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Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. History of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Ron Sokolsky, MSOM.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. History of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Ron Sokolsky, MSOM."— Presentation transcript:


2 Copyright, 1996 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. History of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Ron Sokolsky, MSOM

3 Old Stone Age (10,000 years ago)  Use stone knives and scrapers to incise an abscess, drain pus and let blood out for therapeutic purposes.  With the accumulation of experiences the indications of the treatment by bian stone were gradually increased.

4 New Stone Age (10,000-4,000 years ago)  Make bian stone as a special tool with more medical usage.  In China, a 4.5 cun long bian stone was discovered in the New Stone Age ruins in Duolun County of Inner Mangolia.  Oval, Pyramid, three-edged and cone- shaped ends bian stones were discovered.

5 Shang Dynasty (3,000 years ago)  The hieroglyphs of acupuncture and moxibustion appeared in the inscriptions on bones and tortoise shells.  Bronze medical needles appeared  Yin-Yang and Five Elements philosophies were formed.  The basic theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine was germinated.

6 Basic Acupuncture and OM Philosophy  Yin and Yang  The Five Elements  The Vital Substances—Qi, Blood, Body Fluids

7 Warring States Period (475 B.C- 221 B.C) to Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C-A.D. 24)  The establishing and strengthening stage of the feudal system in China  Bian stone needles were replaced by metal medical needles  Nine kinds of metallic needles with different shapes were used at that time

8 Ancient Nine Needles

9 Warring States Period (475 B.C-221 B.C) to Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C-A.D. 24)  Bian Que (Qin Yuren)  Treated patients by needling, moxibustion, herbal decoction, massage and hot compression.  Chunyu Yi  Good at acupuncture- moxibustion and herbal treatment

10 Two Classic Books in Third Century  Huangdi’s Internal Classic  Miraculous Pivot  Plain Question  Huangdi’s Canno of Eighty-One Difficulty problems and Essentials of Points (Nan Jing)

11 Eastern Han Dynasty (A.D. 25- 200) to the Three Kingdoms Period (A.D. 220-265)  Hua Tuo  The pioneer to apply herbal anesthesia for surgical operations  ”Canon of Moxibustion and acupuncture preserved in pillow”

12 Eastern Han Dynasty (A.D. 25- 200) to the Three Kingdoms Period (A.D. 220-265)  Zhang Zhongjing  Six Stage (Meridians) Differentiation  ”Treatise on Febbrile and Miscellaneous Diseases”

13 Eastern Han Dynasty (A.D. 25- 200) to the Three Kingdoms Period (A.D. 220-265)  Huangfu Mi  ”Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion”  Is the earliest exclusive and systemized book on acupuncture and moxibustion

14 Jin Dynasty and the Northern and Southern Dynasties (A.D. 265-581)  Ge Hong: “Prescriptions for Emergencies”  More monographs on acupuncture and moxibustion:  Acupuncture Chart from Lateral and Posterior Views  Diagrams of Meridians and Points

15 Sui Dynasty(581-618) to Tang Dynasty (618-907)  Sun Simiao:  “Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies” and “A Supplement to the Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold”  Designed and made”Chart of Three View”—the earliest multicolored charts of meridians and points

16 Tang Dynasty (618-907)  Yang Shang-Shan:  Complied “Acupuncture Points in Internal Classic”  Cui Zhi-di:  “Moxibustion Method for Consumptive Diseases”

17 Tang Dynasty (618-907)  The Imperial Medical Bureau divided medical education into four departments of medical specialties (include Acupuncture as one of them) and one pharmacology department

18 Five Dynasties (907-960) to Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368)  The extensive application of printing technique greatly promoted the accumulation of medical literature and speeded up the dissemination and development of Chinese Medicine and pharmacology

19 Song Dynasty (960-1279)  Wang Weiyi: “Illustrated Manual on the Points for Acupuncture and Moxibustion on a New Bronze Figure” (A.D. 1027)  Wang Zhizhong: “Canon on the Origin of Acupuncture and Moxibustion”

20 Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368)  Huo Shou: “Exposition of the Fourteen Meridians”  Yang Jie & Zhang Ji: observed autopsies and advocated anatomical knowledge on the selected acupuncture points

21 Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368)  He Ruoyu & Dou Hanqin: suggested select acupuncture points according to Zi Wu Liu Zhu (Chinese two- hour time on the basis of Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches)

22 Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)  Extensive collection and revision of the literature of acupuncture and moxibustion  Studies on the manipulating methods of acupuncture  Development of warm moxibustion with moxa stick from burning moxa cone  Form “Extra Points” category

23 Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)  Yang Jizhou: “Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion”  Zhang Jiebin: “An Illustrated Supplement to Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic”  Li Shizhen: “Research on the Eight Extra- Meridians”

24 Qing Dynasty to Opium War (1644-1840)  The medical doctors regarded herbal medication as superior to acupuncture, therefore acupuncture and moxibustion gradually turned to a failure

25 Opium War (1840) to 1947  In 1899, Liu Zhongheng: “Illustration of the Bronze Figure with Chinese and Western Medicine”.  In 1934, Tang Shicheng et al: “The Technique and Principles of Electro- acupuncture and “The Study of Electro- acupuncture”

26 The People’s Republic of China (1948 to now)  Acupuncture and Moxibustion were unprecedentedly popularized and promoted.  Apply modern scientific knowledge to the research work on the Traditional Chinese Medicine

27 Acupuncture in USA  Acupuncture was introduced to USA after President Nixon visited China in 1973  FDA removed Acupuncture Needles from “experimental instrument” to “medical instrument” in 1998  Licensed Acupuncturists (L.Ac) can practice independently in most states

28 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (W.H.O., 1979)  Abdominal pain  Constipation  Diarrhea  Hyperacidity  Indigestion  Digestive System

29 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Anxiety  Depression  Insomnia  Nervousness  Neurosis Emotional Problems

30 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Cataracts  Gingivitis  Poor vision  Tinnitis  Toothache Eye-Ear-Nose-Throat

31 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Infertility  Menopausal symptoms  Premenstrual syndrome  Gynecological

32 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Arthritis  Back pain  Muscle cramping  Muscle pain/weakness  Neck pain  Sciatica Musculoskeletal System

33 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Headaches  Migraines  Neurogenic bladder dysfunction  Parkinson’s disease  Postoperative pain  Stroke Neurological Problems

34 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Asthma  Bronchitis  Common cold  Sinusitis  Smoking cessation  Tonsillitis Respiratory System

35 Conditions for Acupuncture Therapy (cont’d)  Addiction control  Athletic performance  Blood pressure regulation  Chronic fatigue  Immune system tonification  Stress reduction  Miscellaneous

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