3Asia and the WorldEurocentrics tend to regard the European voyages of the 1400s and 1500s as unprecedented “discoveries.”Actually, much of the world was interconnected, centered around trade with Asia through the Indian Ocean.Asia was the birthplace of many important trade goods, inventions, and other developments during the period.
5Cotton and Indigo Grown in Indus Valley since ca 2300 BCE Spread to Middle East, Mediterranean, and China.Indigo dye supplied the characteristic blue cotton garb of the ChineseCotton sails enabled the Chinese navy to travel long distances.
6India and Food Crops India was not an important cradle for food crops. India’s contribution was to accept foods from other areas, improve them, and send them on to the rest of the world.Examples: citrus fruits and sugar from Southeast Asia; watermelon, sorghum, and bananas from Africa.
7Indian numerals and mathematics Indians were familiar with Greek, Mesopotamian, and Chinese mathematical concepts, and went far beyond them.Base 10 systemZero developed by Buddhists by 499 CE.
8Silk Silk industry dates back to Shang Dynasty Silk Road opened during the Han DynastyThe Chinese kept silk production secret until the 6th century CE.Nestorian Christians smuggled silk worms and mulberry leaves out of China.The silk trade led to the spread of Buddhism out of India into China and Central Asia.
9Spices Black pepper grown in East Java, Sumatra, and southern India Introduced to Mediterranean by 1st century CEChinese appetite for fine spices led to trade in cloves, nutmeg, and mace from Southeast Asia to ChinaMuslims in Middle East introduced spices to Europeans
10Champa Rice From Southeast Asia, Indochina Early ripening (more than one crop per growing season possible), highly nutritious, drought resistantLed to population explosion in ChinaChinese introduced rice to India, India to the Middle East, Middle East to Europe.
12Paper, Compass, Porcelain All Chinese inventions, transferred to India, the Middle East, then to Europe
13Printing Invented by Buddhists in China in 7th century C.E. Spread to India, then to EuropeNot important in the Middle East because of Islamic prohibitions against images.
14Equine Collar Harness Invented in China during Shang Dynasty An improved version developed in China around 500 CE and spread westwardPlayed major role in European agricultural development and in European population growth during the Medieval Era.
15Themes of Chinese History The oldest continuous civilization and the dominant cultural center of East Asia.Confucianist philosophy is reflected in all aspects of lifeThe dominant strain of Confucianism in China stresses the perfectibility of man through self-cultivation, education, and ritual
16The Three Kingdom Period 220-589 After the collapse of the Han Dynasty China broke up into semi-independent warring states.During this period Confucianism declined as the dominant philosophyIt was replaced by two salvation religions: Neo-Daoism and especially Buddhism.Buddhism entered China from India along trade routes.
18Sui DynastySui Wendi reunified China and established the Sui DynastyBuddhism became the dominant governing philosophy of China for the next several hundred years.The Sui were responsible for many large building projects, including the Grand Canal which linked northern and southern ChinaHigh taxation and forced labor caused peasant revolts, which brought the Sui Dynasty to an end.
23Tang DynastyUnder the Tang Dynasty China reached its greatest geographic extentChina, as the preeminent civilization in East Asia, had enormous cultural influence on Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia during this and succeeding periods.During this period Europe was experiencing cultural decline during the “Dark Ages.”
26Chang’an, The Tang Capital of China (modern Xian) Cosmopolitan center of tradeEastern end of the Silk RoadTemples representing Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, Nestorian Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and many other faiths and philosophiesLarge marketplace with wares from all over the known world
29Mosque, showing mixed Arab and Chinese design, in Chang’an
30Chinese culture under the Tang Buddhism was the dominant religion or philosophyPoetry, the dominant Chinese literary form, became the essential form of social communication (everyone wrote poetry).Calligraphy, landscape painting also highly developed artformsAdvances in astronomy, chemistry, and medicine
34IN THE MOUNTAINS ON A SUMMER DAY Li Po’s PoetryIN THE MOUNTAINS ON A SUMMER DAYGently I stir a white feather fan, With open shirt sitting in a green wood. I take off my cap and hang it on a jutting atone; A wind from the pine-trees trickles on my bare head.IN the third month the town of Hsien-yang Is thick-spread with a carpet of fallen flowers. Who in Spring can bear to grieve alone? Who, sober, look on sights like these? Riches and Poverty, long or short life, By the Maker of Things are portioned and disposed; But a cup of wine levels life and death And a thousand things obstinately hard to prove. When I am drunk, I lose Heaven and Earth, Motionless—I cleave to my lonely bed. At last I forget that I exist at all, And at that moment my joy is great indeed.
35Tang Technology Printing Press Altitude of the North Pole measured Astronomical observations
36Sun Simiao, notable Tang doctor Wrote textbooks and medical guides on gynecology, pharmacology, pediatrics, and acupunctureKnown as “The King of Herbs”
37Empress Wu (Wei) 684-705 Greatest Tang ruler Tang Dynasty’s height of military powerDisliked by ChineseStrong Buddhist
38Decline and Fall of the Tang Invasions by Turks and peasant rebellions weakened the Tang DynastyChang’an was captured by invaders and then recaptured, badly damagedCentral government lost powerTang collapsed in 907
39The Song Dynasty 960-1279 Two separate segments: Northern Song Capital Kaifeng. Conquered by JurchensSouthern Song Capital Hangzhou. Conquered by Mongols.Compared to Tang Dynasty, Song China was geographically smaller but much wealthier.
41Developments Under the Song Dynasty Commercial Revolution led to development of a market economy throughout China, growth of international trade, and the use of paper moneyAgricultural Revolution changed the Chinese diet and led to a population explosion.Technological developments led China to the verge of industrialization: proto-industrialization.
42Developments Under the Song Dynasty Urbanization: Chinese cities became the largest and most prosperous in the worldPolitical changes: Emperors gained absolute power, nobility lost powerConfucianism regained dominance and continued to control the examination system. A public school system was established to train boys in Confucianism.
45The Song Agricultural Revolution The conquest of the Northern Song by the Jurchens in 1127 led to a southward migration by the Chinese to below the Yangtze River.This meant the majority of the Chinese now inhabited rice and tea growing regions.At the same time, the Chinese began using porcelain cooking pots and plates.With healthier food, the Chinese population began to grow dramatically.
47Religious and Philosophical Changes By the later Tang and Song dynasties, Buddhist monasteries and temples had gained enormous wealth.This caused the later Tang and Song Emperors to become suspicious of Buddhists and turn back to Confucianist philosophy.Confucianists believed Buddhism, as a foreign import, was responsible for China’s problemsBuddhism in China began to decline by the time of the Song Dynasty
48Neo-ConfucianismA combination of Confucianist, Buddhist, and some Daoist ideasAgriculture favored over commerceInternational trade and contact considered harmful to ChinaMale dominance and patriarchy reinforcedConsidered responsible for blocking Chinese industrializationChina’s privileged position as The Middle Kingdom could be jeopardized by outside contacts.
49Foot-Binding in Song China Broken toes by 3 years of age.Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
50Foot-Binding in Song China Mothers bound their daughters’ feet.
51Foot-Binding in Song China This was an upper class status symbol.Women were crippled
53Some Elderly Chinese Women Still Have Bound Feet!
54The Sinic World of East Asia The region historically under Chinese cultural influenceJapan, Korea, Southeast AsiaChinese language as the language of the eliteChinese literary culture: Confucianism, poetry, etc.Bureaucracies, examination systems, national universities
55Six Broad Themes of Japanese History All societies interact, but major transformations in Japanese history were distinguished by deliberate, massive cultural borrowings, followed by “Japanization” or adaption of foreign ways.
56Six Broad Themes of Japanese History Japanese society accomodates aggressive pursuit of change within a framework of continuity. In other words, they change while maintaining tradition.
57Six Broad Themes of Japanese History Japan’s insularity and isolation has fostered a social closeness. This is also a reflection of Confucianist values imported from China.
58Six Broad Themes of Japanese History An inclination toward political and social stability is reflected in the longevity of political institutions like the monarchy. A preference for evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
59Six Broad Themes of Japanese History Japan’s size and lack of natural resources makes the relationship between domestic production and imported goods a critical factor in its economy.
60Six Broad Themes of Japanese History Throughout its history Japan has experienced periods of reclusive withdrawal alternating with periods of active engagement with the outside world.
61Japan’s Classical Period ca 550-1185 The first period of deliberate cultural borrowing and adaptation.The Japanese studied and borrowed from Chinese culture, introduced to them by the Koreans.Among the cultural imports were Buddhism, Confucianist social and political values, and the Chinese written and spoken languages.
62ShintoBuddhism co-existed alongside the native Japanese religion, Shinto.Shinto is a religion based on the worship of deities called Kami, who are considered benign and helpful to humans.Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, lakes, springs, etc.84% of modern Japanese practice both Shinto and Buddhism
64Japan’s Classical (Heian) Period ca 550-1185 Japan adopted a Confucianist style government, with an Emperor and an examination system for the bureaucracy in the Capital, Hei-an (modern Kyoto).Although Japanese was very different from Chinese, the Chinese writing system was adapted for use with Japanese.Japanese literature, particularly poetry, flourished in this period.
66Japanese WritingJapanese adapted about 1500 Chinese characters and supplemented them with additional characters representing phonetics.Japanese has fewer sounds than English and all syllables are pronounced equally.A change of pitch (tone) is used to indicate differences between two otherwise identical words.Gairago or loan words have flooded the Japanese language: violin: biorin, beefsteak: bifuteki
67Japanese Classical Literature Women made many literary contributions during the classical period.Women did not work in government and therefore did not have to use the Chinese language, allowing them to experiment with the Japanese spoken and written language.
68The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon, ca 996 Sei Shonagon was a lady of the court of the Japanese imperial family.She was known for her quick wit, sunny disposition, and knowledge of the Chinese classics.Her pillow book was partly a diary, partly a book of observations and poetry.
70The Tale of Genji, by the Lady Murasaki Shikibu ca 973-1025 Often called the first novel, the story is centered on the life and adventures of Hikaru Genji, born to a Heian EmperorLady Murasaki was the daughter of a court official who allowed her to study alongside her brother and learn Chinese.Little else is known of her life.
71Medieval JapanJapan’s medieval period began as the central government gradually lost power to several noble families.Warfare and destruction characterized the medieval period.Europe’s medieval period occurred during the same general time period, and the similarities are striking, particularly in the development of feudalism.
72FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service Japan:ShogunLand - ShoenLoyaltyLand - ShoenDaimyoDaimyoLoyaltySamuraiSamuraiSamuraiFoodProtectionPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasant
73Code of BushidoFidelityPolitenessVirilitySimplicity
74Seppuku: Ritual Suicide It is honorable to die in this way.Kaishaku – his “seconds”
79Similarities Between European and Japanese Feudalism HierarchiesCodes of Loyalty and ConductConstant warfareWeak central governmentsPeasants made up vast majority of the populationLarge fortresses (castles)
80Differences Between European and Japanese Feudalism Europeans used formal contracts of loyalty (led to contract law, parliamentary government, etc.)Japanese used informal agreements and pledges of loyalty.In Europe feudalism ended as urbanization developed.In Japan, urbanization did not end feudalism.
81The Kamakura Shogunate 1180-1333 Shogun: Barbarian conquering great general.Bakufu: tent governmentThe Kamakura shoguns held the real power in Japan. The Emperors in Kyoto were only figureheads.
82Attempted Mongol Invasions The Mongols had conquered China and established a vast empire.In 1272 and 1281 Mongol fleets carrying gunpowder weapons were sent to invade and conquer Japan.Both fleets were destroyed by storms in the Sea of Japan: the kamikazes.
83The Ashikaga Shogunate 1333-1467 Took power after conflict among the daimyo overthrew the Kamakura Shogunate.Weaker than the Kamakura Shogunate, it controlled only parts of some islands.The Onin War of ended the Ashikaga Shogunate and led to a century of civil war within Japan.
84Zen BuddhismA version of Mahayana Buddhism which developed in Tang China and was later introduced to Japan.It focuses on personal enlightenment and self-discipline through meditation.Popular among the samurai in the medieval period.
87Amida or Pure Land Buddhism Another version of Mahayana Buddhism imported from China.A more democratic version of Buddhism which taught that all people were eligible to reach the “Pure Land” as envisioned by the Bhoddisatva Amida.Popular among the peasants during the medieval period in Japan.
88Four Themes of Korean History A sense of cultural closeness to ChinaThe transformation of borrowed traditionsThe limiting of outside influences and a tendency towards seclusionSocial stability and hierarchy (Confucianist) in a homogenous society.
89Korea’s Early and Classical Periods According to Korean mythology, Korea was founded in 2,333 BCE and named Choson.From 50 BCE to 668 CE Korea was divided into three kingdoms, all strongly influenced by ChinaAlthough the Korean language is very different, Korea adopted the Chinese writing system, modifying some characters and inventing others.Chinese culture and Buddhism entered Korea during the Tang Dynasty. The native Korean folk religion of shamanism survivedKorea then transmitted this culture to Japan.
92Korean Society Korea was part of China’s East Asian trading system At times Korea’s rulers were vassals of the Chinese EmperorsKorea rarely had a powerful military.Korean society was proud of its homogeneity and preferred seclusion to outside contact (except China). Traditionally called “The Hermit Kingdom”Animosity towards Japan is ancient and reciprocated.