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Ch 13 Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 13 Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 13 Personality

2 Personality Unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life It is not Character – person’s value judgments made on a person’s morals or ethical behavior Temperament – enduring characteristics with which each person is born, such as irritability or adaptability Biology through genetic and prenatal influences One’s larger personality is built on this Our personality is a combo of out temperament and character, what we react to and what our family history, culture and beliefs are

3 Perspectives of personality theory
Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud role of the unconscious mind and biological causes of personality Behaviorist Effect of environment on personality Humanistic Reaction against psychoanalytic and behaviorist Role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices Trait End result, not focused on causes The study of personality is still a young field, several ways to explain a persons behavior, it is difficult to measure precisely and scientifically Philosophers once believed that the personality was a balance of the four physical humors of the body, blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm Reinforces Bandura Rogers Gordan allport

4 Sigmund Freud Born in 1856 Grew up in Vienna
Jewish, so he then moved to England to escape Nazis Victorian age, sex only in marriage, and you should not like it Many of Freud's patients were wealthy women with sexual repression Freud was obsessed with sex being the explanation for abnormal behaviors We need to understand the man men were to father children with their wives and have fun with their mistresses Women were to not have any sexual urges

5 Unconscious Mind Three parts of a persons’ mind Unconscious mind
Preconscious, conscious, and unconscious mind Unconscious mind Level of the mind that we keep thoughts, feelings and memories. Not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness To Freud it is what makes up our personality and human behavior No one argued with have a conscious, it was the unc that bothered people They would come out in dreams in a symbolic manner Where our secrets lie

6 Divisions of personality
ID-if it feels good do it Pleasure seeking, immoral Basic biological drives Hunger, thirst, self preservation and sex Pleasure Principal – desire for immediate gratification with no regard for the consequences Ego-the Executive Director Rational, logical and conning Reality Principal - satisfying the needs of the ID when negative consequences will not result Superego- the moral watchdog Moral Center Contains the Conscience, what makes up feel guilty He thought babies had sex drives, or pleasure seekers, sucking of thumb, chewing Id Present as an infant is demanding irrational illogical, want needs satisfied, right NOW When we grow up, we get the ego. Reality sets in

7 How they work together Psychological defense mechanisms
How our unconscious distorts our perception of reality to reduce stress and anxiety Examples Denial Repression rationalization Freud believed that we had to find a way to mange the fight with the three So we will deny our behaviors thoughts Not remembering the bad stuff Make up an excuse why it is ok

8 Stages of personality development
Freud determined 5 stages Developing sexuality of the child Each stage focus on a different erogenous zone Fixation Getting stuck in one stage Child will grow but will carry emotional baggage from one stage Since he focused heavily on sex drive… Also called them psychosexual stages of personality dev

9 Oral Stage Birth to 1 ½ years old Mouth is the erogenous zone
Weaning is the primary conflict Fixation in adults Overeating Drinking Smoking Excessive talking

10 Anal stage 1 ½ - 3 years of age Erogenous zone is now the anus
Toilet training becomes an issue Fixation Anal Explosive Messiness is a statement of control Destructive Hostile Anal Retentive Stingy Stubborn Excessively neat Potty training is in full swing People who are slobs

11 Phallic stage 3-6 years old Erogenous zone is the genitals
Realizing differences between boys and girls Oedipus/Electra Complex Fixation Immature sexual attitude Promiscuous “mama’s boys” Love mom kill dad and marry mom, stewie had exact opposite

12 Latency stage 6 – onset of puberty Children hide their sexual feelings
Children grow and develop intellectually, physically and emotionally Play with own gender, other gender is bad Fixation Difficulty getting along with others

13 Genital stage When puberty begins
Sexual feelings can no longer be hidden Bodies are changing Begins adult social and sexual behavior Fixation Immature love relationships

14 Criticisms He did no experiments to arrive at his conclusions about personality Used observations and case studies He used confirmation bias Memories and dreams would be put into his theory as he needed No scientific basis of dreams Of the limited pool of clients, wealthy Jewish women when his close friends children told him of actual abuse, he denied the abuse and stated the memories were not real After criticism he revised his story on this We cannot take Freud lightly his theory has had a great deal of influence on movies literature and cartoons

15 Psychodynamic today His concepts remain useful
Basis for modern personality theories Defense mechanisms has drawn much research Unconscious mind If you take the basis of each of his development stages he is correct, psych have built from there People do have defense mechanisms to explain behavior We do have issues in life at times that we cannot explain

16 behaviorist Watson and Skinner
Operant and classical conditioning influence our personalities Our personality is just a set of learned habits Social Cognitive learning Theorists Importance of both the influences of other people’s behavior and of a person’s own expectancies on learning Observations Modeling Well learned responses that are automatic In their eyes, everything we do is learned reactions A shy person may be shy due to a harsh parent at home, learned to keep quiet We develop who we are by how our thought process views life

17 Bandura Three factors in the behaviors that make up a persons personality Environment Behavior itself Personal or cognitive factors Reciprocal Determination The three factors affecting one another in a give-take relationship Environment is the physical sorrounbdings We walk into an environment as the new person, we do not like this, we do not like who is there, we have feelings/beleifs about it. We sit in the back and remove ourselvs

18 Rotter Motivation People are driven to seek reinforcement and to avoid punishment Personality is a relatively stable set of potential responses to a situation Locus of Control We assume we either have or do not have control, internal or external Expectancy An expectation that a behavior will lead to a reinforcement If we have learned what the response was in the past, and it was pleasurable, we will respond that way We are more motivated if we feel we have control What happens is we continue to have expectations we do not get reinforcment

19 Behaviorists today Limited Does not take mental process into account
Does not look at social influence Has influenced therapies based on learning theories We do have a degree of genetic make up We can learn to overcome issues

20 Humanistic Maslow and Rogers Focuses on what makes us human, unique
Feelings and freedom of choice We make our own destiny

21 rogers We are striving to fulfill what our genetic makeup will allow us to Self-actualization=fulfillment Self concept is our own image of who we are Real self – who we are Ideal self – who we want to be We have our own drives and beliefs of what a good life will be It is influenced by what others tell us about ourselves Empty chair If the real self is true and the ideal self is attainable, we are pretty happy

22 Conditional and unconditional positive regard
Warmth, affection, love Unconditioned positive regard No strings attached Conditioned positive regard Strings Fully functioning person In touch with their own feelings and abilities, trust themselves

23 Humanistic today Ignores the negative aspects of human nature
Difficult to test Development if therapies to promote self growth and a better understanding of self How would it explain serial killers

24 trait Concerned describing personality and predicting behavior
Trait – is a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feelings, or behavior Describing a persons personality in terms of a person’s trait

25 Allport & catell Found 200 traits in dictionary
Paired down to surface or source traits Reserved vs outgoing Submissive vs dominant Shy vs bold These traits were wired in the nervous system to guide our behavior Used in many different situations Persons “constellation” of traits are unique Lack of scientific evidence However, behavioral genetics support heritability of personality traits Gordon Allport andhis collogues scanned the dictionary for traits, finding paired down to 200 Shy might avoid crowds

26 The big five 5 trait dimensions Openness Conscientiousness
Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Try new things Organization, motivation In or out Easy going friendly Emotional stability

27 Trait today Traits will not always be expressed the same
Depends on situation The big 5 has been tested Found in 11 different cultures Party vs funeral

28 Assessment of personality
Interviews – asking questions of the person, structured or not Halo Effect – interviewer to allow positive traits to influence the assessment Projective tests Psychoanalysts want to uncover the unconscious conflicts, desires and urges These tests have the person project their “issues” unto harmless stimuli Client responds to whatever comes to mind Uncovers problems in personality Methods vary as the theories vary Eclectic view and take pieces of them all Just as watching the clouds

29 Rorschach inkblots Developed in 1921 by a Swiss Psychiatrist
10 inkblots, 5 black and white, 5 color Using predetermined responses based on past answers, people were given a score They are still used today No right or wrong answers Issues Subjective Not reliable No valid outside of the person

30 Rorschach inkblots Large number os sexual responses indicated schizo

31 Rorschach inkblots Another ink blot with a little face in the center - it's important not to focus on the face.

32 Time would matter, slow response depression or low iq
Time would matter, slow response depression or low iq. Should respond with this looks like, not this is Negative responses, anger aggression

33 Personality Inventories
Standardized test with yes or no questions More reliable as the questions are not open ended, and everyone gets asked the same questions Myers Briggs is used to assess personality to help with career selection MMPI-2 very common True or false answers to statements Issues Some people are able to fake the answers Try to ask the same questions a few different ways to avoid cheating

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