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2 Working in the Television Production Industry © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain how the.

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Presentation on theme: "2 Working in the Television Production Industry © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain how the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 Working in the Television Production Industry

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Explain how the responsibilities of each production staff position are dependent on the functions of other production staff positions. Identify the primary responsibilities of each production staff position. Recall the activities in each step of a production workflow. Objectives

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Staff

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Staff (Cont.) Staff Behind the scenes Creative, department heads Crew Equipment operators Not seen on camera

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Staff (Cont.) Talent or CastTalentCast Anyone seen by camera Anyone whose voice is heard on program

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Executive Producer Provides funding for program Hires producer Expensive programs may have multiple e.p.’s

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. ProducerProducer (non-news) Purchases materials and services Hires production staff Develops budget Arranges travel, lodging, catering, logistics Possesses extreme attention to detail Carries ultimate responsibility for program’s success Interacts with all staff

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Four Phases of Production Pre-Production Planning, scripting, everything before cameras roll Production Shooting Post-Production Editing, music, and effects addition Distribution Duplication and delivery to end user

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Producer (news) Coordinates content and flow of newscast Involved in story decision process Develops order of stories for newscast Decides on “break-ins” for special reports Supervises reporters Reports to news director

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. News Director Responsible for structure of newsroom Responsible for personnel matters Responsible for effectiveness of newsroom Final authority on which stories air In classroom emulation of real world, usually teacher gradually gives this authority to students when they are ready for the responsibility

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Director In charge of creative aspects of program Interacts with entire staff Casts program per budgetary constraints Has clear vision of finished program Provides vision and direction to departments Communicates vision to all personnel

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Manager Handles business portion of production Negotiates fees for goods, services, etc. Assures that programs and scripts meet broadcast standards Manages budget that producer prepares

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Assistant Sometimes referred to as the Assistant Director Entry-level position Jack-of-all-trades Able to fill variety of positions as needs arise Extremely motivated and energetic

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Networking Most common way of getting job in industry Tell professional friends you are looking They tell their friends, who tell their friends, etc. Eventually, someone hears of opening Word comes back to you through network You apply for job

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Floor Manager Eyes and ears of director in studio Relays director’s commands to studio personnel Wears headset connected to director Provides nonverbal cues to talent Only person other than director who can say “cut”

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Floor Manager CuesCues

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Floor Manager Cues (Cont.)

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camera Operator Runs piece of gear that captures video images Frames pleasing shots Follows director’s camera directions

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Photographer Also known as photog or “shooter” Goes into field with reporter in news Operates field camera in news Transports gear Sets up gear Tears down gear

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Photojournalist Performs duties of photog and reporter A “one-man band” Very employable due to ability to fill two roles

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Reporter Responsible for gathering information Writes stories Interviews people Edits stories Usually supplies audio narration of story Backbone of news

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Assignment Editor Schedules personnel to cover stories Pairs reporters with photogs

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Anchor Delivers news from news desk set in studio Reads teleprompter Provides intro and closing to stories, if needed May sometimes provide commentary

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Video Engineer Responsible for technical quality of video signal Trained in electronics of video production Ensures that images from different cameras match in quality and color

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Audio Engineer Responsible for technical quality of audio signal Responsible for maintaining and stabilizing overall audio levels on master recordings Goal is for viewer to never adjust volume Often is audio mixer operator Often operates all other audio gear, such as recorders and players

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lighting Director Decides placement, color, intensity, and aiming of lighting instruments Often employs gaffer as assistant to physically carry, hang, and manipulate instruments per LD’s directiongaffer

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scriptwriter Places entire production on paper Often employs content specialist to provide expert input on subjects present in productioncontent specialist

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Graphic Artist Responsible for all artwork required Computer graphics Traditional works of art Charts Graphs

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. VTR Operator Responsible for recording program on videotape This job only exists in facilities where video tape is used

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Video Operator Responsible for recording program on digital media DVD Hard drive Other technology This job only exists in tapeless facilities

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Robo Operator This job exists in facilities with robotic camera mounts on studio camera pedestals Responsible for operating all studio cameras from one remote control console Manipulates all camera movements with joystick and other controls Brian Franco

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Editor Combines all scenes of production into correct order Eliminates bad takes Operates electronic device which is also called “editor”

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Makeup Artist Applies cosmetics to face and body of talent Responsible for enhancing talent’s appearance Responsible for changing talent’s appearance, if necessary

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. CG Operator Responsible for creating titles for program Responsible for any text that appears Operates character generator (CG), computer that functions as word processor for television

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Grip Responsible for moving things on or to set Equipment Scenery Props This job is called “stagehand” in theater

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Maintenance Engineer Keeps all equipment operating at factory spec Not repair person “Tweaks” gear, keeping it at optimum level

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Staff

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Production Values General aesthetics of program Goal is to attain high production values

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Terms When in production environment, always use professional terms Never use consumer terms in production environment Use of professional terms is perceived as indication of knowledge

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Program Proposal First step in production includes: Basic idea of production Format Intended audience Budget considerations Locations Rough shooting plan

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scripting Outline script often follows proposal Many different formats Most common is two columns Left column: video Right column: audio

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Producing Coordinate schedules Acquire necessary resources Monitor activities and progress of production team Weigh budgetary considerations

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Directing Shaping all creative aspects Involved in pre-production Involved in production Involved in post-production

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Lighting Must be sufficient light for tech requirements of equipment for acceptable picture Must be designed to create desired mood, appearance, and setting Must contribute to creating image with as much 3-D effect as possible

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Scenery, Set Dressing, and Props Placement of these contributes to 3-D effect Scenery stops distant view of cameraScenery

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Costumes and Makeup Makeup is cosmetics applied to skin to change or enhance appearanceMakeup Enables performers to look like themselves or characters they play

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Graphics Should be bold, not highly detailed Should always be previewed on TV screen– not computer monitor

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Camera Operation Video is portion of program you can seeVideo Camera composition is getting best shot/angle on subject arrangement of items in picture Frame: the actual four edges of the pictureFrame Framing: the action of composing a shotFraming Bad framing occurs when objects have oddly cut-off parts

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Framing

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. AudioAudio Recording Music Sound effects Spoken words (narration, dialogue) Background sounds

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Video Engineering Production switching–using production switcher to cut from one camera to another—live—as opposed to having to do it with an editor in post-productionProduction switching

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Special Effects Anything audience sees in image that did not happen as it appears on screen “It doesn’t have to be, it only has to appear to be!”

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Editing Putting scenes in order on finished program Scenes are usually not shot in final order Scenes are usually shot by location

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Duplication and Distribution Master program is duplicated onto required media DVD Tape Streamed on Internet Other media

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, Its Territories and Canada, AFL- CIO, CLC Explore this union’s website at Career Page

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Divide class into small groups and assign each group a staff position. Have groups show their interdependence and the flow of production, from beginning to end. Make sure each group identifies staff members’ titles and responsibilities. Discussion

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why would a photojournalist be more employable in the job market than a reporter or photog? Photojournalist can perform more than one job. Employer can save money by hiring photojournalist instead of photographer and reporter. Review Question

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. What are the four phases of production? Pre-production, production, post-production, duplication/distribution Review Question

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Why is it impractical to shoot all scenes of production in order? It is less expensive and time-consuming to shoot all scenes that take place at a particular location one right after the other. Then tear down and move to new location and shoot all scenes that take place in that location at the same time. Review Question

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. anchor: The person who delivers the news from the news desk set in a studio. assignment editor: The person who schedules necessary equipment and personnel to cover the stories for the day’s newscast. Glossary

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. audio: The portion of a program that you can hear. Audio includes narration, spoken lines, sound effects, and background music. audio engineer: The person responsible for the audio/sound quality on the production and related equipment. Glossary

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. camera operator: The person who runs the piece of equipment that captures the video images of the program. cast: The collective name given to all the talent participating in a production. CG operator: The person who creates the titles for the program using a character generator. Glossary

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. content specialist: A person who works with the scriptwriter and is considered to be an expert in the program’s subject matter. crew: Production personnel that are normally not seen by the camera, which generally includes equipment operators. cue: A signal that directs something specific to happen. Glossary

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. director: The person who is in charge of the creative aspects of the program and interacts with the entire staff. distribution: The final phase of production, which includes DVD authoring, DVD/videotape duplication, and distribution to the end user. editing: The process of placing individual recorded scenes in logical order. Glossary

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. editor: The person responsible for putting the various pieces of the entire program together. The editor removes all the mistakes and bad takes, leaving only the best version of each scene, and arranges the individual scenes into the proper order. executive producer (EP): The person, or people, who provides the funding necessary to produce the program. Glossary

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. floor manager: The person who is the director’s “eyes and ears” in the studio. The floor manager relays the director’s commands to the studio personnel. Also commonly called floor director. frame: The actual edge of the video picture; the edge of the picture on all four sides. Glossary

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. framing: Involves placing items in the camera’s frame by operating the camera and tripod. gaffer: The lighting director’s assistant who often does the actual hauling of heavy instruments up and down ladders. graphic artist: The person responsible for all the artwork required for the production. This includes computer graphics, traditional works of art, charts, and graphs. Glossary

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. grip: A person who moves the equipment, scenery, and props on a studio set. lighting director: The person who decides the placement of lighting instruments, the appropriate color of light to use, and which lamps should be used in the instruments. Glossary

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. maintenance engineer: The person who keeps all the production equipment functioning at its optimum performance level. makeup: Any of the cosmetics applied to a performer’s skin to change or enhance their appearance. Glossary

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. makeup artist: The person responsible for applying cosmetics to the talent’s face and body, giving them the intended appearance in front of the camera. Glossary

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. news director: The person responsible for the structure of the newsroom, for personnel matters (performance evaluations and hiring and firing employees), managing the budget, and the overall effectiveness of the newsroom. The news director is also the final authority on which stories will air during a news broadcast. Glossary

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. photographer: The cameraperson in the field, on location with a reporter in a news operation. Also commonly called photog or shooter. photojournalist: A photographer who regularly performs duties of both the photographer, as well as the reporter. Glossary

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. post-production: Any of the activities performed after a program has been shot. This includes music beds, editing, audio overdubs, titles, and duplication. pre-production: Any activity on a program that occurs prior to the time that the cameras begin rolling. This includes production meetings, set construction, costume design, music composition, scriptwriting, and location surveys. Glossary

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. producer: In a non-news environment, the producer purchases materials and services in the creation of a finished program. In a broadcast news facility, the producer coordinates the content and flow of a newscast. production: The actual shooting of the program. Glossary

78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. production assistant (PA): The person who provides general assistance around the studio or production facility. The PA is commonly hired to fill variety of positions when key personnel are sick, out of town, working on another project, or otherwise unavailable. In many facilities, the production assistant position is synonymous with the assistant director (AD) position. Glossary

79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. production manager: The person who handles the business portion of the production by negotiating the fees for goods, services, and other contracts and by determining the staffing requirements based on the needs of each production. production switching: The process of cutting between cameras. Glossary

80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. production team: Everyone involved in the production, both staff and talent. production values: The general aesthetics of the show. reporter: The individual responsible for gathering information from many sources, including research and interviews, for writing news stories, and often editing their own stories. Glossary

81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. robo operator: The person who remotely operates all of the cameras from a single location in the studio or control room. scenery: Anything placed on a set the stops the distant view of the camera. Outside the studio, scenery may be a building or the horizon. Glossary

82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. scriptwriter: The person responsible for placing the entire production on paper. special effects: Anything the audience sees in a video picture that did not really happen in the way it appears on the screen. staff: Production personnel that work behind the scenes and generally includes management and designers. Glossary

83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. talent: Anyone seen by the camera, whether or not they have a speaking or any other significant role in the program, as well as individuals who provide only their vocal skills to the production. video: The portion of the program that you can see. video engineer: The person who manages the video equipment and is ultimately responsible for the technical quality of the video signal. Glossary

84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. video operator: The individual responsible for recording the master video file in a tapeless television production environment. VTR operator: The person in charge of recording the program onto videotape by correctly operating the VTR equipment. Glossary


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