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Database Basics Alan B. Marr, M.D., F.A.C.S. Associate Professor of Clinical Surgery
Objectives Define Database Database Hx Steps of design
What is a Database? A method to store information Easy retrieval Easy update
Database History Flat file –Delimited text –Scan sequential entries –Not easily searchable
Database History Hierarchical Database –Inverted tree –Each file related only to one above or below –No lateral links –Requires repeat data –Hard to search
Database History Network Model –Improvement over hierarchical –Each file with multiple owners –Still can’t relate files to each other
Database History Relational Database –Flexible –No hard structure –File makeup Entries Attributes –SQL
Steps to Developing a Database 1: Planning and Analysis 2: Conceptual design 3: Logical design 4: Physical Design 5: Implementation
Planning and Analysis Anticipate question Literature review Data collection format
Conceptual design Data modeling –Sketch database relationships Entity-relationship diagram
Entity-Relationship Diagram Entity –Person –Place –Thing –Event –Concept Attributes –Descriptors of entities Primary key –Unique descriptor
E-R Example PatientOperation GET Relationship Surgeon Perform
Logical Design Refine conceptual design Normalize data Ensure data integrity
Physical Design Programming logical design Data tables created Forms made and linked Security
Implementation Data entered Database navigated Continual reassessment
Summary Database design important Follow 5 basic steps –1: Planning and Analysis – 2: Conceptual design – 3: Logical design – 4: Physical Design – 5: Implementation
WELL-DESIGNED DATABASES Process faster Easy to develop and maintain Easy to read and write code.
WHAT D IS RAW, UNPROCESSED FACTS AND FIGURES COLLECTED, STORED AND PROCESSED BY COMPUTERS.
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