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Cinematic Techniques ‘Juno’ (2007), Dir. Jason Reitman.

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Presentation on theme: "Cinematic Techniques ‘Juno’ (2007), Dir. Jason Reitman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cinematic Techniques ‘Juno’ (2007), Dir. Jason Reitman

2 Cinematography  Focus  Camera distance  Camera angle  Camera movement

3 Shot type  Long shot  Medium shot  Close-up  Extreme close-up  Low-angle shot  High-angle shot  Tracking shot  Zoom shot  Crane shot  Aerial shot

4 Every scene has a PURPOSE Some examples are:  Move the story along  Describe a character  Introduce a conflict  Resolve a conflict  Create tension or suspense  And the list goes on……..

5 Mise en scene Mise en scene is a French term that simply means “things in the scene”  Setting  Lighting  Costumes  Acting style  Blocking

6 Realism  It is best to examine the functions of mise-en-scene.  One film may use it to create realism, others might seek very different effects : comic exaggeration, supernatural terror, understated beauty, and any number of other functions.  We should analyse mise-en-scene’s function in the total film – how it is motivated, how it varies or develops, how it works in relation to other film techniques.

7 Setting  The physical location of the scene.  Note that settings can change several times in a feature film  Setting introduces a location and puts characters in context  In conjunction with other factors such as lighting and sound, setting can create suspense or set a mood (e.g. warm, lonely, depressing)

8 Setting  The overall design of a setting can significantly shape how we understand story action. In manipulating a shot’s setting, the director may create props. Props may be functional or become a motif (have another meaning assigned to them).  Where is it?  What props are used?  Was a set created or did they shoot on location? Can you tell?  What kind of mood is being conveyed through this setting?

9 Settings in ‘Juno’: Mac & Bren’s house

10 Discussing setting in a text-response essay  Consider whether the setting is indoors or outdoors, private or public  The settings are carefully selected and constructed to create intended effects, usually ‘moods’  Identify the effects and how they have been achieved.  Examples of effects include creating a cosy and intimate atmosphere in a crowded and warm setting; creating a light, happy atmosphere that suggests space and ease

11 Lighting  Lighting is another facet of mise en scene. It is, like setting, used to create mood and to draw the eye and therefore the attention of the viewer. It provides insight into the character’s state of mind.  Consider lighting in terms of clarity, too. For example, a light diffused by fog can be used to create an atmosphere of uncertainty and confusion. A crisp, clean light, on the other hand, creates a sense of certainty, truth and clarity. Consider the lighting in Vanessa’s house.  Light is often used to symbolise or suggest truth or enlightenment.

12 Lighting Lighting can be manipulated in many ways to create highlights and shadows. Highlights provide important cues to the texture of the surface. There are two basic types of shadow : attached and shading or cast shadows.  An attached shadow occurs when light fails to illuminate part of an object because of the object’s shape or surface features.  Cast shadows are caused by an object being between the light source and the camera

13 Lighting Types of lighting also include:  Sidelight/ crosslight  Backlighting  Underlighting  Top lighting  Key light  Fill light  Low-key illumination

14 Lighting  Reinforces the mood of a scene.  Shapes the shots overall composition.  Affects our sense of the shape and texture of the objects depicted.

15 Costume  Costume is another facet of mise en scene  Costume includes characters’ clothes, accessories, make-up and props  Costume reveals information about the character such as their social context, social status, personality, and how they spend their time  Very small details can be helpful when examining costume  Costume can also be used to allude to other texts. Can you detect any literary allusions in the costumes in ‘Juno’

16 Costume  Like setting, costume can have specific functions in the total film, and the range of possibilities is huge. Costumes may be realistic or stylised and can also form motifs. Make-up is also necessary and useful in denoting character.  Costume often coordinates with setting.

17 Costume, identity and class

18 Music and sound  Diegetic sound  Non-diegetic sound  Music as character in ‘Juno’

19 Music plays a crucial role in building and maintaining mood. Sound effects are also added to control realism and create mood

20 Diegetic Sound  Is the sound within story or scene, i.e. clock ticking, crunching of leaves, cars honking, birds chirping.  These sounds are great for setting the scene and can also help set the mood or situation.  Most of these sounds are added in as sound effects.

21 Non-diegetic Sound  Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action:  narrator's commentary  sound effects that are added for the dramatic effect  mood music Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space. The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening. We know that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are represented as coming from outside the space of the story events. A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience. omedy).

22 Montage  Montage is a technique in film editing in which a series of short shots are edited into a sequence to condense space, time and information. 1.Your task: Where is montage used in ‘Juno’ and why? 2.What does is communicate to the audience?


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