Presentation on theme: "Religion philosophy. Samkhya It is the oldest the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism and denies the existence of God. Sage Kapila is traditionally."— Presentation transcript:
Samkhya It is the oldest the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism and denies the existence of God. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered as the founder of the Samkhya school. The main principle of this philosophy is dualism of consciousness and matter. Matter means Nature (Prakriti, creative energy, energy) has three phases (Satya, Raja and Tama). An imbalance in the intertwined relationships of these dispositions causes the world to evolve from Prakriti. This evolution from Prakriti causes the creation of 23 constituents; including buddi (intellect), ahamkara (ego) and mana (mind). Inner instruments (Antah-karans): Buddhi, Ahamkara and Mana, External instruments (Bahya karanas): Gyanendriyas and Karmendriyas, Gross element (Akash, Vayu, Agni, Jala, Prithivi), Subtle elements (Shabda, Sparsha, Roopa, Rasa, Gandha), Purusa is the enternal pure consciousness, due to ignorance, identifies itself with products of Prakriti. This results in endless transmigration and suffering. However, once the realization arises that Purusa is distint from Prakriti, the self is no longer subject to transmigration and absolute freedom arises.
Yoga is the name of one of the six philosophical schools founded by Patanjali, and Patanjali is widely regarded as the compiler of the formal Yoga philosophy. His famous quotation: योग: चित्त-वृत्ति निरोध: ((yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ) Yoga school accepts the Samkhya philosophy. Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga").. The Eight Limbs are: Yama (The five "abstentions"): Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (Truth, non-lying), Asteya (non-covetousness), Brahmacharya (non-sensuality, celibacy), and Aparigraha (non- possessiveness).Yama Niyama (The five "observances"): Shaucha(purity), Santosha(contentment), Tapas (austerity), Svadhyaya (study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul), and Ishvara-Pranidhana (surrender to God).Niyama Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.Asana Pranayama ("Suspending Breath"): Prāna, breath, "āyāma", to restrain or stop. Also interpreted as control of the life force.Pranayama Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.Pratyahara Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object.Dharana Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation.Dhyana Samadhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.Samadhi In the view of this school, the highest attainment does not reveal the experienced diversity of the world to be illusion. The everyday world is real. Furthermore, the highest attainment is the event of one of many individual selves discovering itself; there is no single universal self shared by all persons. Yoga
The most important contribution made by this school is its methodology. This methodology is based on a system of logic that has subsequently been adopted by the majority of the Indian schools. This is comparable to the relationship between Western science and philosophy, which was derived largely from Aristotelian logic. From this methodology, existence of God is proved. The valid knowledge was the only way to gain release from suffering. Four sources of knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and testimony. Knowledge obtained through each of these is either valid or invalid. Nyaya developed several criteria of validity. Nyaya recognizes sixteen categories (padathas or pramana): Doubt (Samsaya), Aim (praayojana), Example (drstanta), Conclusion (siddhanta), Syllogism (avayava), Hypothetical reasoning (tarka), Settlement (nirnaya), Discussion (vada), Wrangling (jalpa), Cavilling (vitanda), Fallacy (hetvabhasa),Quibbling (chala),Sophisticated refutation (jati), Point of defeat (Nigrahasthana) The methodology of inference involves a combination of induction and deduction by moving from particular to particular via generality. It has five steps, as in the example shown: There is fire on the hill (called Pratij ñ ā, required to be proved) Because there is smoke there (called Hetu, reason) Wherever there is smoke, there is fire, e.g. in a kitchen (called Udāhārana, example of vyāpti) The hill has smoke that is pervaded by fire (called Upanaya, reaffirmation or application) Therefore there is fire on the hill (called Nigamana, conclusion) Naya
Vaisheshika Although the Vaisheshika school developed independently from the Nyaya, the two eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories. In its classical form, however, the Vaisheshika school differed from the Nyaya in one crucial respect: where Nyaya accepted four sources of valid knowledge, the Vaisheshika accepted only two—–perception and inference. The Visheshika school postulates an atomic pluralism. The universe are reducible to certain types of atoms; and Brahman is regarded as the fundamental force that causes consciousness in these atoms. There are nine classes of realities: four classes of atoms (earth, water, light and air), space (akasha), time (kāla), direction (dik), infinity of souls (Atman), mind (manas). atomsakashakālaAtmanmanas Individual souls are eternal and pervade material body for a time. There are seven categories (padārtha) of experience — substance, quality, activity, generality, particularity, inherence and non-existence.padārtha Objects should have six characteristics: Substance (dravya: earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, self, mind), quality (guna: colour, taste, smell, touch, number, size, knowledge, pleasure, pain, desire, aversion, effort), activity (karma), generality (samanya), particularity (visesa) and inherence (samavaya)
Mimamsa Mīmāṃsā ( मीमांसा ), a Sanskrit word meaning "investigation"Sanskrit The main objective of the Purva Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas.Consequently, this school's most valuable contribution to Hinduism was its formulation of the rules of Vedic interpretation. They believe in the power of the mantras and yajñas to sustain all the activity of the universe. In keeping with this belief, they place great emphasis on dharma, which consists of the performance of Vedic rituals.Mimamsa The school of Mimamsa consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines and is not deeply interested in the existence of God, but rather in the character of dharma. Mīmā ṃ sā theorists decided that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. Mīmā ṃ sā argues that the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from themantras that speak their names. To that regard, the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of Gods.atheistictheisticexistence of GoddharmaMīmā ṃ sāexistence of GodVedasmantras The central aim of the school is explanation of the nature of dharma, understood as a set of ritual obligations and prerogatives to be performed properly, in order to maintain the harmony of the universe and further the personal well-being of the person who performs them. Mimamsa made important contributions to Hindu thought in the fields of logic and epistemology, and its literature is closely allied to the Hindu legal system. Although Mimamsa does not receive much scholarly attention, its influence can be felt in the life of the practising Hindu, because all Hindu ritual, ceremony, and law is influenced by this school.epistemology Jaimini defines "dharma" as a command or injunction which compels people to action. It is the supreme duty, the “ought,” the categorical imperative. “Artha” (wealth, worldly status) and “Kama” (aesthetic enjoyment), which deal with ordinary common morality, can be learned through worldly intercourse. Dharma and Moksa (liberation), which deal with true spirituality, are revealed only by the Veda. Mimamsa does not admit the existence of any God as the creator and destroyer of the universe. There is no reason to suppose that the universe ever had any beginning in time, or that any God created it. God has no body with which to fashion the world. The school has a mechanistic view of creation; everything comes into existence through natural processes, as children are born from parents. They believed that the other schools of thought that aimed for release (moksha) were not allowed for complete freedom from desire and selfishness, because the very striving for liberation stemmed from a simple desire to be free. According to Mimamsa thought, only by acting in accordance with the prescriptions of the Vedas may one attain salvation.moksha
Vedanta The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta) of the Vedas, it applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the “study” (mimamsa) of the Upanishads. The Vedanta, or later Mimamsa school, concentrates on the philosophical teachings of the Upanishads rather than the ritualistic injunctions of the Brahmanas. Etymologically, Vedanta means, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas.VedasUpanishadsVedantaUpanishadsBrahmanas While the traditional Vedic rituals continued to be practiced as meditative and propitiatory rites, a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These were mystical aspects of Vedic religion that focused on meditation, self- discipline, and spiritual connectivity, more than traditional ritualism.Vedic religion The three fundamental Vedanta texts are Upanishads, Brahma-sutra and Bhagavadgita. The common beliefs; the self (samsara) and the desirability of release the cycle of rebirths, the self is the agent of its own acts and receives of action.
Charvaka, a quasi-philosophical Indian school of materialists who rejected the notion of an afterworld, karma, liberation (moksha), the authority of the sacred scriptures, the Vedas, and the immortality of the self.karmamokshaVedas Carvakas thought that body was formed out of four elements (not five) and that consciousness was an outcome of the mixture of these elements. Therefore, Carvakas did not believe in an afterlife.afterlife Cārvāka believed that there was nothing wrong with sensual pleasure. Since it is impossible to have pleasure without pain, Cārvāka thought that wisdom lay in enjoying pleasure and avoiding pain as far as possible. Unlike many of the Indian philosophies of the time, Cārvāka did not believe in austerities or rejecting pleasure out of fear of pain and held such reasoning to be foolish.sensual
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