Presentation on theme: "Integrating Practices into Items Next Generation Assessments for Emerging Standards CSSS Large Scale Assessment Webinar Tuesday, October 7, 2014 Christopher."— Presentation transcript:
Integrating Practices into Items Next Generation Assessments for Emerging Standards CSSS Large Scale Assessment Webinar Tuesday, October 7, 2014 Christopher C. Lazzaro, The College Board Tom Regan, The College Board
Agenda What is the AP redesign and why should we look at it? What is so different? Example Items Old and New Does this align with the goals of the NGSS?
Why Redesign AP Science? -Emphasize deep understanding rather than comprehensive coverage -- avoid “mile wide & inch deep” syndrome -Reflect current understanding of how students learn in a discipline -Reflect current research directions within the disciplines -Emphasize the development of inquiry and reasoning skills A 2002 NRC Report identified ways to improve advanced study of math and science in the U.S. The Report’s recommendations are applicable to all AP course subjects:
What’s the Big Idea… Big Ideas are the key concepts and related content that define the revised AP science courses and exams. Under each of the Big Ideas, three to five Enduring Understandings (EUs) are identified: -These EUs are the core concepts that students should retain from the learning experience Science Practices capture the aspects of science reasoning that are necessary for building, justifying and evaluating evidenced-based, testable explanations and predictions. Science Practices Big Idea Enduring Understanding
BIG IDEAS - BIO Big Idea 2: Cellular Processes: Energy and Communication Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Big Idea 3: Genetics and Information Transfer Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes. Big Idea 4: Interactions Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties. Big Idea 1: Evolution The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
1.Use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems. 2.Use mathematics appropriately. 3.Engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course. 4.Plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a particular scientific question. 5.Perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence. 6.Work with scientific explanations and theories. 7.Connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains.
Enduring Understandings What do you want students to know in 50 years? EUs should describe the target understanding for your curriculum. EUs explain specific learning goals that relate to the corresponding Big Ideas
Enduring Understandings 1.Evolution A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry. C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment. D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
Claim Claim Science Practices Big Idea Enduring Understanding So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding?
Evidence-Centered Design Claim – State the knowledge you want students to have. Specify what students should know, understand, and be able to do. Evidence – The acceptable evidence that a student has the desired knowledge outlined in the claim? Task – What the student does to provide this evidence.
So what’s really so different? Lets look at some Old vs. New exams
OLD: Released 2008 Multiple Choice Exam Question The picture above represents some stages in the early development of an embryo. In which of the stages does gastrulation begin? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5
The Claim: The student can analyze biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis that include temporal regulation and coordination. EU 2.E: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding? The Evidence: Representation includes relevant factors and processes that solve the problem. The problem is about the timing and coordination of organism development. Explanation includes a claim that relates the representation to the problem and evidence from the representation’s factors and processes that support the claim. SP.1.4 The student can use representations and models to analyze situations or solve problems qualitatively and quantitatively. Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
NEW: Multiple Choice Exam Question Which of the following is the most plausible explanation for these findings? A cell surface protein on cell 4 signals cell 3 to induce formation of the worm’s intestine. The diagram below shows a developing worm embryo at the four-cell stage. Experiments have shown that when cell 3 divides, the anterior daughter cell gives rise to muscle and gonads and the posterior daughter cell gives rise to the intestine. However, if the cells of the embryo are separated from one another early during the four-cell stage, no intestine will form. Other experiments have shown that if cell 3 and cell 4 are recombined after the initial separation, the posterior daughter cell of cell 3 will once again give rise to normal intestine. The plasma membrane of cell 4 interacts with the plasma membrane of the posterior portion of cell 3, causing invaginations that become microvilli. Cell 3 passes an electrical signal to cell 4, which induces differentiation in cell 4. Cell 4 transfers genetic material to cell 3, which directs the development of intestinal cells.
OLD: Released 2010 Free Response Exam Question Use the information in the table below to respond to the statements and questions that follow. Your answers should be in terms of principles of molecular structure and intermolecular forces. a) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for ethyne in the appropriate cell in the table above. b) Which of the four molecules contains the shortest carbon-to- carbon bond? Explain.
The Claim: Students can predict properties of substances based on their chemical formulas, and provide explanations of their properties based on particle views. EU 2.A: Matter can be described by its physical properties. The physical properties of a substance generally depend on the spacing between the particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that make up the substance and the forces of attraction among them. So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding? The Evidence: Claim or prediction is based on a diagram or model that analyzes the physical and chemical characteristics of a molecule. SP.6.4: The student can make claims and predictions about natural phenomena based on scientific theories and models. Big Idea 2: Chemical and physical properties of materials can be explained by the structure and the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules and the forces between them.
Performance Indicator - 1.1 Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth. Major Understanding - 1.1e Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets. Earth Science Standard
Question 1A - Earth Science Example Item During which Northern Hemisphere season is Earth closest to the Sun? a.spring b.autumn c.summer d.winter
Performance Expectation: Develop and use a model of the Earth- sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons. Disciplinary Core Idea: The Universe and Its Stars Patterns of the apparent motion of the sun, the moon, and stars in the sky can be observed, described, predicted, and explained with models. How Do You Measure A Students Understanding? Science Practice: Developing and Using Models Modeling in 9–12 builds on K– 8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s). Crosscutting concept: Patterns Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships. The Evidence: Analyze a data set and identify patterns of the amount of sunlight at a given location on earth (not the equator). Patterns identified in the data are used to explain the relationship between the tilt of the axis of earth and the celestial plane of earth’s orbit. The Evidence: Analyze a data set and identify patterns of the amount of sunlight at a given location on earth (not the equator). Patterns identified in the data are used to explain the relationship between the tilt of the axis of earth and the celestial plane of earth’s orbit.
1.Review the data in the table. 1.Record the pattern you observe for each of the following in your answer book. Include as much detail in your description as possible. Time of sunrise Time of sunset Length of daylight The highest angle of the sun in the sky 3.Record any relationship you see among the patterns you described for Step 2. Question 1B - NGSS Example Item 4.Plot the daylight length vs month and the sun’s highest angle vs month and connect the dots on your plot with a smooth curve.
5.Determine if the location that the data was collected is in the northern or southern hemisphere. Use the relationship that you identified in the question #3 and the plot that you created in question #4 to justify your answer. Question 5 - NGSS Example Item con’t
Performance Indicator - 2.1 Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth’s plates. Major Understanding – 2.1t and 2.1u 2.1t Natural agents of erosion, generally driven by gravity, remove, transport, and deposit weathered rock particles. Each agent of erosion produces distinctive changes in the material that it transports and creates characteristic surface features and landscapes. In certain erosional situations, loss of property, personal injury, and loss of life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness. 2.1u The natural agents of erosion include: Streams (running water): Gradient, discharge, and channel shape influence a stream’s velocity and the erosion and deposition of sediments. Sediments transported by streams tend to become rounded as a result of abrasion. Stream features include V-shaped valleys, deltas, flood plains, and meanders. A watershed is the area drained by a stream and its tributaries. Aligned ES Standards
Aligned ES Standards con’t Standard 6 Interconnectedness: common themes Key Idea 2: Models Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design. For example: draw a simple contour map of a model landform design a 3-D landscape model from a contour map construct and interpret a profile based on an isoline map use flowcharts to identify rocks and minerals
Question 2A – Earth Science Example Item (June 2010) 36. The landscape feature at location A is best described as (1) a sandbar (2) an escarpment (3) a delta (4) a floodplain 37. Which particle of quartz shows evidence of being transported the farthest distance by the stream?
What is this Item measuring? Claim/Performance Expectation: What is this item testing? The Evidence: What is the evidence that a student would show that they know/understand this claim?
Performance Expectation: Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth Materials and Systems Earth’s systems, being dynamic and interacting, cause feedback effects that can increase or decrease the original changes. The Evidence: Creation of a model will identify surface processes that shape continental features. Surface processes could include weathering, volcanism, tectonic uplift, or mass wasting. Science Practice: Developing and Using Models Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s). Crosscutting concept: Stability and Change Change and rates of change can be quantified and modeled over very short or very long periods of time. Some system changes are irreversible.
Question 2B - NGSS Example Item 1. At which location(s) would you find more deposition? 2.At which location(s) would you find more erosion? 3.At which location would you find the fastest moving water? Use the locations represented by the letters S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, & Z on the diagram to answer questions 1-3 (letters can be used more than once and it is possible that a question can include more than one letter):
4.If a stream is moving at a rate of 2.5 m/sec, how far will a suspended particle move in 230 seconds? 5.Compared to the stream in the previous question, how much farther would a suspended particle be after 230 seconds if the stream moved at a rate of 15 m/sec? Question 7 - NGSS Example Item con’t 6.If this increase in the rate of the stream were to happen, how might the diagram change? Use the space provided to redraw the diagram. Diagram 2: Increased rate of stream
For more information please contact: Christopher C. Lazzaro Director of Science Education Research & Development The College Board 45 Columbus Avenue New York, NY 10023-6992 p:212.520.8628 f: 212.649.8427 firstname.lastname@example.org Thank you!!