Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Genetics"— Presentation transcript:
1Fundamentals of Genetics Must create an action button for every quiz question to go to a different slide.This is a Ms. Brown educational production
2Introduction The Audience: The Objective: This project is intended for the 9th and/or 10th grade high school biology student.The Objective:By the end of this tutorial you will be able to:Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses using a punnett squareExplain how offspring inherit traits from their parents
4Genetic Terminology Genetics-The scientific study of heredity Heredity- Passing of traits from parents to offspringTrait- any characteristic that can be passed on from parent to offspring (ex. Pea plant color, shape, length, etc.)
5Genetic Terminology Gene- Segment of DNA for trait expression Allele- Each of the alternative forms of a gene (ex. dominant or recessive)
6Genetic TerminologyDominant- Masks the other allele, represented by Capital Letter (ex. Y)Recessive- The masked allele, represented by lowercase letter (ex. y)Genotype- Genetic make up of the organism (ex. YY, Yy, or yy)Phenotype- Appearance of an organism due to genotype (ex. Yellow or green seed color)
7Genetic TerminologyMonohybrid Cross- The crossing of one characteristic (ex. YY x yy)Dihybrid Cross- The crossing of two characteristics (ex. YYRR x yyrr)Heterozygous genotype- Two different alleles (ex. Yy)Homozygous genotype- Two alleles that are the same (ex. YY or yy)Probability-The likelihood of an event to occur
8Genetic Terminology P Generation- The original parental cross 1st Filial Generation- The offspring of the parent generation2nd Filial Generation- The offspring of the F1 generationCross Pollination- reproduction occurs between two flowers (sexual)Self-Fertilization- reproduction occurs in the same flower (asexual)
10Genetics & Probability The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called Probability.The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
11Genetics & Probability Probabilities predict the average outcome of a large number of events.Probability cannot predict the precise outcome of an individual event.In genetics, the larger the number of offspring, the closer the resulting numbers will get to expected values.
12POP Quiz! 1. Probability can be used to predict average outcome of many events.precise outcome of any event.how many offspring a cross will produce.which organisms will mate with each other.
13That is Incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Think About This: If I say it will “probably” rain, does that guarantee rain? Probability cannot predict the precise outcome of an individual event.
14That’s Correct! GOOD JOB! That’s right, probability can only give you an estimated answer.
15Pop Quiz 2. Compared to 4 flips of a coin, 400 flips of the coin is more likely to produce about 50% heads and 50% tails.less likely to produce about 50% heads and 50% tails.guaranteed to produce exactly 50% heads and 50% tails.equally likely to produce about 50% heads and 50% tails.
16That is Incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. In genetics, the larger the number of offspring, the closer the resulting numbers will get to expected values.
17That’s Correct! GOOD JOB! Predictions based on probability are accurate only if a large number of events are involved.
19Punnett SquaresThe gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram known as a Punnett Square.Punnett Squares can be used to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross
20Punnett Squares Named for Reginald Punnett (British geneticist) Used to help solve genetics problemsVisual representation of all probable results of a genetic cross
21POP Quiz! 3. The Punnett Square allows you to predict only the phenotypes of the offspring from a cross.only the genotypes of the offspring from a cross.both the genotypes and the phenotypes from a cross.neither the genotypes nor the phenotypes from a cross.
22That is incorrect!Please go back and choose the correct answer.Hint: A Punnett Square is a visual representation of all probable results of a genetic cross.
23That’s Correct! GOOD JOB! Geneticists use probability to predict the phenotypes and genotypes that MAY result from a genetic cross
24Dominant & RecessiveA capital letter represents the Dominant allele for tall.A lowercase letter represents the recessive allele for short.In this example,T = tallt = short
25Homozygous vs. Heterozygous Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be homozygous.Organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait are heterozygous.Homozygous organisms are true-breeding or purebred for a particular trait.Heterozygous organisms are hybrid for a particular trait.
26Genotypes & Phenotypes All of the tall plants have the same phenotype, or physical characteristics.The tall plants do not have the same genotype, or genetic makeup.One third of the tall plants are TT, whiletwo thirds of the tall plants are Tt
27Genotypes & Phenotypes The plants have different genotypes (TT and Tt), but they have the same phenotype (tall).
28Genotypic & Phenotypic Ratios One fourth (1/4) of the F2 plants have two alleles for tallness (TT).2/4 or 1/2 have one allele for tall (T), and one for short (t).One fourth (1/4) of the F2 have two alleles for short (tt).Genotypic Ratio is 1:2:1Phenotypic Ratio is 3:1
29Genotypes & Phenotypes in Flowers Genotype of alleles: Y = yellow seed y = green seedAll genes occur in pairs, so 2 alleles affect a characteristicPossible combinations are:Genotypes YY Yy yyPhenotypes YELLOW YELLOW GREEN
31Genotype vs. Phenotype? Genotype Phenotype 4. The physical appearance of the organism is considered the…?GenotypePhenotype
32That is incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Hint: PHysical appearance not GENetic make-up.
33That’s Correct!The PHysical appearance is the PHenotype!GOOD JOB!!
34Punnett Square Procedure Determine the genotypes of the parentsWrite down the cross (mating)Draw the Punnett SquareSplit the letters of the genotype for each parent & put them outside the square (gametes)Determine the possible genotypes of the offspring by filling in the Punnett SquareSummarize results (genotypes, phenotypes & ratios)List and describe stepsIdentify the ParentsWrite the test crossDraw Punnett SquarePlace Gametes on punnett squareFill in Punnett SquareGive results
35Let’s Try One!!Tall stem length is dominant in garden pea plants. A heterozygous tall stem length garden pea plant’s eggs are pollinated by a heterozygous tall stem length pea plant.You must go through all the steps in the correct order…
36Step 1: Determine Genotype Designate letters which will represent the genes/traits. Capital letters represent dominant traits, and lowercase letters represent recessive traits.T = tallt = short
37Step 2: Write Down the Cross Write down the genotypes (genes) of each parent.These are often given to you or are possible to determine.Tt x Tt
38Step 3: Draw Punnett Square Draw a Punnett square - 4 small squares in the shape of a window.Tt x Tt
39Step 4: Determine Gametes Gametes produced by each parent are shown along the top and left side of the grid/chart.List the genes that each parent can contribute.Females eggs across the topMales sperm along the left sideTt = T or t
40Step 5: Fill in Punnett Square Fill in each box of the Punnett Square by transferring the letter above and in front of each box into each appropriate box.Offspring possibilities abound within the grid/chartAs a general rule, the capital letter goes first and a lowercase letter follows.
42Step 6: Give ResultsList the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring for this cross.The letters inside the boxes indicate probable genotypes (genetic makeup) of offspring resulting from the cross of these particular parents.There are 4 boxes, and the genotypic & phenotypic results can be written either as fractions or percents.
43Step 6: Give Results Genotypes- TT, Tt, or tt Phenotypes- Tall or shortGenotypic Ratio- 1:2:1Phenotypic Ratio- 3:1
45POP Quiz! 5. Gametes are also known as A. Genes. B. Sex Cells. C. Alleles.D. Hybrids.QUIZ on the proper order of the punnett square
46That is Incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Hint: The process of meiosis produces these.
47That’s Correct! GOOD JOB!! The scientific term for sex cells is Gametes.
48POP Quiz!6. Two F1 plants that are homozygous for shortness are crossed. What percentage of the offspring will be tall?100%50%0%25%
49That is incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Hint: Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be homozygous.
50That’s Correct! GOOD JOB! When you cross two recessive parents the only possible outcome you can have is that recessive trait.
51POP Quiz! 7. What is the genotype of the female plant? Tall stem length is dominant in garden pea plants. A homozygous tall stem length garden pea plant’s eggs are pollinated by a homozygous short stem length pea plant.7. What is the genotype of the female plant?A. TTB. TtC. ttD. tT
52That is Incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Hint: A females eggs get pollinated by a male.
53That’s Correct! GOOD JOB!! Genotype is the genetic make-up of an organism which is represented by letters.
54POP Quiz! 8. What step comes after determining gametes? Write down the crossDraw the Punnett SquareGive the resultsFill in the Punnett Square
55That is Incorrect! Please go back and choose the correct answer. Hint: As a general rule, the capital letter goes first and a lowercase letter follows.
56That’s Correct! GOOD JOB! After you line the gametes outside of the Punnett Square you must fill in the possible offspring.
57Congratulations!!You have just completed the Fundamentals of Genetics Tutorial successfully!By now you should know what probability is, how it relates to genetics, and how to use a Punnett Square to predict possible offspring variations.If you think this was fun just wait until we are looking at more than one trait at a time! Dihybrids, Trihybrids, Multiple Alleles, Oh My!!