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HEMOSTASIS Dr. Taj Antithrombogenic Thrombogenic Vessel injury (Favors fluid blood)(Favors clotting)

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Presentation on theme: "HEMOSTASIS Dr. Taj Antithrombogenic Thrombogenic Vessel injury (Favors fluid blood)(Favors clotting)"— Presentation transcript:

1 HEMOSTASIS Dr. Taj Antithrombogenic Thrombogenic Vessel injury (Favors fluid blood)(Favors clotting)

2 OBJECTIVES  At the end of the lecture you should be able to describe…..  What is hemostasis  What are the steps of hemostasis  The 2 pathways of coagulation  The role of platelets in hemostasis  Bleeding & clothing disorders

3 HEMOSTASIS From an injured blood vessel is the  Prevention of blood loss Or  Stoppage of bleeding Or  Arrest of bleeding from a broken blood vessel

4 STEPS OF HEMOSTASIS  Vascular Spasm  Formation of platelet plug  Blood Coagulation  Clot Retraction

5 VASCULAR SPASM (Vascular Constriction)  Factors  Nervous reflexes  Local myogenic spasm  Local humoral factor  For smaller vessels  Platelets  Thrombokanc A 2  Importance  Censhing injuries  Intense spasm  No lethal loss of blood

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7 FORMATION OF PLATELET PLUG  Importance of platelet plug  small vascular damage

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9 BLOOD COAGULATION Formation Of Clot  Blood clotting is the transformation of blood from a liquid into a solid gel form  Pathways  Intrinsic  Extrinsic  Initiated by: Activator substances from traumatized vascular wall, plts & blood proteins  Begins to develop in  sec  Minor trauma  1-2 min.  Severe trauma

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12 physical events of Clotting process

13 PLATELETS Formed by fragmentation from megakaryoctyes

14 PLATELETS  Contractile, adhesive, cell fragments.  Store coagulation factors & enzymes  Surface Binding sites for fibrinogen  Surface Glycoprotein Antigens-HPA1. SHAPE: MINUTE ROUND OR OVAL DISCS SIZE: 1-4 um IN DIAMETER HALF LIFE: 8-12 DAYS COUNT: 150,000 – 300,000/ microlitrer

15 ACTIN AND MYOSIN MOLECULES ACTIN AND MYOSIN MOLECULES THROMBESTHENIN THROMBESTHENIN ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND GOLGI APPARATUS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND GOLGI APPARATUS MITOCHONDRIA MITOCHONDRIA ENZYME SYSTEMS FOR SYNTHESIS OF PROSTAGLANDINS ENZYME SYSTEMS FOR SYNTHESIS OF PROSTAGLANDINS FIBRIN STABILIZING FACTOR FIBRIN STABILIZING FACTOR GROWTH FACTOR GROWTH FACTOR FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS:

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17 MECHANISM  Formation of Prothrombin activator complex  Conversion of prothrombin into thrombin  Conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin

18 INITIATION OF COAGULATION Formation Of Prothrombin Activator Complex  2 Ways  By Extrinsic pathway  trauma to vascular wall and surrounding tissues  By Intrinsic pathway  trauma to the blood   Is the rate - limiting factor

19 CONVERISON OF PRTHROMBIN TO THROMBIN By Prothrombin Activator Complex  Prothrombin  Plasma protein (Alpha 2 globulin)  Mol. Wt. - 68,700  Plasma conc mg/dl  Unstable protein  Synthesized by liver  Vitamin-K is required for synthesis

20 CONVERSION OF FIBRINOGEN TO FIBRIN Formation Of Clot  Fibrinogen  Mol. Wt. – 340,000  Plasma conc. – 100 – 700 mg/dl  Synthesized in liver

21 ACTION OF THROMBIN ON FIBRONOGEN TO FORM FIBRIN

22 BLOOD CLOT  A meshwork of fibrin fibres running in all directions and entrapping blood cells, platelets and plasma

23 CLOT RETRACTION  When clot contracts, it expresses most of the fluid from the clot within min.  Serum  SERUM CANNOT CLOT  ROLE OF PLTS IN CLOT FORMATION  VICIOUS CIRCLE OF CLOT FORMATION

24 Clotting Factors

25 EXTRINSIC MECHNANISM FOR INITIATING CLOTTING

26 INTRINSIC MECHNANISM FOR INITIATING CLOTTING

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28 ROLE OF THROMBIN IN HEMOSTASIS

29 ROLE OF CALCIUM IONS IN CLOTTING  No Ca ++  No Clotting  Blood samples are prevented from clotting by adding:  Citrate ions  Deionization of Ca ++  Oxalate ions  ppt the Ca ++

30 LYSIS OF BLOOD CLOTS PLASMIN Plasminogen / Profibrinolysin T-PA Plasmin or Fibrinolysin Lysis of clot

31 INTRAVASCULAR ANTICOAGULANTS 1. Endothelial Surface Factors  Smoothness of Endothelium  Glycocalyx Layers  Thrombomodulin Protein 2. Antithrombin action of Fibrin and Antithrombin III  % Thrombin binds with Fibrin  % Thrombin binds with Antithrombin III

32 INTRAVASCULAR ANTICOAGULANTS 3. Heparin  - vely charged conjugated polysaccharide  Increase the effectiveness of Antithrombin III  Produced by  Mast cells  Basophil cells  Most widely used anticoagulant clinically e.g. in stroke 4. Alpha 2 – Macrogobulin  Acts as a binding agent for several coagulation factors

33 BLEEDING & CLOTTING DISORDERS A. Liver diseases & Vitamin-K deficiency B. Hemophilia C. Thrombocytopenia

34 BLEEDING DISORDERS A. Liver diseases & Vitamin-K deficiency  e.g. Hepatitis, Cirrhosis  Decreased formation of clotting factors  Icnreased clotting time  Vitamin K dependent factors  Prothrombin, Factor VII, IX, X

35 HEMOPHILIA  HEMOPHILIA A  Classic Hemophilia  85 % cases  Def. Of factor VIII  HEMOPHILIA B  15 % cases  Def. Of factor IX

36 THROMBOCYTOPENIA  PLT count upto 50,000 ul  Less than 10, Fatal  ETIOLOGY  Decreased production  Aplastic anemia  Leukemia  Drugs  Infections (HIV, Measles)

37 HEMOPHILIA  Genetic disorders  Transmitted by female chromosome as recessive trait  Occurs exclusively in male Females are carriers  Types  Hemophilia A  Hemophilia B

38 HEMOPHILIA  Clinical Features  Easy bruising, massive bleeding after trauma or operation, hemorrhages in joints  Factor VIII  Small Comp.  Hemophilia A  Large Comp.  Von-Willebrand’s disease  Rx  Injection of factor VIII (Hemophilia A)  Injection of factor IX (Hemophilia B)

39 THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Increased destruction  ITP  Drugs  Infections  Clinical Features  Easy brusability  Epistaxis  Gum bleeding  Hemorrhage after minor trauma  Petechiae/Ecchumosis

40 THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Diagnosis  PLT decreased  B.T increased  Rx  Rx of the underlying cause  PLT concentrates  Fresh whole blood transfusion  Splenectomy

41 THANK YOU

42 ANTI COAGULANTS FOR CLINICAL USE  Heparin Subcutaneous or intramuscular  Warfarin Oral

43 THROMOEMBOLIC CONDITIONS  Thrombus  Abnormal clot that develops in a blood vessel  Embolus  Freely flowing clots  Emboli from Lf heart or large arteries  Emboli from Rt heart or venous system  Etiology  Roughened Endothelia surface  Sluggish flow of blood  Rx  Use of genetically engineered t-PA  Use of streptokinase

44 FEMORAL THROMBOSIS & MASSIVE PULMONARY EMBOLISM Prolonged Immobilization Propping the knees with underlying pillows Intravascular clot Grows up and down Clot disengages Venous blood Massive pulmonary embolism

45 DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION  Results from  Presence of large amounts of traumatized or dying tissue in the body  Releases tissue thromboplastin  Clots are small and numerous  Seen in Septicemic shock

46 BLEEDING DISORDERS A. Vitamin-K  Fat soluble vitamin  Required by liver for formation 4 clotting factors  Sources  Diet  Sythesized in the intestinal tract by bacteria  Deficiency  Malabsorption syndromes  Biliary obstruction  Broad spectrum antibiotics  Dietary def (in Neonates)  Rx.: Treat the underlying cause Vit K injections


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