traction to realign a severely angulated humerus, according to local protocols. Splint with sling and swathe, supplemented with a padded board splint.

72 Elbow Injuries Fractures and dislocations often occur around the elbow. Injuries to nerves and blood vessels common. Assess neurovascular function carefully –Realignment may be needed to improve circulation.

73 Fractures of the Forearm (1 of 2) Usually involves both radius and ulna Use a padded board, air, vacuum, or pillow splint.

74 Fractures of the Forearm (2 of 2) A fracture of the distal radius produces a characteristic silver fork deformity.

75 Injuries to the Wrist and Hand Follow BSI precautions. Cover all wounds. Form hand into the position of function. Place a roller bandage in palm of hand. Apply padded board splint. Secure entire length of splint. Apply a sling and swathe.

76 Fractures of the Pelvis May involve life-threatening internal bleeding Assess pelvis for tenderness. Stable patients can be secured to a long backboard or scoop stretcher to immobilize isolated fractures of the pelvis.

77 Assessment of Pelvic Fractures If there is injury to the bladder or urethra, the patient may have lower abdominal tenderness. They may have blood in the urine (hematuria) or at the urethral opening.

78 Stabilizing Pelvic Fractures A stable patient with a pelvic fracture may be placed on a long board. If the patient is unstable, consider using a PAGS with the patient stabilized on the long board (consult your local protocols).

79 Dislocation of the Hip Hip dislocation requires significant mechanism of injury. Posterior dislocations lie with hip joint flexed and thigh rotated inward Anterior dislocations lie with leg extended straight out, and rotated, pointing away from midline. Splint in position of deformity and transport.

80 Fractures of the Proximal Femur (1 of 2) Presents with very characteristic deformity Fractures from trauma injuries best managed with traction splint or PASG and a backboard. Isolated fracture in geriatric patients can be managed with long backboard or a scoop stretcher.

81 Fractures of the Proximal Femur (2 of 2) A proximal femur fracture will be rotated. Splint the injured leg to the uninjured leg and secure the patient to a scoop stretcher or backboard.

82 Femoral Shaft Fractures Muscle spasms can cause deformity of the limb Significant amount of blood loss will occur. Stabilize with traction splint.

83 Injuries of Knee Ligaments Knee is very vulnerable to injury. Patient will complain of pain in the joint and be unable to use the extremity normally. Splint from hip joint to foot. Monitor distal neurovascular function.

84 Dislocation of the Knee Produces significant deformity More urgent injury is to the popliteal artery, which is often lacerated or compressed. Always check distal circulation.

85 Fractures About the Knee If there is adequate distal pulse and no significant deformity, splint limb with knee straight. If there is adequate distal pulse and significant deformity, splint joint in position of deformity. If pulse is absent below level of injury, contact medical control immediately.

86 Dislocation of the Patella Usually dislocates to lateral side. Produces significant deformity. Splint in position found. Support with pillows.

87 Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula (1 of 2) Usually, both bones fracture at the same time. Open fracture of tibia common. Stabilize with a padded rigid long leg splint or an air splint that extends from the foot to upper thigh.

88 Injuries to the Tibia and Fibula (2 of 2) Because the tibia is so close to the skin, open fractures are quite common.

89 Ankle Injuries Most commonly injured joint Dress all open wounds. Assess distal neurovascular function. Correct any gross deformity by applying gentle longitudinal traction to the heel. Before releasing traction, apply a splint.

90 Foot Injuries Usually occur after a patient falls or jumps. Immobilize ankle joint and foot. Leave toes exposed to assess neurovascular function. Elevate foot 6”. Also consider possibility of spinal injury from a fall.

91 Injuries from Falls Frequently after a fall, the force of the injury is transmitted up the legs to the spine, sometimes resulting in a fracture of the lumbar spine.

92 Foot Stabilization A pillow splint can provide excellent stabilization of the foot.

93 Review 1.Skeletal muscle is also referred to as: A. smooth muscle. B. striated muscle. C. autonomic muscle. D. involuntary muscle.

94 Review Answer: B Rationale: Skeletal muscle, also called striated muscle because of its characteristic stripes (striations), attaches to the bones and usually crosses at least one joint, forming the major muscle mass of the body. This type of muscle is also called voluntary muscle because it is under direct voluntary control of the brain.

95 Review 1.Skeletal muscle is also referred to as: A.smooth muscle. Rationale: This is found in the walls of most tubular structures, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system. B. striated muscle. Rationale: Correct answer C. autonomic muscle. Rationale: This is not a term associated with the muscles. D. involuntary muscle. Rationale: Involuntary muscle is also called smooth muscle. It is not under voluntary control of the brain.

96 Review 2. You respond to a soccer game for a 16-year-old male with severe ankle pain. When you deliver him to the hospital, the physician tells you that he suspects a sprain. This means that: A. there is a disruption of the joint and the bone ends are no longer in contact. B. the patient has an incomplete fracture that passes only partway through the bone. C. stretching or tearing of the ligaments with partial or temporary dislocation of the bone ends has occurred. D. the muscles of the ankle have been severely stretched, resulting in displacement of the bones from the joint.

97 Review Answer: C Rationale: A sprain is a joint injury in which there is both partial or temporary dislocation of the bone ends and partial stretching or tearing of the supporting ligaments. Sprains are typically marked by swelling, pain, and ecchymosis.

98 Review (1 of 2) 2. You respond to a soccer game for a 16-year-old male with severe ankle pain. When you deliver him to the hospital, the physician tells you that he suspects a sprain. This means that: A.there is a disruption of the joint and the bone ends are no longer in contact. Rationale: With a sprain, there will be a partial or temporary dislocation of the bone ends. B. the patient has an incomplete fracture that passes only partway through the bone. Rationale: With a sprain, there is no fracture associated with the injury.

99 Review (2 of 2) 2. You respond to a soccer game for a 16-year-old male with severe ankle pain. When you deliver him to the hospital, the physician tells you that he suspects a sprain. This means that: C. stretching or tearing of the ligaments with partial or temporary dislocation of the bone ends has occurred. Rationale: Correct answer D. the muscles of the ankle have been severely stretched, resulting in displacement of the bones from the joint. Rationale: A sprain is not an injury to the muscles.

100 Review 3. A patient injured her knee while riding a bicycle. She is lying on the ground, has her left leg flexed, is in severe pain, and cannot move her leg. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to her left knee. Distal pulses are present and strong. The MOST appropriate treatment for her injury involves: A. wrapping her entire knee area with a pillow. B. splinting the leg in the position in which it was found. C. straightening her leg and applying two rigid board splints. D. straightening her leg and applying and inflating an air splint.

101 Review Answer: B Rationale: The patient likely has a dislocated knee. You should immobilize any joint injury in the position in which it was found—especially if distal pulses are present and strong. Attempting to straighten a dislocated joint may cause damage to the nerves and/or vasculature.

102 Review (1 of 2) 3. A patient injured her knee while riding a bicycle. She is lying on the ground, has her left leg flexed, is in severe pain, and cannot move her leg. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to her left knee. Distal pulses are present and strong. The MOST appropriate treatment for her injury involves: A.wrapping her entire knee area with a pillow. Rationale: Providers can wrap the knee with a pillow to splint it. It is most important to splint the joint in the position it was found. B. splinting the leg in the position in which it was found. Rationale: Correct answer

103 Review (2 of 2) 3. A patient injured her knee while riding a bicycle. She is lying on the ground, has her left leg flexed, is in severe pain, and cannot move her leg. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to her left knee. Distal pulses are present and strong. The MOST appropriate treatment for her injury involves: C. straightening her leg and applying two rigid board splints. Rationale: The straightening of a joint injury is contraindicated if the pulses are intact. D. straightening her leg and applying and inflating an air splint. Rationale: Air splints are not effective on joint injuries that are flexed.

104 Review 4. When treating an open extremity fracture, you should: A. apply a splint and then dress the wound. B. dress the wound before applying a splint. C. irrigate the wound before applying a dressing. D. allow the material that secures the splint to serve as the dressing.

105 Review Answer: B Rationale: Prior to splinting an open extremity fracture, you should cover the wound with a dry, sterile dressing. This will help control any bleeding and decreases the risk of infection. Irrigating an open fracture should be avoided in the field; this also increases the risk of infection—especially if foreign material is flushed into the wound.

106 Review 4. When treating an open extremity fracture, you should: A.apply a splint and then dress the wound. Rationale: The dressing must come before the splint. B. dress the wound before applying a splint. Rationale: Correct answer C. irrigate the wound before applying a dressing. Rationale: Irrigation of an open fracture in the prehospital setting may increase the chance of infection. D. allow the material that secures the splint to serve as the dressing. Rationale: The wound must be dressed separately from the splint and before splinting is done.

107 Review 5. Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries has the GREATEST risk for shock due to blood loss? A. Pelvic fracture B. Posterior hip dislocation C. Unilateral femur fracture D. Proximal humerus fracture

108 Review Answer: A Rationale: The pelvic cavity can accommodate a large volume of blood. Shock in a patient with a pelvic injury is usually due to injury to femoral veins or arteries. Bilateral femur fractures can also cause severe blood loss (up to 1 liter per femur).

109 Review 5. Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries has the GREATEST risk for shock due to blood loss? A.Pelvic fracture Rationale: Correct answer B. Posterior hip dislocation Rationale: Unless the dislocation has injured the vascular system, bleeding will be contained and minimal. C. Unilateral femur fracture Rationale: A unilateral femur fracture can lose ,500 mL of blood. D. Proximal humerus fracture Rationale: Nerves and blood vessels can be injured and the blood loss could be 500 mL.

110 Review 6. A young male has a musculoskeletal injury and is unresponsive. You will NOT be able to assess: A. false motion. B. distal pulses. C. capillary refill. D. sensory and motor functions.

111 Review Answer: D Rationale: In order to assess sensory and motor functions (eg, Can you feel? Can you move?), the patient must be conscious, alert, and able to follow commands. False motion, distal pulses, and capillary refill are objective findings; therefore, they can be assessed in unresponsive patients.

112 Review 6. A young male has a musculoskeletal injury and is unresponsive. You will NOT be able to assess: A.false motion. Rationale: This is an objective finding. Is the motion at a point in a limb where there is no joint? B. distal pulses. Rationale: This is an objective finding. Is the presence of a pulse distal to an injury site? C. capillary refill. Rationale: This is an objective finding. Is the ability of the circulatory system to restore blood to the capillary system (≤2 sec)? D. sensory and motor functions. Rationale: Correct answer

113 Review 7. To effectively immobilize a fractured clavicle, you should apply a/an: A. sling and swathe. B. air splint over the entire arm. C. rigid splint to the upper arm, then a sling. D. traction splint to the arm of the injured side.

114 Review Answer: A Rationale: The quickest and most effective way to immobilize a fractured clavicle (collar bone) is to apply a sling and swathe. The sling will help minimize movement of the clavicle itself, while the swath will minimize movement of the arm on the affected side.

115 Review 7. To effectively immobilize a fractured clavicle, you should apply a/an: A.sling and swathe. Rationale: Correct answer B. air splint over the entire arm. Rationale: An air splint is not effective on a joint. C. rigid splint to the upper arm, then a sling. Rationale: A sling will not prevent the movement of the shoulder. D. traction splint to the arm of the injured side. Rationale: There is no traction splint for the arm.

116 Review 8. A motorcyclist crashed his bike and has closed deformities to both of his midshaft femurs. He is conscious, but restless; his skin is cool and clammy; and his radial pulses are rapid and weak. The MOST appropriate splinting technique for this patient involves: A. applying rigid board splints. B. applying two traction splints. C. securing him to a long backboard. D. immobilizing his femurs with air splints.

117 Review Answer: C Rationale: In this particular case, it is more practical— and less time-consuming—to secure the patient to a long backboard. He is in shock and requires rapid transport. Taking the time to apply traction splints, air splints, or board splints will only delay transport.

118 Review 8. A motorcyclist crashed his bike and has closed deformities to both of his midshaft femurs. He is conscious, but restless; his skin is cool and clammy; and his radial pulses are rapid and weak. The MOST appropriate splinting technique for this patient involves: A.applying rigid board splints. Rationale: This causes undue delays in the transport of the patient. B. applying two traction splints. Rationale: This causes undue delays in the transport of the patient. C. securing him to a long backboard. Rationale: Correct answer D. immobilizing his femurs with air splints. Rationale: This causes undue delays in the transport of the patient.

119 Review 9. A patient tripped, fell, and landed on her elbow. She is in severe pain and has obvious deformity to her elbow. You should: A. assess distal pulses. B. manually stabilize her injury. C. assess her elbow for crepitus. D. apply rigid board splints to her arm.

120 Review Answer: B Rationale: When caring for a patient with an orthopaedic injury, you should first manually stabilize the injury site; this will prevent further injury. Then assess pulse, motor, and sensory functions distal to the injury. Splint the injury using the appropriate technique, and then reassess pulse, motor, and sensory functions. Do not intentionally assess for crepitus; this is a coincidental finding that you may encounter during your assessment and should not be elicited.

121 Review 9. A patient tripped, fell, and landed on her elbow. She is in severe pain and has obvious deformity to her elbow. You should: A.assess distal pulses. Rationale: This is completed after the manual stabilization of the injury. B. manually stabilize her injury. Rationale: Correct answer C. assess her elbow for crepitus. Rationale: Do not intentally assess for crepitus, this is a coincidental finding. D. apply rigid board splints to her arm. Rationale: This is completed after manual stabilization of the injury.

122 Review 10. The purpose of splinting a fracture is to: A. reduce the fracture if possible. B. prevent motion of bony fragments. C. reduce swelling in adjacent soft tissues. D. force the bony fragments back into anatomic alignment.

123 Review Answer: B Rationale: The purpose of splinting a fracture is to prevent motion of the bony fragments, thus minimizing the possibility of neurovascular damage. Splinting is not intended to force bony fragments into anatomic alignment, nor will it reduce swelling (ice reduces swelling). You should never try to reduce a fracture.

124 Review 10. The purpose of splinting a fracture is to: A.reduce the fracture if possible. Rationale: Reduction of a suspected fracture is a medical procedure to be performed in the hospital. B. prevent motion of bony fragments. Rationale: Correct answer C. reduce swelling in adjacent soft tissues. Rationale: Splinting will not reduce swelling, but cold application will. D. force the bony fragments back into anatomic alignment. Rationale: Splinting to immobilize a fracture site is not intended to force bony fragments back into alignment.


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