2 Preconception Planning Important because:Offers best protection against low birth-weight &other poor pregnancy outcomes.federal panel advised women planning to conceive to visit health care provider at least once before conception.Healthy pregnancy closely related to woman’s health before conception.Improves chances for healthy baby.2
3 Preconception counseling: Assess risks of medical & non-medical factors: GDM, HTN, heart disease, psychiatric disorders, domestic abuse, depression, Genetic disorders.Discuss nutrition, meds, exercise, tobacco, alcohol, drug use, family support, unemployment, work-related hazardsMost critical time for fetus is day 17 – 56 when organs, limbs, skeletal, CNS forming.Exposure to environmental risks harmful to embryo when woman may not realize she is pregnant.3
4 Pre & Post-Pregnancy Planning Considerations for Potential Parents: Financial Responsibility:Cost of prenatal care, delivery, loss of work (both), child care (home or day care center), childrearing.Leaving workforce - does she plan to return ?Employment benefits -are they adequate to support maternal/infant pre & post natal care ?IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF PRECONCEPTION CARESee a health care provider. Get physical exam.Discuss risks. Maintain follow-up care. UpdateImmunizations4
5 Prenatal High-Risk Factors Social/Personal: Low income level, poor diet, multiparity > 3, weight < 100lb; weight > 200 lb; age <16; age >35; smoking, addictionsPre-existing medical hx: Diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, anemia, hypertension, thyroid disorder, renal disease.Obstetric: Previous stillborn, habitual abortion, cesarean delivery, Rh or blood group sensitization. [ABO or Rh incomp.]5
6 “TORCH” special group of infections” Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis B, Syphilis, Varicella, Rubella, Rubeola, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex O = otherTORCH applies to pregnant women, unborn child, newborn, children. Common cause of birth defects.Can cause stillbirth.Infection causes few symptoms in pregnant woman.In infants - serious birth defects result if infections contracted during pregnancy/delivery.1st trimester – more severe defects6
7 Current pregnancy: Check titers: vaccines available but most not during preg. Toxoplasmosis – rare; toxoplasma gondii [protozoal infec] transmitted to mom thru raw meat or exposure to infected cat’s feces. Severity > in 1st trimes.Varicella - member of herpesvirus; worse in 1st trimes. Infant may have life-threatening disease.Hep.BsAg – + Hepatits B in mom; infant gets Hep.B vaccine & delivery; followed by 2 more Hep.B vaccines in 1st yr.Syphilis – untreated can cause fetal death. Tx PCN Repeat VDRL > tx.7
8 (1st trimester) 50% rate of malformation. (2nd tri) 6% rate of damage Rubella(1st trimester) 50% rate of malformation.(2nd tri) 6% rate of damageIf non- immune, avoid anyone w. active disease.NO vaccine while pregnant but immunize > del.No preg. for 3 mos.Defects: Hearing loss, Deafness, Blindness, Heart & Neuro defects, Mental Retardation8
9 Cytomeglovirus – part of herpesvirus family. Defects: Mental retardation, hydrocephaly , microcephaly,blindness; deafness.May be picked up during 1st year or > 1 yr of age.If 1st trimes.infection, may consider AB.HSV 2 [genital ]. Valtrex - suppress lesions; C/S if time of del. Blindness, MR, death
10 Vaccines you can get during pregnancy: Tetanus & influenza vaccine [flu]Rubella vaccine: only after deliveryIf equivocal [aka borderline] pt. gets vaccine.MD order, consent signed by pt.Explain risks of birth defects pregnant within 3 mos.of vaccine. Live virus. SC injection10
11 HIV: test done in NYS to all newborns - Newborn Screening Test 36% of HIV-infected women using illicit drugs during pregnancy had no prenatal care.# of infants with AIDS (d/t perinatal transmission) declined from 122 in 2000 to 47 in (CDC)CDC, AWHONN, Institute of Medicine & ACOG support policy of universal HIV testing as routine component of prenatal care. Retest for HIV in 3rd trimester (new practice)11
12 Do ELISA (screen) then Western Blot (confirm). Seroconversion: Usually by days after infection. All by 6 mos.Offer HIV initial visit. Mom can refuse.Discuss risk of not taking test .HIV+ - treat with ZVD (zidovudine) in 2-3rd trimesters. Transmission ~ 25% without Rx; with tx ~ 8.3 %.If Rx del. or only to newborn, rate = 15%.Treat in antepartum, intrapartum & infant x 6 weeks.Monotherapy (ZVD) for viral load < 1,000.New (2003): 3 drug tx reduces rate to 1-2 %. Start in 2nd trimester. For viral load > 1,000.Woman must deal with guilt, depression, stigma.12
13 Common Discomforts of Pregnancy 1st TrimesterNausea & vomitingCauses: hormonal, fatigue, changes in carb metabolismInterventions: sm. freq. meals; eat slow; dry toast ; deep breaths.Ends by 2nd trim; if severe, hospitalize & hydrate13
14 Nasal Stuffiness:Causes: edema of nasal mucosa d/t ^ estrogen levelsInterventions: saline drops; humidifier.Pseudafed 2nd/ 3rd trimester.Breast Enlargement & Tenderness [cold weather]Causes: ^ estrogen & progesterone levelsInterventions: Support bra with wide shoulder straps; jacket/sweater.
15 Urinary Frequency & Urgency Causes: pressure of uterus on bladder; lasts 3 mos. & disappears; reappears in late preg. when head is engaged. + blood/burning on urination - signs of UTI.Interventions: UA & urine Cx & Tx with AB.Reduce caffeine. Do Kegel’s. Plan frequent BR stops.Increased vaginal discharge: “leukorrhea”Causes: ^ estrogen & ^ blood supply to vagina; hyperplasia of vag.mucosa.Interventions: daily bath; sanitary pads OK but no tampons, tight pants or underwear > infection. Pruritis/erythema - poss. fungal infection.15
16 Common Discomforts Of 2nd & 3rd Trimesters HeartburnCauses: Relaxation of cardiac sphinter, ↓ GI mobility; ↑ progesterone & gastric displacement. Food backs up from stomach into esophagus, irritates lining; “burning”.Interventions: Small, freq. meals; chew slowly; avoid extra weight gain, avoid tight fitting clothes, avoid fried & fatty foods; sleep with HOB ^; Take antacid if all else fails.16
17 Hemorrhoids [varicosities rectal veins] Causes: Pressure on pelvic veins; in ^ 3rd trimesInterventions: modified Sim’s position; stool softeners; witch hazel/cold compresses.ConstipationCauses: oral iron supplements; ↓ peristalsis; displacement of bowels by fetus.Interventions: No mineral oil; interferes with vitamin metabolism. ^ po fluids; ^ roughage; attempt regular BM’s.
18 Causes: Posture changes during preg.d/t ^ uterine enlargement Backache: *R/O UTI 1stCauses: Posture changes during preg.d/t ^ uterine enlargementInterventions: Low heels; walk with pelvis tilted forward; squat when lifting; don’t bend. Firm mattress; heat therapy; Tylenol.Leg CrampsCauses:Pressure from enlarging uterus, poor circulation; fatigue, ↓ Ca & ↑ PhosphorusInterventions: dorsiflex affected foot; elevate legs.Aluminum hydroxide [Amphogel] binds phosphorus & reduces it in circulation.18
19 Shortness of Breath : Dyspnea Causes: pressure of uterus on diaphragm &compression of lungs; night when flat.Interventions: 2-3 night; sitting upright.Ankle EdemaCauses: fluid retention & poor venous return from lower extremities; aggravated by prolonged sitting orstanding & warm weather. Occurs near term.Interventions: ^ legs, avoid tight fitting pants
20 CONTROLLABLE RISK FACTORS Nutrition: Know ideal weight for your height. Instruct client to keep food diary. Examine food choices in daily diet.If underweight/overweight before conception, counsel about proper nutrition.Calcium/zinc - beneficial for long-term health needs & growth/development of baby.Folic acid: protects against neural tube defects aka spina bifida.20
22 Supplement Folic Acid intake if you are: US Public Health Service & March of Dimes recommends all women of childbearing age mg [400mcg] of folic acid daily - reduce risk of neural tube defects. No more than 1 mg.Supplement Folic Acid intake if you are:Of child bearing agePlanning pregnancymcg daily during pregnancyPNV contain all requirements needed for pregnancyincluding folic acid & iron.22
23 Nutrition RDA: add 300 kcal in 2nd & 3rd trimester. Total Calories = 2500kcal/day (pregnant); 2200 non- pregnantUnderweight clients >300 kcal. increase. (~ kcal/day)RDA for protein/minerals/vitamins: ^ 60 g./dayDaily iron requirement doubles in preg. (15 to 30 mg)Minerals (Ca, phos, iodine, Fe, Z) from fruits/veg.Calcium/phosphorous stays same if client follows daily recommended intake; * teens < 19 need 1300mg./day.23
24 VegetarianismVegen diet – no food from animal sources (eggs, fish, chicken) most challenging for health care providers.Adequate “pure” vegan diet: nuts, grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, rice, soy milk.May be anemic & not get enough calories.FISH: up to 12 oz/wk of low mercury fish. Canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, catfish is ok.No swordfish, shark, tilefish, king mackerel (high mercury)24
25 * Few demands placed on maternal nutrition in 1st trimester. Lactose intolerance or cultural avoidance can lead to lowered calcium intake; recommend yogurt, cheese, sardines, beans, collard greens, figs, OJ, tofu, Lactaid. (commercial lactose).* Few demands placed on maternal nutrition in 1st trimester.RDA fluids = 6-8 glasses ( ml); water, milk, juices.> 200mg caffeine daily doubles risk for miscarriage1 cup ~ 100 mg ~ 250ml25
26 Weight Gain (new slide) Women of Normal weight: lbs. ( kg)Underweight women: lbs. ( kg)Overweight women: lbs. ( kg)Twins or Multifetus: woman should gain 4 to 6 lbs. in 1st trimester, 1.5 pounds per week in 2nd and 3rd trimester, for total of 35 to 45 lbs.The weight gain of a woman during pregnancy is closely tied to her prepregnant status.Women who are overweight are discouraged from dieting but are encouraged to carefully monitor their diets.2626
27 PICA: eating non-food substances (dirt, clay, laundry starch, paint chips) or foods of low nutritional value (ice, cornstarch)In US, most common in African Americans, women from rural areas, or women with family hx pica.Interferes with normal consumption of nutrients; causes anemia in mom. Possible lead poisoning.In depth diet analysis – nutrition counselingRN discusses cravings. 24 hr. diet re-call.Follow up prenatal visits.Folic Acid for ^ RBC production. 50% more in pregnancy (800 ug/day); enriched grain products.27
28 Controllable Risk Factors: Drug, Alcohol, Tobacco Use Alcohol:. Avoid all alcohol during time attempting conception/pregnancy.No known safe level during pregnancy. Associated with malformation, slow fetal growth, fetal death, low birth-weight, CNS abnormalities, neurologicaldefects, spontaneous abortion, abruption.Tobacco: Associated with spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy; low birth-weight, infant mortality. Can potentially decrease fertility. Vasoconstriction restricts blood flow to fetus & reduces % of oxygen & nutrients carried by blood.28
29 Illicit or Street Drugs: May be associated with severe medical & developmental problems in newborns. 1. Marijuana, most common - tend to have babies earlier & may be smaller than term babies.2. Cocaine: associated with miscarriage, abruption, low birth-weight, premature birth, brain damage.3. Heroin - IV drug users - evaluate for AIDS & Hep B. In HIV + women, studies show treatment with AZT reduces ransmission to baby from ~ 25% to 8%.29
30 Exercise in Moderation Boosts self-image, reduces tension, decreases physical discomfort.Get medical clearance before starting exercise program.Don’t exercise in hot/humid weather or to point of exhaustion.Avoid exercise with risk of traumatic injury: downhill skiing, horseback riding, water skiing, tennis, etc.Recommended: walking, cycling on stationary bike, swimming30
31 Avoid High Internal Body Temp During early pregnancy, can interfere with normal embryonic development.Study published August 1992: use of hot tubs & saunas found to raise body temperature to 102ºF if women stayed in tubs for up to 15 minutes. ^ risk of neural tube defects in offspring.
32 Stress Management Techniques Relaxation & deep breathing. Planning pregnancy can be stressful.Stress reduction enhances chances of conception.Excessive stress can lead to premature birth & low birth weight. Sleep 8-10 hr.with frequent rest periods a day.32
33 Common STDs & effects to baby if untreated: Chlamydia: Ear/eye infections, pneumonia.Genital Herpes: Active infection - baby born thru vaginal opening with open sores – leads to severe skin infections, nervous system damage, blindness, mental retardation, death can occur.Genital Warts: (If infection is active during delivery): Warts can grow in voice box & block windpipe.Gonorrhea: Eye Infections, blindness.Syphilis: Damage to bone, lung, liver, blood vesselsOther Infections that can cause PTL: UTI & BV33
34 Exposure to Contraceptives Controversial adverse effects on fetus. Do not use.Prescription and Over-the-Counter DrugsOften unsafe during pregnancy: Accutane (acne) birth defects.Avoid drugs used for headaches/common colds.Environmental Reproductive HazardsAvoid unnecessary environmental risks at home/work.Paint Thinners, Varnish Removers, Cleaning Solvents, GlueX-rays, Radioactive materials, Cat litter (toxoplasmosis)Leave job with questionable hazards.Use protective equipment/safety protocols.34
35 FDA Pregnancy Risk Category for Drugs Category A: no risk to fetus in any trimesterCategory B: no adverse effects in animals; no human studies availableCategory C: Only prescribed after risks to fetus are considered. Animal studies have shown adverse reaction; no human studies availableCategory D: Definite fetal risks, may be given in spite of risks in life-threatening situationsCategory X: Absolute fetal abnormalities. Do not use anytime in pregnancy (Lithium, Accutane)When administering medications to the pregnant patient, these categories must be taken into consideration.What actions should be taken by the nurse when adverse reactions in pregnancy are associated with a prescribed medication?3535
36 Male Role in Preparing for Pregnancy Male planning to become father should:Review family medical & genetic hxPractice STD risk-reduction behaviors.Avoid tobacco, alcohol, illicit/street drugs, chemical exposure.Assess financial status.Be supportive of partner.Play active role in pre-pregnancy planning.36
37 Have decreased fertility. Have increased risk for Downs Syndrome Age is a Big FactorTeenagers and Women over 40 years - greatest risk.Women over 40 yearsHave decreased fertility.Have increased risk for Downs Syndrome& hypertension.Should talk with health care provider about Prenatal testing.Healthy pregnant women > 40 yrs who follow recommended practices have about same chances as younger women for healthy pregnancy outcome.37
38 labor, delivery & low-birth-weight problems. TEENS: more likely [than women in 20’s] to havelabor, delivery & low-birth-weight problems.Almost half of all pregnant teens do not get prenatal care in 1st trimester of pregnancy.Teens less likely to gain appropriate weight & often practice unhealthy eating habits.
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