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CH 13 PERSONALITY.  Unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life  It is not  Character – person’s value judgments made.

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Presentation on theme: "CH 13 PERSONALITY.  Unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life  It is not  Character – person’s value judgments made."— Presentation transcript:


2  Unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life  It is not  Character – person’s value judgments made on a person’s morals or ethical behavior  Temperament – enduring characteristics with which each person is born, such as irritability or adaptability  Biology through genetic and prenatal influences  One’s larger personality is built on this PERSONALITY

3  Psychodynamic  Sigmund Freud  role of the unconscious mind and biological causes of personality  Behaviorist  Effect of environment on personality  Humanistic  Reaction against psychoanalytic and behaviorist  Role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices  Trait  End result, not focused on causes PERSPECTIVES OF PERSONALITY THEORY

4  Born in 1856  Grew up in Vienna  Jewish, so he then moved to England to escape Nazis  Victorian age, sex only in marriage, and you should not like it  Many of Freud's patients were wealthy women with sexual repression  Freud was obsessed with sex being the explanation for abnormal behaviors SIGMUND FREUD

5  Three parts of a persons’ mind  Preconscious, conscious, and unconscious mind  Unconscious mind  Level of the mind that we keep thoughts, feelings and memories.  Not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness  To Freud it is what makes up our personality and human behavior UNCONSCIOUS MIND

6  ID-if it feels good do it  Pleasure seeking, immoral  Basic biological drives  Hunger, thirst, self preservation and sex  Pleasure Principal – desire for immediate gratification with no regard for the consequences  Ego-the Executive Director  Rational, logical and conning  Reality Principal - satisfying the needs of the ID when negative consequences will not result  Superego- the moral watchdog  Moral Center  Contains the Conscience, what makes up feel guilty DIVISIONS OF PERSONALITY

7  Psychological defense mechanisms  How our unconscious distorts our perception of reality to reduce stress and anxiety  Examples  Denial  Repression  rationalization HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER

8  Freud determined 5 stages  Developing sexuality of the child  Each stage focus on a different erogenous zone  Fixation  Getting stuck in one stage  Child will grow but will carry emotional baggage from one stage STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

9  Birth to 1 ½ years old  Mouth is the erogenous zone  Weaning is the primary conflict  Fixation in adults  Overeating  Drinking  Smoking  Excessive talking ORAL STAGE

10  1 ½ - 3 years of age  Erogenous zone is now the anus  Toilet training becomes an issue  Fixation  Anal Explosive  Messiness is a statement of control  Destructive  Hostile  Anal Retentive  Stingy  Stubborn  Excessively neat ANAL STAGE

11  3-6 years old  Erogenous zone is the genitals  Realizing differences between boys and girls  Oedipus/Electra Complex  Fixation  Immature sexual attitude  Promiscuous  “mama’s boys” PHALLIC STAGE

12  6 – onset of puberty  Children hide their sexual feelings  Children grow and develop intellectually, physically and emotionally  Play with own gender, other gender is bad  Fixation  Difficulty getting along with others LATENCY STAGE

13  When puberty begins  Sexual feelings can no longer be hidden  Bodies are changing  Begins adult social and sexual behavior  Fixation  Immature love relationships GENITAL STAGE

14  He did no experiments to arrive at his conclusions about personality  Used observations and case studies  He used confirmation bias  Memories and dreams would be put into his theory as he needed  No scientific basis of dreams CRITICISMS

15  His concepts remain useful  Basis for modern personality theories  Defense mechanisms has drawn much research  Unconscious mind PSYCHODYNAMIC TODAY

16  Watson and Skinner  Operant and classical conditioning influence our personalities  Our personality is just a set of learned habits  Social Cognitive learning Theorists  Importance of both the influences of other people’s behavior and of a person’s own expectancies on learning  Observations  Modeling BEHAVIORIST

17  Three factors in the behaviors that make up a persons personality  Environment  Behavior itself  Personal or cognitive factors  Reciprocal Determination  The three factors affecting one another in a give-take relationship BANDURA

18  Motivation  People are driven to seek reinforcement and to avoid punishment  Personality is a relatively stable set of potential responses to a situation  Locus of Control  We assume we either have or do not have control, internal or external  Expectancy  An expectation that a behavior will lead to a reinforcement ROTTER

19  Limited  Does not take mental process into account  Does not look at social influence  Has influenced therapies based on learning theories BEHAVIORISTS TODAY

20  Maslow and Rogers  Focuses on what makes us human, unique  Feelings and freedom of choice HUMANISTIC

21  We are striving to fulfill what our genetic makeup will allow us to  Self-actualization=fulfillment  Self concept is our own image of who we are  Real self – who we are  Ideal self – who we want to be ROGERS

22  Positive regard  Warmth, affection, love  Unconditioned positive regard  No strings attached  Conditioned positive regard  Strings  Fully functioning person  In touch with their own feelings and abilities, trust themselves CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD

23  Ignores the negative aspects of human nature  Difficult to test  Development if therapies to promote self growth and a better understanding of self HUMANISTIC TODAY

24  Concerned describing personality and predicting behavior  Trait – is a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feelings, or behavior TRAIT

25  Found 200 traits in dictionary  Paired down to surface or source traits  Reserved vs outgoing  Submissive vs dominant  Shy vs bold  These traits were wired in the nervous system to guide our behavior  Used in many different situations  Persons “constellation” of traits are unique  Lack of scientific evidence  However, behavioral genetics support heritability of personality traits ALLPORT & CATELL

26  5 trait dimensions  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism THE BIG FIVE

27  Traits will not always be expressed the same  Depends on situation  The big 5 has been tested  Found in 11 different cultures TRAIT TODAY

28  Interviews – asking questions of the person, structured or not  Halo Effect – interviewer to allow positive traits to influence the assessment  Projective tests  Psychoanalysts want to uncover the unconscious conflicts, desires and urges  These tests have the person project their “issues” unto harmless stimuli  Client responds to whatever comes to mind  Uncovers problems in personality ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY

29  Developed in 1921 by a Swiss Psychiatrist  10 inkblots, 5 black and white, 5 color  Using predetermined responses based on past answers, people were given a score  They are still used today  No right or wrong answers  Issues  Subjective  Not reliable RORSCHACH INKBLOTS




33  Standardized test with yes or no questions  More reliable as the questions are not open ended, and everyone gets asked the same questions  Myers Briggs is used to assess personality to help with career selection  MMPI-2 very common  True or false answers to statements  Issues  Some people are able to fake the answers PERSONALITY INVENTORIES

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