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Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 8: Non-fiction Comprehension Strategies Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 8: Non-fiction Comprehension Strategies Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 8: Non-fiction Comprehension Strategies Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden

2 Agenda for the day 9:00 – Introduction / Reflection 9:30 – Fiction and non-fiction differences Non-fiction text features Non-fiction text types / genre Non-fiction text structures Signal words Graphic Organisers 12:30 Lunch 1:15 – Comprehension Strategies Determining Importance in texts Summarising Synthesising Feedback process / Exit Slips 3:45 Close 10:30 – 11:00 Morning Tea

3 What evidence is there that comprehension is a focus at your site?

4 Time for Non-Fiction Part 1 1:40

5 Learning Environment – School & Classroom What can you see in classrooms and the staffroom? What plans, resources etc? R e s o u r c e s L i b r a r i e s $ P e o p l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t A n c h o r C h a r t s S t a f f M e e t i n g A g e n d a s / P D t i m e t a b l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t W o r d W a l l s I m p r o v e m e n t P l a n D a t a W a l l s

6 Time for Non-Fiction Part 4 1:22

7 Process - how you learn & teach P r o f e s s i o n a l L e a r n i n g C o m m u n i t i e s G r a d u a l R e l e a s e o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y U s i n g d a t a t o i n f o r m O b s e r v a t i o n / W a l k T h r o u g h s D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p r a c t i c e s

8 Time for Non-Fiction Part 2 1:09

9 Content - what you learn & teach W h a t s t r a t e g i e s ( s t u d e n t s ) ? P r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t f o r s t a f f W h a t t e x t s & r e s o u r c e s f o r s t a f f ? L e s s o n s ?

10 Products What evidence is there of staff and student learning? T e a c h e r d e v e l o p e d r e s o u r c e s A s s e s s m e n t p r a c t i c e s T e a c h e r p r o g r a m m e s P e r f o r m a n c e D e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s

11 Module 1: Effective Professional Learning and Comprehension Module 2:Monitoring Comprehension Module 3:Making Connections Module 4: Maths & Comprehension Module 5:Questioning Strategies Module 6:Inferencing Module 7: Visualising and Visual Texts Module 8:Non-fiction reading strategies Module 9:Fluency and Automaticity Module 10:Vocabulary

12 How are fiction and non-fiction texts different? The kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, is a large, deciduous, tropical tree that is native to tropical America, Africa, and the East Indies. The flowers are pollinated and the seeds are spread by fruit bats. Anatomy: This fast-growing tree is generally from 45 to over 100 feet (14-30 m) tall; the kapok is the tallest tree in Africa. It has pink, white, or yellow night-blooming flowers borne in clusters. The green leaves are lanceolate (lance shaped) and palmately compound (with 5 to 9 leaflets). Uses: The light-weight silky down from the seed pods (sometimes called Java cotton) is used as pillow stuffing, sleeping bag stuffing, life jacket stuffing, furniture upholstery, insulation, and for other uses. The yellow-green oil from the seeds is used in foods and to manufacture soap. Young leaves are also cooked and eaten; the wood from this tree is also used. Classification: Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida, Subclass Dilleniidae, Order Malvales, Family Bombacaceae. Sometimes referred to as narrative vs expository text

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14 Teaching about it Read two texts – one fiction and the other non-fiction on the same topic to students each day for a week or so. Ask students to brainstorm similarities and differences. Create an anchor chart with students.

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17 Blurring of the lines

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19 Challenges of Non-Fiction Text Content challenges - read to learn new information outside of their own world Vocabulary challenges - unique to subject matter, requires a high level of word analysis Text structure challenges - lack of experience with text type Text feature challenges - formatting— diagrams, captions, charts, maps, graphs...

20 Terminology Text Types Genre Text Form Text Features Text Structures

21 Text Types / Genre / Text Form

22 Non-fiction Text Features Revisit the differences between fiction an non-fiction texts What special features of non-fiction texts have you noticed? NB: This process could be used for non- fiction digital texts as well

23 Non-fiction Text Features Match

24 Teaching about it Revisit the non-fiction books (or look at others, use IWB etc) Locate with students some of the features they notice Create a list with students – introducing the correct vocabulary for each feature Talk about the purpose of each text feature

25 Block Diagram with cut-aways

26 Cut away diagram with detail

27 Diagram with colour coding eye antenna mandible leg abdomen body head

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29 Exploded diagram

30 Numbered Diagram

31 Scale Diagram

32 Flow Chart

33 Maps

34 Tree Diagram

35 Storyboard

36 Table

37 Picture Glossary

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39 Teaching about it Text Feature Example Purpose

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41 ConventionPurposeHow it Helps Caption Information directly relating to a photo or illustration Tells the reader what to focus on in the picture that is important Comparison Show size relationship between two or more objects of ideas Helps the readers take something familiar to show how it relates or compares with something new Close-Up A smaller more detailed section of the larger photo or illustration It allows the reader to see inside or a smaller part of a large area so we can understand it in a more detailed way Table of Contents Located in the front of the book to share a list of key topics or chapter in which the book addresses in the order in which they appear in the text It allows me to see the chapters and topics and know exactly what pages they are on so I can get to the information I need in the quickest way. Glossary Index Cutaways Print Size

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43 Brainstorm a list of text features. Create a space on the wall. Ask your students how much space should be dedicated to each text feature (usually pictures and captions take up the most space and italicised words take up very little.) Draw dividing lines and label each box with the name of a feature. Provide stacks of resources for students to cut out. Have students cut out text features and glue them on the mural.

44 Interactive Whiteboard Resources

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51 Revisit Terminology Text Types Genre Text Form Text Features Text Structures

52 Text Types / Genre / Text Form Text Features / Text Conventions

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54 Non-fiction or Expository Texts Expository texts (nonfiction) have different structures than narrative texts (fiction). Non-fiction texts have: Descriptions Sequences Compare/contrast Problem/solution Cause/effect Question/answer

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63 Signal Words Point the Way… Text Structure & Signal Words Description/ Hierarchical List Cause & Effect Compare/ Contrast Problem/ Solution Question & Answer Sequence For instance For example Furthermore Such as Also To begin with Most important Also In fact In addition And to illustrate Since Because This led to On account of Due to As a result of For this reason Consequentially Then…so… Therefore thus In like manner Likewise Similar to The difference between As opposed to After all However And yet But Nevertheless On the other hand One reason for the… A solution A problem Where The question is One answer is Recommendations include How When What Next Why Who How many The best estimate It could be that One may conclude Until Before After Finally Lastly First…last… Now…then On (date) At (time) First, second Meanwhile Not long after initially

64 Teaching students how to recognise and represent the organisational patterns commonly used by authors can significantly influence students’ learning and comprehension. Palinstar, Ogle, Carr, 97

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66 Text Structure If you know the text structure of a text, then you can summarise it more easily.

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69 Have a look at the NAPLaN Texts Choose one text each to view, analyse and then to share with others at your table -What is the text type? -What is the text structure? -What text features can you see? -How could you use this knowledge with students or staff?

70 Revisiting.... The kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, is a large, deciduous, tropical tree that is native to tropical America, Africa, and the East Indies. The flowers are pollinated and the seeds are spread by fruit bats. Anatomy: This fast-growing tree is generally from 45 to over 100 feet (14-30 m) tall; the kapok is the tallest tree in Africa. It has pink, white, or yellow night-blooming flowers borne in clusters. The green leaves are lanceolate (lance shaped) and palmately compound (with 5 to 9 leaflets). Uses: The light-weight silky down from the seed pods (sometimes called Java cotton) is used as pillow stuffing, sleeping bag stuffing, life jacket stuffing, furniture upholstery, insulation, and for other uses. The yellow-green oil from the seeds is used in foods and to manufacture soap. Young leaves are also cooked and eaten; the wood from this tree is also used. Classification: Division Magnoliophyta, Class Magnoliopsida, Subclass Dilleniidae, Order Malvales, Family Bombacaceae. Sometimes referred to as narrative vs expository text

71 The 4 Main Parts of Tree CROWN- where the tree increases each year in height and spread of branches by adding on a new growth of twigs. LEAVES- make up the crown and produce food for the tree (photosynthesis). TRUNK- supports the crown and produces the majority of the tree’s useful wood. ROOTS- anchors the tree, absorbs and stores water and nutrients.

72 Types of forests Different kinds of forests grow in different parts of the world. Forests can be naturally occurring (native) or planted by people (plantation). Native forests include coniferous forests, deciduous forests and rainforests. Conifers are evergreen. Pine trees are a kind of conifer. They grow in places where the winter is long and rainy. In autumn, the leaves of trees in deciduous forests change colour and fall off.

73 Sometimes trees from plantations are used to make paper. Stripped logs are chipped into small pieces by knives mounted in massive steel wheels (used in chemical pulping process). The chips pass through vibrating screens, whereby both undersized chips, dust etc and oversized chips are rejected. Accepted chips are then stored in huge bins ready for the next process. Mechanical and chemical pulping processes are used. Finally the pulp passes to a blend chest where chemicals are added to obtain the required characteristics to the finished paper such as density and colour. Papermaking

74 Human Impact in Forests Low latitude forests are mostly affected by human influence through farming and logging. As a result the amount of forest land has diminished decreasing biodiversity and increasing the number of endangered species. Monsoon forests like other forests are being continuously stressed by human activities. Much of this deforestation results in the washing away of soil during monsoon season due to the trees no longer binding the soils, and often ending in mud slides. The lack of vegetation resulting from deforestation also diminishes animal populations.

75 How to Save Tropical Rainforests Deforestation of tropical rainforests has a global impact through species extinction, the loss of important ecosystem services and renewable resources, and the reduction of carbon sinks. However, this destruction can be slowed, stopped, and in some cases even reversed Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save rainforests. Restore damaged ecosystems by planting trees on land where forests have been cut down. Encourage people to live in a way that doesn't hurt the environment. Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife. Support companies that operate in ways that minimise damage to the environment.

76 What future can we create instead? Climate change and deforestation can still be stopped. We can create a different kind of world. What world do you want to create? Stop buying and using so much stuff. Use less energy when you do use stuff. Try not to throw any stuff away.

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79 Learnt nothing Learned a lot Not enjoyed at all Highly enjoyable Name: Site: EXIT SLIP Name one thing of value that you learned today. How will you apply your learning in the next week or so? What could we observe (film, photograph) at your site? Do you have any suggestions for future workshops?

80 Module 1: Effective Professional Learning and Comprehension Module 2:Monitoring Comprehension Module 3:Making Connections Module 4: Maths & Comprehension Module 5:Questioning Strategies Module 6:Inferencing Module 7: Visualising and Visual Texts Module 8:Non-fiction reading strategies Module 9:Fluency and Automaticity Module 10:Vocabulary

81 Module 11: Maths and Comprehension July 22 nd (last Friday of holidays) Module 12: Structures and Processes for Comprehension instruction August 26 th (Friday, T3, Wk 5) Module 13: Planning for Instruction September 2 nd (Friday T3, Wk 6) EXPO – 28 th October (Friday Term 4, Wk 2) Module 14: Digital Comprehension 4 th November (Friday T4, Wk 3)


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