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Gender. Gender and sex Sex –Biological differences Chromosomal Genetic Gonadal Gametic Endocrine Phenotypic.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender. Gender and sex Sex –Biological differences Chromosomal Genetic Gonadal Gametic Endocrine Phenotypic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender

2 Gender and sex Sex –Biological differences Chromosomal Genetic Gonadal Gametic Endocrine Phenotypic

3 Gender –Psychosocial condition Masculine or feminine –Behavior –Traits –Interests –May not correspond sex

4 Gender stereotypes Set of belief about what it means to be a man and woman –Expected behavior Vary among different society Change constantly Some beliefs are constant regardless of the society –Cause of gender bias Different treatment of individual of one sex

5 Societal view of each sex –Interpretation of world Expected behaviors –Social shorthand sketch Gender polarization Ambiguity –Androgyny Both masculine and feminine characteristics

6 Gender identity Personal view of masculinity and femininity –Based on one’s sex –May not be consistent with one’s sex Transsexuals/transgendered –Difficult conforming to polarized gender code Could trigger gender identity disorder –High level of distress (“woman trapped in a man’s body”)

7 Differences between genders –May not be as clear Large overlap between men and women –Display of emotions in men –Competitiveness in women –Paradox Societal view Individual view

8 Origin of gender Nature –Biological makeup Nurture –Physical environment –Society –Gender-specific behavior patterns

9 Role of hormones Development of sexually dimorphic behavior –Exposure of animals during critical stage of development Neonatal Late fetal –Predominant behavior Not exclusive

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12 Structural arrangement within the brain –Hypothalamus –May not be as reliable predictor of specific behaviors Effects of steroid hormones –Stage-specific Critical period

13 Differences in humans Brains –Hypothalamus –Cortical region Cognitive differences –Gender identity –Not large enough to be conclusive Stage of development Cause of differences

14 Effects of hormones –Tomboyism in adrenogenital syndrome girls Does not persist –Behave as normal adult females Greater flexibility and overlapped behavior in humans

15 Effects of social learning Assignment of baby –View of individual –View of society Behavior of adult –Based on perceived sex of baby Expectation of certain behviors –Interpretation of baby’s behavior based on its perceived sex

16 Gender constancy –Fixed gender that cannot be changed Effects of society –Mass media –Peers –Household

17 Social learning theory Learning gender role –Shaped by events in the surrounding environment –Response of others –Reinforcement –Punishment –Role modeling


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