A. Biological Paradigm: Disease Model Basic assumptions: 1. Biology plays a role in pathological behavior. 2. Psychopathology is caused by disease.
What are the flaws with this paradigm? What do you think???
Flaws with Biological model 1. Factors unrelated to biology may influence the onset of psychopathology. E.g., environmental factors (life-style, abuse) may play role in some mental disorders (depression). 2. Multiple factors may influence onset of psychopathology.
Does biology play role in etiology of psychopathology? What do you think????
Evidence that biology plays a role comes from 2 sources: 1. Behavioral Genetics – examines how much of individual differences in behavior are due to genetic makeup. 2. Biochemistry in the nervous system
Behavioral Genetics: Theory Genotype – the physiological genetic constitution of a person. (fixed at birth, but not static) Phenotype- the observable expression of our genes (changes over time & is product of interaction with genotype & environment). E.g., A child may be hard-wired for high intellectual achievement, but will need environmental stimulation to produce development.
We may have a biological predisposition for a mental disorder. This is called a Diathesis. Does having a diathesis automatically mean you will develop the mental disorder?
No!!!! It will depend on how your biology interacts with environmental factors (parental rearing, peers)
How do we study behavior genetics? 1. Family members 2. Twin studies 3. Adoption studies 4. Linkage analysis
Family Members: Studies the 1 st & 2 nd degree relatives of individual with a given mental disorder. 1 st -degree relatives-parents & siblings (50%- shared genes) 2 nd -degree relatives-aunts, uncles (25%-shared genes) Are compared with index cases (probands).
If there is a genetic predisposition: 1 st degree relatives of the index case(s), should have the disorder at a higher rate than in the general pop. E.g., 10% of 1 st degree relatives of index cases with schizophrenia can be diagnosed with schizophrenia
Twin method Monozygotic (100% shared genes) & dizygotic twins (50% shared genes) are compared. Start with diagnosis of one twin & see if other twin develops same disorder. When twins are similarly diagnosed, they are said to be concordant.
If disorder is heritable-- concordance rate will be higher for MZ than for DZ twins. Problems: 1. May reflect environmental factors.
Adoption studies Examine children who were adopted & reared apart from their “abnormal” parents. Reduces environmental influences, should reflect effect of genetics.
Linkage Analysis: Uses DNA blood testing to examine the influence of genetics in mental disorders.
B. Psychodynamic Paradigm: Argues that our behavior results from unconscious conflicts. Conflicts are outside of our awareness (iceberg theory).
Structures of mind: 1. Id (unconscious) “wants” to satisfy basic urges (thirst, hunger, sex). 2. Ego (primarily conscious) tries to satisfy id impulses without breaking societal norms. 3. Super-ego (conscious) our morality center which tells us right from wrong.
Psychosexual stages of development 1. Oral (birth to 1 yr)- needs gratified orally (sucking). 2. Anal (2yr)-needs met- through elimination of waste. 3. Phallic (3-5 yrs)-needs met through genital stimulation. 4. Latency (6-12 yrs)-impulses dormant. 5. Genital (13+)-needs met through intercourse.
Problems: 1. Freud had no scientific data to support his theories. 2. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed. 3. Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact. 4. Observations not representative of population.
Freud’s therapy Premise—we have repressed information in unconscious that needs to come out. How??? Free-association, dream analysis, hypnosis.
C. Behavior paradigm Focuses on observable behaviors. Premise—abnormal behavior is learned!! Learning (classical & operant conditioning, modeling)
Conditioning emotional responses: Watson & Raynor Classically conditioned 11-month-old infant to fear white rats (Santa beard, cotton). Presented infant with cute white rat—child showed interest in rat, was then presented with a loud noise (startle response).
Operant conditioning: Desired behaviors are reinforced (positive, negative), whereas undesirable behaviors are extinguished (punishment).
Modeling (Albert Bandura) We learn how to behavior, by watching others. Whether we will produce a given behavior is determined by whether we have seen it reinforced or punished.(Famous Bobo Doll study)
Criticisms of theory: 1. Abnormal behavior not connected to particular learning experiences (schizophrenia). 2. Simplistic circular reasoning (Description as explanation). 3. Useful for treatment, but not as cause for most mental disorders.
Cognitive : Premise- how we organize and interpret information Criticism of Cognitive Paradigm Concepts are slippery, not well defined. cognitive explanations do not explain much E.g., depressed person has negative cognition--I am worthless.
E. Humanistic: Theorists argue we are driven to self- actualize, that is, to fulfill our potential for goodness and growth.
Roger’s Humanistic therapy We all have a basic need to receive positive regard from the important people in our lives (parents). Those who receive unconditional positive regard early in life are likely to develop unconditional self-regard. That is, they come to recognize their worth as persons, even while recognizing that they are not perfect. Such people are in good shape to actualize their positive potential.