2 MatterKinetic TheorySolidLiquidGasPlasmaPhase changeFreezingMeltingDepositionSublimationCondenstationVaporizationPhysical propertiesDucilityMalleabilityMelting pointBoiling pointFreezing pointSolubilityReaction to lightElectrical conductivityChemical propertiesFlammabilityOxidationdecompositionPhysical changeChemical changeDemoritusJohn DaltonJJ ThomsonErnest RutherfordNiels BohrAtomosBohr ModelCloud ModelValence ElectronsEnergy LevelsShellsProperties of WaterUniversal solventAdhesionCohesionHigh specific heatCapillary actionSurface tensionPolarityStates of matterHeat of vaporizationpH
3 Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space The materials or “stuff” that all objects and substances in the universe are made of4 States of Matter = Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
4 MatterBecause all matter takes up space (has volume) and contains a certain amount of material (has mass), all matter can be detected and measured
5 Examples of MatterRocks, water, trees, bicycles, lighting, animals, stars, smoke, are all easily seen and observedDust mites that live in your furniture and rugs you may need a microscope to viewAir maybe invisible but we can feel it when the wind blows and see it bend the branches of trees (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, CO2)
7 Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter The elements in our periodic table make up all matter
8 Kinetic TheoryAll matter consists of tiny particles that are in constant motion.
9 Kinetic Theory1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). There is an attractive force between them.2. They are in constant, random motion. The particles may collide with one another or the sides of their container.3. As the temperature increases the speed of the particles increases. As the temperature decreases the speed of the particles decreases.
10 SOLIDSState of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume.Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.Particles are strongly attracted to each other
11 LIQUIDA state of matter that has a definite volume but takes the shape of its containerLiquids do not have a definite shapeParticles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another, allowing it to flow
12 GASA state of matter that has no definite shape and no definite volume; expands to fill the shape of its containerParticles of gases are very far apart and move freely.Attractive forces are very weak• Contain mostly empty space – because the particles are so far apart• Particles spread throughout a given volume until distributed equally – diffusion
13 Gas vs. VaporGas – a substance that is naturally in the gaseous state at room temperatureEXAMPLE: HeliumVapor – the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperatureEXAMPLE: Steam
14 PLASMA Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apartConsists of + and – charged particles (electrons are knocked off due to collisions)A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields.Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe
16 STATES OF MATTER SOLID LIQUID GAS PLASMA Tightly packed, in a regular patternVibrate, but do not move from place to place, definite shape and volumeClose together with no regular arrangement.Move about, flow and slide past each other. Definite volume, no definite shape takes shape of its container.Well separated with no regular arrangement.Move freely at high speeds. No definite shape or volume. Easily compressible.Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particlesPLC-Unit 1B
17 STATES OF MATTER LIQUID PLASMA SOLID GAS Tightly packed, in a regular patternVibrate, but do not move from place to placeClose together with no regular arrangement.Vibrate, move about, and slide past each otherWell separated with no regular arrangement.Vibrate and move freely at high speedsHas no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles
18 A transition of matter from one state to another. Phase ChangeA transition of matter from one state to another.
20 Some phase changes are more common and easier for us to visualize Some phase changes are more common and easier for us to visualize. For example, you have probably witnessed freezing, melting, and vaporization just by making ice, melting ice, and boiling water.
21 Condensation often occurs on the outside of cold beverage containers Condensation often occurs on the outside of cold beverage containers. This is when the humid air changes directly to a liquid on the surface of the container.
22 Sublimation Dry ice is actually solid carbon dioxide Sublimation Dry ice is actually solid carbon dioxide. When it sits in the open or is placed in water it rapidly changes directly from solid to gas creating a foggy cloud.
23 Deposition Frozen patterns of ice on your car windshield is an example Deposition Frozen patterns of ice on your car windshield is an example. Deposition involves a gas changing to a solid. This occurs during winter months when the humid air directly freezes into solid ice.
24 Physical propertiesCharacteristics that can be observed without changing the makeup or identity of the matterExamples: color, size, state of matter, density, ductility, malleability, boiling point, melting point, freezing point, electrical conductivity, solubility, reaction to light
25 Density The ratio of the mass of an object to its volume Formula: d = m/VUnits: g/mL or g/cm3
26 DuctilityThe ability to be pulled into a thin strandEX: wire
27 Malleability The ability to be pressed or pounded into a thin sheet EX: aluminum foil, sheet metal
28 Boiling PointThe temp at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gasEX: the boiling point of water = 1000C
29 Melting PointThe temp at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquidEX: the melting point of chocolate is 340C
30 Freezing PointThe temp at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solidEX: the freezing point of water = 00C
31 Electrical Conductivity How well a substance allows electricity to flow through itEX: copper wires,electrical lines
32 Solubility The ability to dissolve in another substance EX: sugar in water
33 Reaction to Light Reflection – to bounce off ( mirror) Refraction – to bend (water)Absorption – to take in (leaf)
34 Reaction to Light Transmission – allow to pass through Opaque – little to no light passes through (blanket)Translucent – some light passes through (sunglasses)Transparent- most light passes through ( glass window)
35 Chemical propertiesThe ability of matter to undergo a specific chemical change, creating a different type of matter with new propertiesExamples: flammability, decomposition, oxidation
36 Flammibility To burn Must occur in the presence of oxygen EX: Flame tests help to identify metals by their characteristic flame color
37 Decomposition To rot or breakdown Complex compounds breakdown to simpler substancesEX: CO2 breaks down to Carbon and Oxygen
38 Oxidation The process of losing electrons EX: iron rusts when exposed to oxygen
39 Physical ChangesA process where a substance’s chemical properties have not changedCan be a change in size, color, shape, state of matterEX: ice melting, salt dissolving in water, glass breaking
40 Chemical ChangeOccurs when new substances or materials are produced to have different chemical properties from the reactantsEX: rust is the productof iron and oxygen,wood burning
41 Democritus Greek philosopher in 440 bc Was the first to proposed the existence of atoms“Atomos” meaning “not to be cut”
42 John Dalton British chemist 1803 Atomic Theory – He came up with the theory that all substances were made of atomsAtoms were small, hard, dense spheres that could not be created, destroyed, or altered
43 Dmitri Mendeleev Known as the father of the present day periodic table Organized the elements (each type of atom) by similar properties in 1869
44 J. J. Thomson British scientist 1898 Proposed that atoms themselves were made of smaller particles .He discovered that atoms contained negatively charged particles, but did not know their location
45 J. J. ThomsonTheorized the negatively charged particles were spread evenly throughout the positively charged materialThomson’s model of the atom was called the “plum-pudding” model
46 Ernest Rutherford 1911 a former student of Thomson's Proposed that atoms had a dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons
47 Niels Bohr 1913 Danish scientist Said that electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular paths, called orbitsAnd that electrons could only exist in certain orbits and at certain energy levels
48 Today’s model electron cloud model Bohr’s model was an important stepping stone to today’s, which was developed in the 1920’sElectrons surround the nucleus, traveling not in prescribed paths but in regions of various thicknesses called clouds
49 Bohr Model Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom in set energy levels P = 20N = 20
50 Energy Level The specific energies an electron in an atom can have In the Bohr model used to describe the different orbits or shells that the electrons travel in around the nucleus
51 Valence ElectronsThe electrons in the highest or outermost energy level
52 PolarityWhen electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond, causing one end of the water molecule to have a positive charge while the other has a negative charge
53 Each end of a water molecule is attracted to the opposite charged end of another water molecule. Water's polarity is responsible for the "stickiness" or cohesion between the molecules.
54 States of MatterThe only known substance to naturally exist on Earth in all three states of matter is waterSolid - IceGas - CloudsLiquid - Lakes
55 pHThe measure of how acidic or basic water isRainwater
56 Universal SolventMore substances dissolve in water than in any other liquid
57 CohesionWater molecules are attracted to more water molecules so they stick to each otherWater ↔ Water
58 AdhesionWater molecules are attracted to and stick to other substanceWater ↔ Other
59 Surface TensionWater molecules have a stronger attraction to each other than to the air above, so the water molecules cling tightly to each other forming what’s like a skin at the surface
60 Capillary ActionMovement of water within the spaces of a porous material due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion and surface tension
61 High Specific HeatThe amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water by one degree Celsius is quite large, causing the temperature of water to change slowly
62 Heat of VaporizationWater absorbs heat as it changes from a liquid to a gas