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Patterns of Heredity CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living.

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Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Heredity CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patterns of Heredity CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living things inherit traits in patterns. 4.1 Patterns of heredity can be predicted. 4.2 Meiosis is a special form of cell division. 4.3 NEW CHAPTER CHAPTER RESOURCES

2 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive Offspring inherit alleles, which are forms of genes, from their parents. Alleles come on chromosome pairs and can be dominant or recessive. alleles a gene The alleles you have are your genotype; the observable characteristics that come from your genotype are your phenotype. SIMULATION Try a virtual version of Mendel’s experiment. CLASSZONE.COM CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

3 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A type of reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells combine to form offspring with genetic material from both cells. sexual reproduction 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

4 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The basic unit of heredity that consists of a segment of DNA on a chromosome. gene 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

5 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The passing of genes from parents to offspring; the genes are expressed in the traits of the offspring. heredity 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

6 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME An alternate form of a gene for a specific trait or gene product. allele 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

7 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The observable characteristics or traits of an organism. phenotype 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

8 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The genetic makeup of an organism; all the genes that an organism has. genotype 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

9 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A term that describes the allele that determines the phenotype of an individual organism when two different copies are present in the genotype. dominant 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

10 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A term that describes an allele that is not expressed when combined with a dominant form of the gene. recessive 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

11 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Patterns of heredity can be predicted. 4.2 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE ratio Punnett square B b B b BB Bb bb B = black fur b = brown fur Punnett squares show possible outcomes of heredity. Ratios and percentages can be used with Punnett squares to express the probability of particular outcomes. percentage probability SIMULATION Predict offspring traits with virtual Punnett squares. CLASSZONE.COM CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

12 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A chart used to show all the ways genes from two parents can combine and be passed to offspring; used to predict all genotypes that are possible. Punnett square 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

13 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A comparison between two quantities, often written with a colon, as 3 : 4. ratio 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

14 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The likelihood or chance that a specific outcome will occur out of a total number of outcomes. probability 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

15 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A ratio that states the number of times an outcome is likely to occur out of a possible 100 times. percentage 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

16 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm At the beginning of meiosis I, the parent cell has two copies of each chromosome pair. During meiosis I, the homologs of the chromosome pair separate; there are two cells, each with two copies of one homolog from each pair. During meiosis II, the two copies of each homolog separate; each daughter cell has one homolog. Meiosis II fertilization meiosis 1n1n 1n1n 1n1n 1n1n Meiosis I CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

17 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A sperm or egg cell, containing half the usual number of chromosomes of an organism (one chromosome from each pair), which is found only in the reproductive organs of a plant or animal. gamete 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

18 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A female reproductive cell (gamete) that forms in the reproductive organs of a female and has just a single copy of the genetic material of the parent. egg 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

19 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A male reproductive cell (gamete) that forms in the reproductive organs of a male and has just a single copy of the genetic material of the parent. sperm 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

20 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Part of the process of sexual reproduction in which a male reproductive cell and a female reproductive cell combine to make a new cell that can develop into a new organism. fertilization 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

21 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A part of sexual reproduction in which cells divide to form sperm cells in a male and egg cells in a female. Meiosis occurs only in reproductive cells. meiosis 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

22 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME I. Living things inherit traits in patterns. A. Parents and offspring are similar. B. Genes are on chromosome pairs. 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. 1. One Example C. Gregor Mendel made some important discoveries about heredity. 2. Mendel’s Conclusions gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive 1. Phenotype and Genotype D. Alleles interact to produce traits. 2. Dominant and Recessive Alleles CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

23 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME II. Patterns of heredity can be predicted. B. Ratios and percentages can express the probability of outcomes. 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY A. Punnett squares show possible outcomes for inheritance. Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

24 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME III. Meiosis is a special form of cell division. A. Meiosis is necessary for sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis I B. Cells divide twice during meiosis. 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. 2. Meiosis II egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis C. Meiosis and mitosis differ in some important ways. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

25 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery Click on the icons to see a larger image or animation. SIMULATION Try a virtual version of Mendel’s experiment. CLASSZONE.COM SIMULATION Predict offspring traits with virtual Punnett squares. CLASSZONE.COM

26 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery BACK TO IMAGE GALLERY

27 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery BACK TO IMAGE GALLERY XX X Y XX XY

28 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery BACK TO IMAGE GALLERY Mm m m Mm mm Mm mm

29 CHAPTER HOME Image Gallery BACK TO IMAGE GALLERY

30 BACK TO CHAPTER Click on the items below to access resources on Standardized Test Practice Practice state standardized tests Math Tutorial Review math concepts Resource Centers Get more information on select science topics Content Review Review key concepts and vocabulary Audio Readings Hear chapter audio readings Image Gallery Click here to view chapter images and animations CLASSZONE.COM Chapter Resources CHAPTER HOME


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