Presentation on theme: "1 1920s America. 2 I. Presidential Policies in a Republican Decade A. Warren G. Harding, 1921-1923 1. Scandals – Harding gave friends government positions."— Presentation transcript:
2 I. Presidential Policies in a Republican Decade A. Warren G. Harding, 1921-1923 1. Scandals – Harding gave friends government positions 2. These “friends” used their positions demand bribes and kickbacks.
4 B. PRESIDENT COOLIDGE: 1923-1929 1. 1. “The Business of America is Business” 2. 2. Coolidge saw his job as president was to make sure that the government interfered with business and industry as little as possible.
5 Coolidge was the least active president in history, taking daily afternoon naps and proposing no new legislation. Coolidge and big business dancing to the same tune. Farmers in the 1920’S did not share in the general prosperity of the decade.
6 "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land.” Herbert Hoover, one year before the Great Depression began. Within six months of taking office the stock market crashed and the Great Depression began. Hoover was philosophically unequipped to take the needed actions to relieve the suffering of the unemployed and farmers nor initiate legislation to remedy the factors that caused the Depression.
7 C. Boom Time in the 1920s 1. Most Americans experienced prosperity during the 1920s as wages increased. 2. The gov’t followed trickle- down theory of economics by cutting taxes to the wealthy to encourage investment and expansion. 2. The gov’t followed trickle- down theory of economics by cutting taxes to the wealthy to encourage investment and business expansion.
8 II. Civil Liberties Under Attack A. KKK, dedicated to persecuting minorities in American society B. Had over 2 million members by 1924 C. Used terror and murder to intimidate, and elected many KKK members to local, state and federal offices. WOMEN KKK MEMBERS MARCH
9 THE RUSSIAN BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION IN 1917 LED TO WIDE SCALE FEAR IN THE U.S. THAT COMMUNISTS WOULD TRY TO TAKE OVER THE COUNTRY
10 DURING 1919 THERE WERE MORE THAN 3,000 STRIKES THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, INVOLVING MORE THAN 4 MILLION WORKERS. Employers tended to associate the unions and strikes with communism. Violence was often associated with strikes with the military often being called in to bring peace and end the strikes. The American public was often unsympathetic to strikers. Coolidge on law and order.
11 1919 CARTOONS ON THE WAVE OF STRIKES SWEEPING THE U.S.
12 FOR FOUR DAYS IN EARLY FEBRUARY 1919, THE SEATTLE LABOR ESTABLISHMENT CLOSED DOWN THE CITY AND CAPTURED NATION-WIDE ATTENTION IN THE FIRST CITY- WIDE GENERAL STRIKE IN U.S. HISTORY. POLITICIANS AND NEWSPAPERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY INTERPRETED THE ACTION AS THE BEGINNING OF A BOLSHEVIK-STYLE REVOLUTION.
13 RED SCARE EVENTS IN RUSSIA AND EUROPE AND MASSIVE STRIKES AT HOME LED TO A FEAR THAT THE U.S. WOULD BE THE NEXT TARGET OF COMMUNISTS. MOST AMERICANS BELIEVED A SERIES OF BOMBINGS WAS THE WORK OF COMMUNISTS OR OTHER REVOLUTIONARIES TRYING TO DESTROY THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE.
14 D. US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer staged crackdowns on suspected radicals. 1. Many innocent victims suffered violations of civil rights. 2. Hundreds of immigrants were forcibly deported “SHIP OR SHOOT”
15 E. Fear of outside influences led to restrictions on immigration. 1. The National Origins Act of 1924 made immigrant restriction a permanent policy and set quotas from different countries. 2. Immigrants from northern and western Europe were favored.
17 III. Groups form to protect civil liberties. A. A.The NAACP, founded in 1909, battled segregation and discrimination against African Americans. B. B. They held their annual conference in 1920 in Atlanta, one of the most active Klan areas at the time.
18 Two years later, the NAACP placed large ads in major newspapers to present the facts about lynching.
19 ANTI SEMITISM IN THE 1920s ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE FOUNDED, 1913 LEO FRANK, JEWISH BUSINESSMAN, WAS LYNCHED IN ATLANTA IN 1915 FOR A CRIME HE DID NOT COMMIT "THE IMMEDIATE OBJECT OF THE LEAGUE IS TO STOP, BY APPEALS TO REASON AND CONSCIENCE AND, IF NECESSARY, BY APPEALS TO LAW, THE DEFAMATION OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE. ITS ULTIMATE PURPOSE IS TO SECURE JUSTICE AND FAIR TREATMENT TO ALL CITIZENS ALIKE AND TO PUT AN END FOREVER TO UNJUST AND UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION AGAINST AND RIDICULE OF ANY SECT OR BODY OF CITIZENS." ADL CHARTER OCTOBER 1913
20 C. Marcus Garvey’s call for Black nationalism led to pride in black culture and traditions. D. Back-to-Africa movement called for settlement of Black Americans in Africa.
21 Middle-class Black Americans disliked Garvey’s push for racial separation. More were alienated when he criticized artists of the Harlem Renaissance as “flatterers of the white man”.
22 IV. Prohibition A. A.The 18 th amendment, 1919, made it illegal to manufacture, transport, sell, or consume alcohol. B. The 18 th amendment was enforced by the Volstead Act, which increased federal police powers.
24 CARRY NATION, A LEADING ACTIVIST OF THE ANTI- TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
25 BILLY SUNDAY WAS A BASEBALL PLAYER WHO BECAME AN EVANGELIST CRUSADING FOR THE PROHIBITION OF ALCOHOL IN AMERICA
26 St. Valentine’s Day Massacre – Feb. 14, 1929 in Chicago, Illinois. Italian gang led by Al Capone killed members of Irish gang led by Bugs Moran over control of supplying illegal liquor. C. C.A major effect of prohibition was the rise of criminal organizations formed to satisfy demands for liquor.
28 V. The Changing Role of Women A. A. During WWI, suffragists argued that women were serving the government in war industries and deserved the right to vote. B. B. Women got the right to vote with the 19 th Amendment on August 24, 1920. 1917-1918 SUFFRAGE RIOTS IN FRONT OF THE WHITE HOUSE GATES. SEVERAL OF THE WOMEN PICKETING WERE ARRESTED.
32 WOMEN BEING ARRESTED IN 1922 FOR WEARING REVEALING BATHING SUITS
33 FLAPPERS Flappers became symbols of the Roaring Twenties. Flappers were young women who defied social conventions by cutting their hair, adopting comfortable, corset-free clothes, drinking and smoking in public, and embracing dance crazes and a new spirit of sexual openness. Young women were bobbing their hair, rolling down their stockings, raising their hemlines, and wearing makeup.
34 NEW CAREERS AND OPPORTUNITIES OPENED UP FOR WOMEN IN THE 1920s
35 VI. Harlem Renaissance: 1919 to 1935, Harlem, New York City A. A.Black artists, writers, dancers, poets, historians, and many others turned Harlem into a center of culture, creativity, and exploration of African American roots.
37 JAZZ WAS SO POPULAR THAT THE 20s IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE JAZZ AGE DUKE ELLINGTON LOUIS ARMSTRONG
38 VII. New Technologies Reshape America A. A.Radios and movies led to the growth of a worldwide culture. B. B.American life transformed from rural to urban- dominated culture. C. C.Radio and movies led to mass entertainment and mass marketing.
39 KDKA, THE FIRST COMMERCIAL RADIO STATION IN THE U.S. KDKA BEGAN SCHEDULED PROGRAMMING WITH THE HARDING-COX PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION RETURNS ON NOVEMBER 2, 1920
40 ADS FOR RADIOS IN THE 1920s IN 2002 DOLLARS THE LYRIC RADIOS COST $950.90 TO $4369.00.