Presentation on theme: "Initiation and Modification of Therapeutic Procedures"— Presentation transcript:
1Initiation and Modification of Therapeutic Procedures Remove Bronchopulmonary Secretions
2Many of your patients will require assistance in removing bronchopulmonary secretions in order to maintain a patent airway.Therapies include postural drainage, percussion, vibration, directed coughing, and use of adjunct mechanical devices to aid secretion clearance.Drugs and bland aerosols can be used to facilitate secretion clearanceAll of these techniques ultimately intend to improve ventilation and gas exchange.
3Selecting the Best Approach Important factors include the patient’s:AgePreexisting conditionPersonal preferenceSelection and implementation should be based on patient’sDiagnosisVolume of sputum producedAbility to cough effectively
4Postural Drainage, Percussion, Vibration, and Turning Postural drainage, percussion, and vibration (PDPV) is indicated in conditions that increase the likelihood of mucous plugging and atelectasis.Contraindications, hazards, and complications must be considered before beginning therapy.You should monitor patient’s clinical status before, during, and after the therapy:Overall appearanceVital signsBreathing patternPulse oximetry
5Postural Drainage, Percussion, Vibration, and Turning Effectiveness and outcome of PDPV is assessed by monitoring:Changes in chest x-rayChanges in vital signsChanges in pulse oximetrySputum productionBreath soundsRecommend discontinuing when sputum production drops below 30 ml/day and patient can generate an effective spontaneous cough
6Instruct and Encourage Bronchopulmonary Hygiene Techniques Directed CoughInstruction in the three phases of a coughDeep inspirationCompressions against a closed glottisExplosive exhalationSplinting incisional sites with a pillow
7Instruct and Encourage Bronchopulmonary Hygiene Techniques Forced Expiratory Technique (FET) – “Huff” Coughing2-3 exhalations, or huffs, with glottis openBest suited for post-op patients for whom explosive exhalation is very painful, and COPD patients prone to airway closure on forced exhalationAbdominal ThrustPush on the upper abdomen with an upward motion towards the epigastrium in synchrony with the expiratory phase of the patient’s own cough effortAutogenic DrainageUsually combined with directed coughing
8Mechanical Devices to Facilitate Secretion Clearance High-frequency Chest Wall Oscillation systems, simple and vibratory PEP devices, Intrapulmonary percussive ventilationMechanical insufflator-exsufflator (MI-E) (cough assist)Indications: Weak cough effort as suggested by maximum expiratory pressure less than 60 cm H2OContraindications:History of bullous emphysemaSusceptibility to pneumothorax or pneumomediastinumRecent barotrauma
9Clearance of Secretions via Suctioning Indications:Presence of a weak, loose coughAuscultation revealing rhonchiDirect observation of secretions in the mouth or oropharynxFremitus felt on the chest wallPatient feedback suggesting retained secretionsPrecaution: Suctioning is the one of the most dangerous procedures you will perform. Careful implementation of patient safety measures before, during and after, as well as careful monitoring throughout can prevent or minimize most risks.
10Clearance of Secretions via Suctioning Routes for SuctioningOropharyngealNormal use Yankauer suction tipSuctioning though a tracheal airwayProperly set suction pressuresAlways select suction catheter with an outside diameter (OD) no larger than ½ the inner diameter of the patient’s artificial airway.Estimate correct Fr. size by doubling the internal diameter (ID) of the tracheal tube and selecting the next smallest catheter sizeMaintain adequate PEEP levels during mechanical ventilation by using a closed suction system
11Clearance of Secretions via Suctioning Nasotracheal suctioningThe most common method used to clear secretions in patient who do not have artificial airways, but do have an ineffective coughAssessment of Effectiveness of SuctioningAmount of secretions removedChanges in breath soundsChanges in vital signs and oxygenation
12Administer Aerosol Therapy with Prescribed Medications Bland AerosolsMay be helpful for patients with bypassed upper airways or those otherwise predisposed to retain secretions.May benefit the patient byEase of secretion clearanceDeceased work of breathingImproved vital signsDecreased stridorImproved arterial blood gas valuesImproved oxygen saturation as indicated by pulse oximetryGenerally provided continuously via large volume jet nebulizer
13Administer Aerosol Therapy with Prescribed Medications Administration of Prescribed AgentsBronchodilators are designed to dilate or open the airwaysMucolytics thin secretionsInhaled corticosteroids reduce airway inflammation and help maintain airway patency and may reduce secretion productionDiluting agents (aerosolized hypertonic saline) thin secretions and help with mucous removal
14Common Errors to Avoid on the Exam Avoid performing postural drainage, particularly in a head- down position, in the presence of an intracranial pressure (ICP) greater than 20 mmHg or an unstable head or neck injury, with an active hemorrhage, or in the presence of hemodynamic instability.Don’t apply an abdominal thrust maneuver to help clear secretions on a patient with abdominal trauma or surgical incisionsAvoid using positive expiratory pressure (PEP) adjuncts on patients with acute exacerbations of asthma or COPD, or on any patient who cannot tolerate the short-term added work of breathing caused by these devices.
15More Common Errors to Avoid on the Exam Don’t use excessive suction pressures on patients; many hazards may be avoided. In general, suction pressures should never exceed -120 mmHg for adults, -100 mmHg for children, and -80 mmHg for infants.Avoid applying suction to the airway for more than 15 seconds for each attempt.Avoid performing percussion and vibration therapy immediately before or after meals.
16Exam Sure BetsAlways monitor a patient before, during and immediately following bronchial hygiene therapy to assure that they are tolerating the therapy. Such assessment should include their overall appearance, vital signs, breath sounds, and possible other indicators, such as pulse oximetry.Always remember that if a patient appears to be having an adverse reaction to bronchial hygiene therapy, stop the therapy, stay with the patient and monitor him or her, help stabilize the patient, and immediately notify the nurse and physician
17More Exam Sure BetsAlways consider that a patient with recent thoracic or abdominal surgery may have trouble with the inspiratory and expiratory phases of coughing. For such patients, splinting the incision site with a pillow often permits them to generate a more effective cough.Always recognize that some patients with an ineffective cough may need help both loosening secretions through percussion and vibration as well as clearing mucous through such means as cough assist or suctioning.
18More Exam Sure BetsAlways remember that patients with a weak cough, rhonchi, visible secretions, or fremitus on the chest wall may need bronchial hygiene therapyAlways oxygenate a patient with an FiO2 of 100% at least a minute before each suction attempt.Always consider recommending the addition of bland aerosol and the administration of prescribed agents, such as bronchodilators and mucolytics if a patient is unable to clear secretions in spite of percussion, vibration, and turning, as well as other adjuncts such as PEP and cough assist.Always remember that the effectiveness of bronchial hygiene therapy can be assessed through an improvement in breath sounds, vital signs, oxygenation, and overall appearance.
19Reference:Certified Respiratory Therapist Exam Review Guide, Craig Scanlon, Albert Heuer, and Louis SinopoliJones and Bartlett Publishers