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Membranes and Skin. 4.1.1 List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body. 4.1.2 Compare the structure (tissue makeup)

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Presentation on theme: "Membranes and Skin. 4.1.1 List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body. 4.1.2 Compare the structure (tissue makeup)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Membranes and Skin

2 4.1.1 List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types. Slide 4.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Function of body membranes  Line or cover body surfaces  Protect body surfaces  Lubricate body surfaces

3 Classification of Body Membranes Slide 4.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Epithelial membranes  Cutaneous membrane  Mucous membrane  Serous membrane  Connective tissue membranes List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

4 Epithelial Membranes - covering and lining membranes Epithelial Membranes - covering and lining membranes –Cutaneous membrane – Skin (Integument) Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Dense fibrous connective tissue Dense fibrous connective tissue Exposed to air so it is a DRY membrane Exposed to air so it is a DRY membrane List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

5 –Mucous Membranes – lines all body cavities that open to the exterior Epithelium (stratified squamous, simple columnar) Epithelium (stratified squamous, simple columnar) Loose connective tissue (lamina propria) Loose connective tissue (lamina propria) WET membranes – continuously bathed in secretions (usually mucus, but not always) WET membranes – continuously bathed in secretions (usually mucus, but not always) List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

6 –Serous Membranes – line body cavities that do not open to the exterior Simple squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium Areolar connective tissue (thin layer) Areolar connective tissue (thin layer) Parietal layer lines the wall of the ventral body cavity Parietal layer lines the wall of the ventral body cavity Visceral layer lines the outside of the organs Visceral layer lines the outside of the organs List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

7 Layers are separated by serous fluid (reduces friction) Names depend upon locations Peritoneum – lines the abdominal cavity Peritoneum – lines the abdominal cavity Pleura – surrounds the lungs Pleura – surrounds the lungs Pericardium – surrounds the heart Pericardium – surrounds the heart List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

8 Connective Tissue Membranes Synovial Membranes – line the fibrous capsule surrounding joints Synovial Membranes – line the fibrous capsule surrounding joints –Soft areolar connective tissue (no epithelium) Provide a smooth surface Provide a smooth surface Secrete lubricating fluid Secrete lubricating fluid List the general function of each membrane type and give its location in the body Compare the structure (tissue makeup) of the major membrane types.

9 Integumentary System Consist of Consist of –Cutaneous membrane (skin) –Derivatives Sweat and oil glands Sweat and oil glands Hair Hair Nails Nails

10 4.3.1 List several important functions of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are accomplished. Funtions Funtions –Protection from mechanical and chemical damage, thermal damage, bacterial invasion, UV radiation, dessication –Aids in heat loss or retention –Aids in excretion of urea –Synthesizes Vitamin D *Please see the chart on pg 95 for details *Please see the chart on pg 95 for details

11 4.2.1 When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each Epidermis – the outer layer Epidermis – the outer layer –Stratified squamous epthelium –Keratinized – gets hard and tough Dermis - deep to the epidermis Dermis - deep to the epidermis –Made of dense connective tissue –Collagen and elastic fibers Subcutaneous tissue or Hypodermis Subcutaneous tissue or Hypodermis –Deep to the dermis (not part of skin) –Adipose tissue – anchors skin to rest of body –Shock absorber/insulator/curves

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14 4.2.1 When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each Composed of 5 layers called strata Composed of 5 layers called strata *from the inside going out* –Stratum basale –Stratum spinosum –Stratum granulosum –Stratum lucidum –Stratum corneum –The epidermis is avascular – has no blood supply

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16 4.2.1 When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each Stratum Basale Lies closest to the dermis Lies closest to the dermis Cells receive nourishment via diffusion from the dermis Cells receive nourishment via diffusion from the dermis Keratinocytes are constantly dividing Keratinocytes are constantly dividing Also called stratum germinativum Also called stratum germinativum Daughter cells are pushed upwards to become part of the upper epidermal layers Daughter cells are pushed upwards to become part of the upper epidermal layers Contains the melanocytes Contains the melanocytes

17 Stratum Spinosum and Stratum Granulosum Stratum Spinosum – 8 to 10 cell layers thick Stratum Spinosum – 8 to 10 cell layers thick Stratum Granulosum – 2 to 5 cell layers thick Stratum Granulosum – 2 to 5 cell layers thick –Cells begin to flatten as they are pushed upwards –Increasingly fills with keratin (keratinized) –As the cell continues to push upwards, the nucleus and organelles degenerate and the cell dies When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

18 Stratum Lucidum – several layers of dead cells that look transparent – only occurs where skin is hairless (hands and feet) Stratum Lucidum – several layers of dead cells that look transparent – only occurs where skin is hairless (hands and feet) –Too much keratin –not enough nutrition or oxygen/to far from blood When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

19 Stratum Corneum – 25 or more cell layers thick, containing soft keratin. Stratum Corneum – 25 or more cell layers thick, containing soft keratin. –Shingle like layers filled with keratin – cornified or horney cells –Cells are continually shed as clothes rub against your body or when you wash. –Completely new epidermis every 25 – 45 days Keratin – an exceptionally tough protein Keratin – an exceptionally tough protein When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

20 This is your “hide” This is your “hide” Leather = dermis Leather = dermis Dense fibrous connective tissue Dense fibrous connective tissue Two major regions Two major regions –Papillary layer –Reticular areas Varies in thickness Varies in thickness –Ex. Hands vs. eyelids When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

21 Dense fibrous connective tissue Dense fibrous connective tissue –Papillary region Upper area that contains the dermal papillae (fingerprints) Upper area that contains the dermal papillae (fingerprints) contains capillaries, free nerve endings, Meissner’s corpuscles (touch) contains capillaries, free nerve endings, Meissner’s corpuscles (touch) –Reticular region Lower area that contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and Pacinian corpuscles (pressure) Lower area that contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and Pacinian corpuscles (pressure) When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

22 Overall dermis structure Overall dermis structure –Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the dermis Collagen fibers give skin its toughness Collagen fibers give skin its toughness Collagen fibers help keep skin hydrated Collagen fibers help keep skin hydrated Elastic fibers give skin elasticity Elastic fibers give skin elasticity –As we age we loose collagen/elastic fibers and subcutaneous tissue making us saggy –Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation When provided with a model or diagram of the skin, recognize and name the major and minor parts Name the layers of the epidermis and describe the characteristics of each

23 4.3.3 Name the factors that determine skin color and describe the function of melanin. Three pigments contribute to skin color Three pigments contribute to skin color –Melanin (yellow, reddish brown, black) in the epidermis –Carotene deposited in the stratum corneum and subcutaneous tissue –Hemoglobin in the dermal blood vessels

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25 Melanin – FYI(steps of tanning) Produced by cells called melanocites located in the stratum basale layer of the epidermis. Produced by cells called melanocites located in the stratum basale layer of the epidermis. Sunlight stimulates the production of melanin. Sunlight stimulates the production of melanin. Stratum basale cells phagocytize(eat) the pigment Stratum basale cells phagocytize(eat) the pigment Melanin forms protective layer over the sunny side of nuclei. Melanin forms protective layer over the sunny side of nuclei. Freckles and moles are spots of concentrated melanin. Freckles and moles are spots of concentrated melanin.

26 Other Influences on Skin Color Erythema – redness Erythema – redness –embarassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation or allergy Palor - paleness or blanching Palor - paleness or blanching –Fear, anger, anemia, hypotension

27 Other Influences on Skin Color (con’t) Jaundice – yellowing Jaundice – yellowing –Signifies a liver disorder –Excess bile pigments are absorbed and deposited in body tissues Bruises - hematomas Bruises - hematomas –Sites where blood has escaped from the circulation and then clotted in the tissue space. –Possibly signifies a Vitamin C deficiency or hemophilia

28 4.3.2 Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair. Appendages of skin Cutaneous glands Cutaneous glands –Oil glands –Sweat glands Eccrine Eccrine Apocrine Apocrine Hair and hair follicles Hair and hair follicles Nails Nails

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30 Cutaneous Glands Exocrine glands that release their secretions to the outside of the body Exocrine glands that release their secretions to the outside of the body –Formed by the cells of the stratum basale but reside almost entirely in the dermis Sebaceuos glands (oil) Sebaceuos glands (oil) Sweat glands Sweat glands *exocrine glands release to a specific site Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

31 Sebaceous Glands Produce oil Produce oil –Sebum – mix of oil and cell fragments –lubricates skin and hair –kills bacteria Found all over the body except on palms of hands and soles of feet Found all over the body except on palms of hands and soles of feet Ducts usually empty into a hair follicle Ducts usually empty into a hair follicle Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

32 Sebaceous Glands If blocked by sebum, whitehead forms If blocked by sebum, whitehead forms If material oxidizes and dries, blackhead is formed If material oxidizes and dries, blackhead is formed Acne is an active infection of the sebaceous glands Acne is an active infection of the sebaceous glands Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

33 Sweat Glands Sudoriferous glands Sudoriferous glands –2.5 million per person Two types Two types –Eccrine (ek’ rin) – more numerous – found all over the body. –Apocrine (ap’ o-krin) – found in the axillary and genital areas Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

34 Eccrine Sweat Glands Found all over the body Found all over the body Produce sweat – made of water, salts, vitamin C, and traces of metabolic wastes like urea, and ammonia. Produce sweat – made of water, salts, vitamin C, and traces of metabolic wastes like urea, and ammonia. –Acidic (inhibits bacterial growth) –Exits the skin at sweat pores Helps regulate body temperature Helps regulate body temperature Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

35 Apocrine Sweat Glands Found in the axillary and genital areas Found in the axillary and genital areas Larger than eccrine glands Larger than eccrine glands Ducts empty into hair follicles Ducts empty into hair follicles Made of same substances as eccrine sweat plus fatty acids and proteins Made of same substances as eccrine sweat plus fatty acids and proteins Bacteria live on these nutrients and cause the unpleasant BO Bacteria live on these nutrients and cause the unpleasant BO Function almost continuously Function almost continuously Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

36 Ceruminous Glands Ceruminous glands: modified eccrine sweat glands, found on the external auditory meatus. Ceruminous glands: modified eccrine sweat glands, found on the external auditory meatus. –Earwax (cerumen). Composed of a combination of sebum and secretion from ceruminous gland. –Function- In combination with hairs, prevent dirt and insects from entry. Also keeps eardrum supple Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

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38 Hair and Hair Follicles Protects head from bumps Protects head from bumps Shields the eyes (eyelashes) Shields the eyes (eyelashes) Keeps foreign particles out of lungs Keeps foreign particles out of lungs Used to provide insulation – we wear clothes now Used to provide insulation – we wear clothes now Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

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40 Hair Found almost everywhere on human body Found almost everywhere on human body Shaft protrudes above skin surface Shaft protrudes above skin surface Root located below surface; base of root is the hair bulb Root located below surface; base of root is the hair bulb 3 main regions 3 main regions –Actual hair shaft –Hair follicle –Hair bulb Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

41 Has 3 concentric layers Has 3 concentric layers –Medulla: Central axis –Cortex: Forms bulk of hair –Cuticle: Forms hair surface Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

42 Hair Follicle –Outer - Dermal sheath: part of dermis that surrounds the epithelial sheath Dermal Connective tissue, supplies blood to matrix in hair bulb Dermal Connective tissue, supplies blood to matrix in hair bulb –Inner - Epithelial sheath with internal and external parts. Forms the hair Forms the hair Internal part contains stratum basale that may remain after injury and supply a source of new epidermis Internal part contains stratum basale that may remain after injury and supply a source of new epidermis When hairs are pulled out, internal part comes out and is visible as white bulb When hairs are pulled out, internal part comes out and is visible as white bulb Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

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44 Fig. 5.6c

45 Hair Bulb –Internal matrix is source of hair Formed by division of well-nourished stratum basale epithelial cells Formed by division of well-nourished stratum basale epithelial cells Daughters cells are pushed away and keratinize and die. Daughters cells are pushed away and keratinize and die. –Contains melanocytes –Dermis projects into bulb and is blood supply Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

46 Hair Color. Caused by varying amounts and types of melanin. Melanin can be black- brown and red. Hair Color. Caused by varying amounts and types of melanin. Melanin can be black- brown and red. Muscles. Arrector pili. Muscles. Arrector pili. –Type of smooth muscle. –Muscle contraction causes hair to “stand on end” –Skin pushed up by movement of hair follicle Goosebumps Goosebumps Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

47 Hair Growth –Cycles - Growth and resting stages Growth: cells added at base and hair elongates. Average rate is 0.3 mm/day Growth: cells added at base and hair elongates. Average rate is 0.3 mm/day Rest: follicle shortens and holds hair in place. Then hair falls out of follicle. New hair begins. Rest: follicle shortens and holds hair in place. Then hair falls out of follicle. New hair begins. –Regular hair loss means hair is being replaced. –Permanent hair loss: pattern baldness most common cause Describe the distribution and function of the epidermal derivatives – sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair.

48 Nails  Protect the ends of the digits  Aid in the grasping of small objects  Good for scratching  Rich blood supply  Transparent

49 Nail structures –Free edge –Body – visible attached portion –Root – embedded in the skin –Nail fold – skin folds that over the borders of the nail

50 Nail structures –Cuticle – thick proximal nail fold –Nail bed – stratum basale of the epidermis that extends beneath the nail –Nail Matrix – thickened proximal area responsible for growth responsible for growth As cells are produced they become heavily keratinized and die As cells are produced they become heavily keratinized and die

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53 4.4.1 Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.” Burns Tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiation or chemicals Tissue damage and cell death caused by intense heat, electricity, UV radiation or chemicals Leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Can lead to shock – low blood volume Can lead to shock – low blood volume

54 Rule of Nines Estimate of the amount of fluids lost based on the total body surface burned. Estimate of the amount of fluids lost based on the total body surface burned. –Body is divided into 11 areas each representing 9% of the total body surface area (11 x 9 = 99) and one area the perineum makes up the remaining 1% Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

55 Burn Victims Infection is the leading cause of death in burn victims Infection is the leading cause of death in burn victims Pathogens easily invade the burned areas and multiply rapidly (lots of food) Pathogens easily invade the burned areas and multiply rapidly (lots of food) Immune system becomes depressed Immune system becomes depressed Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

56 First-Degree Damage only the epidermis Damage only the epidermis Area becomes red and swollen Area becomes red and swollen Heals in one to two days Heals in one to two days Sunburn Sunburn Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

57 Second-Degree Involves injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis Involves injury to the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis Area becomes red and painful and blisters appear. Area becomes red and painful and blisters appear. Sufficient epithelial cells are still present so regeneration will occur Sufficient epithelial cells are still present so regeneration will occur Usually no scarring Usually no scarring Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

58 Third-Degree Destroys the entire thickness of the skin (epidermis and all of the dermis) Destroys the entire thickness of the skin (epidermis and all of the dermis) Appears gray-white or blackened Appears gray-white or blackened Burned area is not painful because the nerve endings are destroyed Burned area is not painful because the nerve endings are destroyed Regeneration is NOT possible – skin grafting is done Regeneration is NOT possible – skin grafting is done Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

59 Burns are Critical when: Over 25% of the body has second- degree burns Over 25% of the body has second- degree burns Over 10% of the body has third- degree burns Over 10% of the body has third- degree burns Third-degree burns on the face, hands or feet Third-degree burns on the face, hands or feet Differentiate between first, second, and third degree burns Explain the importance of the “rule of nines.”

60 Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Malignant Melanoma Malignant Melanoma Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.

61 Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common and least malignant Most common and least malignant Starts in stratum basale – cells can no longer form keratin and invade the dermis and hypodermis Starts in stratum basale – cells can no longer form keratin and invade the dermis and hypodermis Shiny, dome-shaped Shiny, dome-shaped Slow-growing Slow-growing 99% curable 99% curable Surgical removal Surgical removal Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.

62 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Starts in the stratum spinosum Starts in the stratum spinosum Grows rapidly and can metastasize to the lymph nodes Grows rapidly and can metastasize to the lymph nodes Treated with surgical removal and radiation Treated with surgical removal and radiation Scaly and red Scaly and red Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.

63 Malignant Melanoma Cancer of the melanocytes Cancer of the melanocytes Metastasizes quickly to lymph and blood vessels Metastasizes quickly to lymph and blood vessels 50% survival rate 50% survival rate Spreading black to brown patch Spreading black to brown patch Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.

64 Stages of Melanoma Least Serious Most Serious

65 American Cancer Society ABCDE Rule ABCDE Rule A – Asymmetry – sides don’t match A – Asymmetry – sides don’t match B – Border irregular – not smooth B – Border irregular – not smooth C – Color – different colors (black, brown, tan, blue, red) C – Color – different colors (black, brown, tan, blue, red) D – Diameter – larger than 6 mm D – Diameter – larger than 6 mm E – Evolution – changes with time E – Evolution – changes with time Summarize the characteristics of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.

66 Color Asymmetry Asymmetry Diameter Diameter Border Border Evolution Evolution


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