Presentation on theme: "Genetics b the study of heredity b Heredity-the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring."— Presentation transcript:
Genetics b the study of heredity b Heredity-the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring
Austrian Monk c onsidered to be the “Father of Genetics” did experiments with peas Gregor Mendel
Mendel studied 7 traits in peas.
Phenotype The way an ORGANISM LOOKS Genotype THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF AN ORGANISM
What Did Mendel Find? b He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity. Dominant/Recessive RuleDominant/Recessive Rule Law of SegregationLaw of Segregation Law of Independent AssortmentLaw of Independent Assortment
Dominant Traits Characteristics you can always see if you have the genes. Symbolized by a capital letter
Recessive Traits Characteristics you cannot see if you have a dominant gene. Symbolized by a lower case letter
Rule of Unit Factors b Each organism has two alleles for each trait –Alleles - different forms of the same gene
Heterozygous & Homozygous b Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) b Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)
Law of Segregation b Mendel noticed that some plants with a dominant trait would have offspring with the dominant trait and offspring with the recessive trait. b Mendel figured the traits must separate when the plant passes them on
Law of Independent Assortment b Mendel noticed the inheritance of one trait did not affect the inheritance of another.
Punnett Squares b Help determine the possible offspring from a genetic cross
Harry Potter and the Recessive Allele
Wizard Genetics Being a wizard or a muggle is all decided by genetics All humans including wizards receive one allele from each parent
Wizard Genetics The allele for magical ability is recessive Wizards have the alleles mm
Wizard Genetics The allele for muggleness is M Muggles have the alleles Mm or MM M is dominant to m so you can only be a wizard if you have no M allele
The Malfoys Lucius Malfoy ( mm ) Narcissa Malfoy ( mm ) Draco Malfoy ( ) The Malfoys are a ‘pure blood’ family; All their ancestors are wizards so they must have the alleles mm mm
Lily Potter ( mm ) James Potter ( mm ) Harry Potter ( WW ) Both Harry’s parents had magical ability so they must both have been mm They passed these alleles on to Harry The Potters m m
The Weasleys are pure blood wizards so they all have the alleles mm
Tom Riddle is a ‘half blood’. His mother was a witch ( mm ) and his father was a muggle Mom Dad
Hermione is a powerful witch so she must be mm Both her parents are muggles, what is their genotypes to each give Hermione an m mm Mom Dad
What wizarding alleles would Ron and Hermione’s children have ? Ron (mm) Hermione (mm) Children ( ) m m
What wizarding alleles would Ginny and Dudley’s children have ? If Dudley is Mm Ginny mm Dudley Mm Children WW or mM m M m m
What wizarding alleles would Ginny and Dudley’s children have ? If Dudley is MM Ginny mm Dudley MM Children WM m M
If Hermione’s parents were expecting a baby, what is the chance they will have another child with wizard abilities ?
If Hermione’s parents were expecting a baby, what is the chance they will have another DAUGTER with wizard abilities ?