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FASH 15 textiles other fabrication methods. fabrication methods many ways to produce fabric other than weaving or knitting.

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Presentation on theme: "FASH 15 textiles other fabrication methods. fabrication methods many ways to produce fabric other than weaving or knitting."— Presentation transcript:

1 FASH 15 textiles other fabrication methods

2 fabrication methods many ways to produce fabric other than weaving or knitting

3 fabrics from solutions—films made directly from a polymer solution most made from vinyl or polyurethane solutions structures: plain—firm, dense, and uniform; usually impermeable to air and water; have excellent soil resistance expanded—spongier, softer and plumper; air cells incorporated into compound supported—plain or expanded attached to a support fabric

4 fabrics from solutions—foams made by incorporating air into elasticlike substance polyurethane most common known for bulkiness & sponginess used as: carpet backing & underlay furniture padding pillow forms laminated to fabric for apparel & interior textiles shredded foam used to stuff pillows & toys

5 fabrics from fibers some fabrics made directly from fibers or fiber- forming solutions—no processing of fibers to yarn include very old (felt & tapa) & new processes (netlike fruit bags)

6 fabrics from fibers—nonwoven or fiberweb nonwoven—somewhat confusing, refers to wide variety of fabric structures nonwoven = fiberweb—include: all textile-sheet structures made from fibrous webs bonded by mechanical fiber entanglement, resin, thermal fusion or the forming of chemical complexes properties controlled by: fiber arrangement fiber properties binder properties

7 fabrics from fibers—web production quick & inexpensive to produce—often ½ cost of woven select fibers forming web bonding web together five techniques: dry-laid—carding or air-laying fibers in random or oriented pattern wet-laid—slurry of short paper-process-length and textile- length fibers and water spun-bonded—made immediately after melt-spun fibers are extruded from spinnerets spun-lace—jets of water forced through web melt-blown—extruding polymer through single orifice into high velocity heated air-stream to break ultrfine fiber into short pieces

8 fabrics from fibers—fabric production webs have very little strength in unbounded form become fabrics through: mechanical needling—needle punching application of chemical compounds, adhesives, heat can be finished to meet customer needs—coating, laminating, printing, flocking, dyeing or finishing processes: flame retardant water repellent antistatic breathable absorbent

9 fabrics from fibers—fiberfill batting, wadding, and fiberfill are not fabrics but VERY important components in apparel & interiors batting—made from new fiber wadding—made from waste fiber fiberfill—manufactured fiber staple made especially for use as a filler down—undercoating of waterfowl fiber density & shifting resistance important consideration for all

10 fabrics from fibers—fusible nonwovens contribute body and shape to garments as interfacing or interlinings in shirts, blouses, dresses & outerwear coated with heat-sealable, thermoplastic adhesive— bonds to fabric by heat and pressure eliminate the need for stitching less skilled labor is required may generate problems in shrinkage & separation of layers during care

11 fabrics from fibers—felt mat or web of wool or mostly wool—fibers held together by interlocking of wool scales most craft felts are not true felt because they do not contain wool—usually wet- or dry-laid nonwoven fiberwebs do not have grain, do not ravel stiff, less pliable & weaker than other structures quality depends upon quality of fibers used in apparel accessories, crafts & technical matting

12 fabrics from fibers—netlike structures include all textile structures formed by extruding one or more fiber-forming polymers as a film or network of ligaments or strands

13 fabrics from yarns—braids narrow fabrics in which yarns interlace lengthwise & diagonally good elongation very pliable—curve around edges nicely used for: trims shoelaces technical component coverings

14 fabrics from yarns—lace openwork fabric with complex patterns or figures, handmade or machine made using several methods most commercial lace made by raschel knitting machines or special lace machines yarns may be twisted around each other to create open areas classified according to way it is made & appearance quality based on fineness of yarns, number of yarns per square inch, closeness of ground, intricacy of design

15 fabrics from yarns—embroidery only technique in which yarn can be arranged in almost any direction usually considered an aesthetic or surface design, also used to create technical textiles (sensor)

16 composite fabrics composite fabrics combine several primary and/or secondary structures into a single structure coated —combines textile fabric with polymer film poromeric —combines textile fabric with microporous film suedelike —needle-punched fabrics made from microdenier fibers combined with resin coating & nonfibrous polyurethane flocked —have fine natural or synthetic surface fiber applied to base fabric tufted-pile —yarns carried by needles forced through fabric & formed into cut or uncut loops laminates —two layers of fabric combined into onewith an adhesive or foam

17 composite fabrics composite fabrics combine several primary and/or secondary structures into a single structure stitch-bonded —combine textile structures by adhering fabric layers with fiber or yarn loops, chemical adhesives, or fusion of thermoplastic fibers quilted fabrics —consist of three layers; face fabric, fiberfill or batting, and backing fabric—bonded with thread, chemical adhesive or fusion supported-scrim structures —combine lightweight nylon scrim and loose warp-knit fabric between two layers of polyurethane foam (Vellux) fiber-reinforced materials —combine fibrous component with polymer of resin, metal or ceramic matrix

18 animal products—leather processed from skins & hides of mammals, reptiles, fish & birds hides vary in size, thickness and grain grain—marking resulting from skin formation other surface factors: bites & scratches scars brand marks skin disease veins & wrinkles go through many processes—salting, cleaning, tanning, bleaching, stuffing, coloring, dyeing, staking & finishing by glazing, boarding, buffing, snuffing, embossing

19 animal products—suede popular leather for coats, jackets, dresses, trims, upholstery & wallcoverings soft, dull surface made by napping—running skin under coarse emery sander—on flesh side to pull up fibers grain-sueded leather (nubuck)—napped on grain side & has velvetlike hand durable, but requires special care—moisture damages suede

20 animal products—fur animal skin to which the hair, fleece or fur fibers are attached mostly used in apparel, but also for throws and rugs, wall hangings, & animal toys natural products—vary in quality good quality has very dense pile depends upon health of animal, season it was killed (late fall best) cost depends upon fashion, supply & demand, and work involved in producing item chinchilla, mink, sable, platina fox & ermine—always most expensive

21 participation activity: fabrication identification …using the fabric grab bag or your own resources at home, locate an example of one of the many fabric/products discussed today …attach your fabric to a sheet of paper and provide the following information: name type fabrication method/process indicators of quality uses


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