Presentation on theme: "Matter Think – Pair - Share Individually, think of what you know about “matter”. This was part of your 6 th grade science class. Write down what comes."— Presentation transcript:
Matter Think – Pair - Share Individually, think of what you know about “matter”. This was part of your 6 th grade science class. Write down what comes to mind when you think of “matter”. 5 - 7 minutes Now pair up with a partner (or team) and share your thoughts and ideas. One person serve are the recorder and put these on the construction paper. 5 – 7 minutes Each team will then share their information with the class. Tape the construction paper up for other students to see. What is matter? THINK PAIR SHARE What do you think?
Matter: Properties and Change Matter, is a substance that has mass and also volume. The volume is determined by the space it occupies, while the mass is defined as a measure of how much matter is in an object.massvolumespace http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scienceopticsu/powersof10/ size comparisons from milky way galaxy to quarks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSyAehMdpyIhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSyAehMdpyI “The Nucleus: Crash Course Introduction To Chemistry” #1” 10:12
What is matter? Explain your reasoning. http://commons.wikimedia.org Sunlight Water Electricity Heat SmokeEarth’s Atmosphere
Early alchemists thought that everything was made of either earth, air, water or fire.
“The Elements” VHS 50:52 http://youtu.be/zUDDiWtFtEMhttp://youtu.be/zUDDiWtFtEM “The New Periodic Table Song 2:29 http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/accountability/testing/releasedforms/2009grade8periodic.pdfhttp://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/accountability/testing/releasedforms/2009grade8periodic.pdf DPI periodic table
Element Information An atom will have the same number of electrons as protons. Chemistry Spoons Game The first letter is always capitalized. In symbols with two or more letters, only the first letter is capitalized. 73
Atoms: most basic unit of matter; atoms make up everything -An atom containing an equal number of protons (+) and electrons (-) is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion.ion An atom is classified according to the number of protons (atomic #):classified -the number of protons (atomic #) determines the chemical element,number of protonschemical element -and the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element. ( i.e. carbon 12 and 14)number of neutronsisotope Protons = positively charged Neutrons = neutral (no) charge Electrons = negatively charged What particles are in the nucleus? Lithium atom (atomic #3 = protons) Atomic Mass = 7 (protons and neutrons) Coach Lesson #1
How do sizes of atomic particles differ? -Electrons are extremely small compared to all of the other parts of the atom. -The mass of an electron is almost 1,000 times smaller than the mass of a proton. (Quarks make up protons and neutrons.)
How is the size of atomic particles measured? The nanometer is often used to express dimensions on an atomic scale: -The diameter of a helium atom, for example, is about 0.1 nm, and that of a ribosome is about 20 nm.heliumribosome 2 (protons and neutrons) Where are the protons and neutrons located?
Electron Orbitals/ Cloud/Energy Level/Shell Configurations Valence electrons are those located in the outer most shell/level. How many valence electrons are shown in this atom?
Atomic Structure of Helium 1.How many protons(+) are in helium? 2.How many neutrons (neutral) are in helium? 3.How many electrons (-) are in helium? 4.How many valence (outer level) electrons are shown?
Lithium -Protons = 3 (atomic number) -Neutrons = 4 -Mass Number/Weight = 7 (protons and neutrons) -Electrons = 3 *The number of protons (+) and electrons (-) will be the same. 1. What period is lithium in? 2. What group/family is lithium in? 3. How many valence (outer) electrons does lithium have? Lithium (Li): One neutron is not shown. N
Elements above 92 are synthetic meaning they are “manmade” and not found in nature.
Atomic Structure of Carbon 1. How many protons (+) are shown? 2. What is the atomic mass? 3. How many neutrons (neutral) are shown? 4. How many electrons (-) are shown? 5. How many valence (outer level) electrons are shown?
Some sources have astatine as a metalloid while others do not. Classifications of elements
Atomic Structure of Boron 1. How many protons (+) are shown? 2. How many neutrons (neutral) are shown? 3. How many electrons (-) are shown? 4. How many valence (outer level) electrons are shown? A. What is the atomic number of boron? B. What is the mass number of boron? C. What family is boron in? D. What group is boron in? “Build That Atom” Activity http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atomhttp://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom build an atom activity
Valence Electrons The valence is the number of outer shell/orbital electrons. These are the electrons available to take part in chemical reactions. The periodic trend for valence works well for the representative elements, which are in groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 (the ‘tall’ parts of the table). Reading left to right, the valence for each of the main groups increases from one to 8. The noble gas elements, with 8 valence electrons, are especially stable. Helium only has 2 valence electrons. Why is it in group 18? Why are the noble gasses the “happiest” elements?
Valence electrons can be determined by looking at the group/family. Group 1 = 1 valence (outer) electron Group 2 = 2 valence (outer) electrons Group 13 = 3 valence (outer) electrons, etc. (transition elements 3-12 will vary) Valence electrons are what determine the bonding ability of an atom. Periodic Table Color Coding Activity Elements of the same period have the same number of electron orbitals/shells. A group/family on the periodic table means the elements have similar chemical properties.
Essential mineral elements : ( elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, and nickel. Beneficial elements: elements which promote plant growth in many plant species but are not absolutely necessary for completion of the plant life cycle : Silicon, sodium, cobalt, and selenium Essential nonmineral elements; (elements taken up as gas or water): hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon
Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids along zigzag line Some sources show astatine as a metalloid while other do not.
Classifications of Elements Why is hydrogen not connected to group 1? 84 Po Polonium 209 34 Se Seleniu m 77 http://www.chemtopics.com/elements.htmhttp://www.chemtopics.com/elements.htm interactive periodic table Some periodic tables include astatine as a metalloid. Based on the site http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/metalloids.htmlhttp://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/metalloids.html astatine is not a metalloid. Classifications of elements
Metalloids Metalloids are a chemical element with properties that are in-between or a mixture of those of metals and nonmetals. The seven elements commonly recognized as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, polonium and tellurium. They or their compounds find uses in glasses, alloys or semiconductors. These are located along the zigzag line. 84 Po 85 jAt
Metalloids: located along the zigzag line The seven elements commonly recognized as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, polonium and tellurium. Group/Family 1 - 18 Period http://www.chem4kids.com/extras/quiz_elemintro/q02_no.htmlhttp://www.chem4kids.com/extras/quiz_elemintro/q02_no.html on-line quiz use periodic table
Metals Notice that the metalloids and nonmetals are not included. Compare this section of the periodic table to the complete periodic table of elements.
Metalloids & Nonmetals MetalloidsNonmetals Some sources show astatine as a metalloid while other do not.
Physical Properties: can be observed and measured without changing the kind of matter being studied; can be used to identify substances Melting Point: - The temperature at which a solid can change to a liquid. -The temperature at which a pure substance melts is unchanging under constant conditions. Boiling Point: -The temperature at which a liquid boils. -A substance changes from a liquid to a gas. -Boiling temperature is unchanging under constant conditions for a given substance. Density: -a property that describes the relationship between the mass of a material and its volume -Substances that have higher densities contain more matter in a given volume. -The density of a substance will stay constant/the same. Color: may be used to identify substances but not always Assessment Probe: “Floating Logs” Demo: Density Blocks Example: Man from Zambia
Physical Properties of Metals and Nonmetals STC: “Finding the Conductor” 1.1
Physical Properties of Noble Gasses (Group/Family #18)
How are properties used to identify substances? H How are properties used to determine how elements and substances are used? 1.Why is aluminum used in airplanes? 2.Why is helium used in balloons instead of oxygen or hydrogen?
Chemical Property: any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity 1.Can be used to help identify a substance 2.Usually involves the substance’s ability to react or not react with another specific substance Examples Reacting with Oxygen (oxidation): The ability of a substance to burn is a chemical property that involves a substance reacting quickly with oxygen to produce light and heat. (i.e. iron rusts or apples turn brown). Reacting with Acids: The ability of a substance to react with an acid is a chemical property. Some metals react with various acids to form compounds. All metals do not react with all acids. Bases react with acids to form water and neutralize the acid. Example: Man from Zambia
Reactivity: the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials.; reactivity is a chemical property of an elementsubstance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jy1DC6Euqj4 potassium reaction in water 20 sec. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTcgo46nxNE sodium reaction in water 48 sec. These soft, silvery sodium chunks were cut with a knife and stored under oil. In air they turn white in seconds; exposed to water they generate hydrogen gas and explode in Flaming balls of molten sodium. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bJBueGSC9M calcium reactivity with oxygen 27 sec.
Physical & Chemical Properties SubstancePhysical PropertyChemical Property HeliumLess dense than airNonflammable WoodGrainy textureFlammable/combustible Baking SodaWhite powderReacts with vinegar to form bubbles Powdered SugarWhite powderDoes not react with vinegar Rubbing AlcoholClear liquidFlammable/Combustible Red Food ColoringRed colorReacts with bleach and loses color IronMalleableReacts with oxygen (oxidation) to form iron oxide (rust) TinMalleableReacts with oxygen to form tin dioxide
Physical or Chemical Property… What do you think? 1. Shape 2. Density 3. Acidity (below 7 pH) 4.Solubility 5.Basicity (above 7 pH) 6.Combustibility 7.Odor 8.Melting point 9.Reactivity 10.Boiling point 11.Color Points to Consider If the property changes, is a new substance formed? If not, it is a physical property. If you still have the same substance after changing the property, it is a physical property.
Chemical vs Physical Changes (laptop review) Chemical Change: -properties change and a different substance is produced. -Chemical changes cannot be reversed. -Examples: iron reacts with oxygen and water to form iron oxide (rust); silver reacts with oxygen to form silver oxide (tarnish) Evidence of a chemical change : 1.Change in energy:temperature increase = exothermic chemical reaction temperature decrease = endothermic chemical reaction 2.Color change: This is not when a color has been covered, for example dying, painting, etc. 3.Formation of a gas:if in a solution, bubbles will often times been seen when the gas is formed 4.Formation of a precipitate: when two or more solutions are combined and a solid is formed STC: “The Burning Candle” 1.3 “Mixing the Solutions” 1.8 “Adding the Acid” 1.5
Physical Changes Physical Change: -The physical properties change but the type of substance stays the same. -matter changes is size, shape or form -There is no change in the chemical makeup of the substance(s) that are changed. -Physical changes can be reversed. -Examples:cutting, changes in states of matter (melting, boiling, freezing), etc. http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078617650/160350/00044680.htmlhttp://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078617650/160350/00044680.html Brain Pop Chemical and Physical Changes program w/quiz
Phase Change (dissolving a substance) (mixing two or more substances)
Sublimation: when a substance changes directly from a gas to a solid Examples: -The forming of frost from water vapor -When dry ice forms: Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide. As it breaks down, it turns directly into carbon dioxide gas rather than a liquid http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tHOVVgGkpk dry ice bubbles 2:20; also shows properties of polar molecules water and detergent (surface tension) -Solid air fresheners Apples brown (react with oxygen)
1.Is a phase change a physical or chemical change? Explain. 2.What is the relationship between phase change and temperature? 3.What effect does phase change have on the volume of the substance/molecules? Density? Mass? Explain. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czmQ2_ymaOohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=czmQ2_ymaOo formation of ice crystals 37 sec. Mini-Poster Analysis
Chemical Reaction: when a substance (or a few substances) change into another substance. A chemical change involves a physical change, and can include but is not limited to the following: Examples: change in color, texture, physical state, odor, production of a gas, formation of precipitate, a change in its solubility, burning, rusting, etc. Chemical changes do not change the mass, because according to the Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter, during a chemical reaction the mass of the reactants of the formula will always equal the mass of the products STC: “Reacting A Tablet” 1.7 Endothermic Reactions = temperature decrease; Exothermic Reactions = Temperature increase MRE Lab
Chemical Reactions = Chemical Changes = New Substance(s) Formed Chemical reactions are shown in the form of chemical equations. Word equation: Sodium + Chlorine yields sodium chloride Chemical equation:2Na (s) + Cl 2 (g) 2NaCl (s) reactants products 1.What is the mass of the reactants? 2.What is the mass of the products? 3.Does this reaction meet the “Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter”? Explain. Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter: “Nuts & Bolts of Law of Conservation of Mass” -In a chemical equation, matter cannot be created or destroyed -The mass of the reactants will equal the mass of the products. Coefficient = # of molecules in the compound Subscript = # of atoms of the element “Balancing Chemical Equations” practiceSTC: “Mixing the Solutions” 1.8
Balanced Chemical Equations Hydrogen = 4 Oxygen = 2 Hydrogen = 4 Oxygen = 2 The coefficient shows how many total molecules are present. Multiply this by the subscript. No subscript indicates that 1 atom is present. Does this equation meet the “Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter”? Explain. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PlwuxpMh8nk “Simple Chemical Reactions” with Bill Nye 23:01 http://www.sciencespot.net/Media/blncact.pdf “Balancing Act”
Balance the following chemical equations. Reactants Products 1.Na + Cl 2 NaCl 2.H 2 + Cl 2 HCl 3.CO 2 + H 2 CO + H 2 O 4.NO + O 2 NO 2 5.Fe + 3O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Note: You may only add coefficients when balancing equations, not subscripts. One of the equations is balanced.
Check your equations. Reactants Products 1.2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl 2.H 2 + Cl 2 2HCl 3.CO 2 + H 2 CO + H 2 O 4.2NO + O 2 2NO 2 5.4Fe + 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3
Balanced chemical equations support the law of conservation of mass/matter. Explain why. The chemical reaction for photosynthesis Reactants yield Products Reactants 6 carbon 24 oxygen 24 hydrogen Products 6 carbon 24 oxygen 24 hydrogen
Compounds and Mixtures Heterogeneous Elements combine to form compounds.
Cannot be changed into a simpler substance Pure substances composed of two or more types of elements that are chemically combined STC: “Our Ideas About Pure Substances and Mixtures”
What is the difference between a compound and a molecule? 1. A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically.atoms 2.A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements.elements -All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds. Example: -Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) are not compounds because each is composed of a single element. They are diatomic molecules because in nature they do not exist as individual atoms.hydrogenoxygennitrogen -Water (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) are compounds because each is made from more than one element. -The smallest bit of each of these substances would be referred to as a molecule.
Compounds - A compound is a type of matter that forms when two or more different elements combine chemically. Two or more atoms bonded together is a molecule of the substance that is formed. - When atoms combine chemically, they do not retain their original properties. How do the following compounds provide evidence of this? In the compounds below, compare the properties of elements before and after chemical bonding has occurred. Examples:Chemical formulas for common substances H 2 O chemical formula for 1 water molecule C 12 H 22 O 11 sucroseNaHCO 3 baking soda NaCltable saltHC 2 H 3 O 2 vinegar O 2 oxygen (diatomic element)H 2 Owater NaClOhousehold bleachNH 3 ammonia HClhydrochloric acidCO 2 carbon dioxide NaClsodium chloride (table salt)H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide Activity: Identification of Element & Compounds in Products “Analyzing Formulas” practice Subscript: #of atoms present of the element to the left no # as with oxygen means there is 1 atom present
Water (H 2 0) Water is a compound formed from two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen; H 2 0 In their form as elements, hydrogen and oxygen are gasses. They both are also highly flammable. When combined in this 2 to 1 ratio, they form a liquid that is not flammable. _ + + _ and + indicates the charged area of the molecule “Biological Molecules: “You Are What You Eat” complete study guide http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0 (14:09)
Sodium Chloride: Table Salt (NaCl) Sodium Chloride (table salt) is a combination of 1 sodium atom and 1 chlorine atom; NaCl. In their form as elements, sodium is a highly explosive solid that explodes in water and chlorine is a toxic gas. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bAhCHedVB4&safe=active When combined in a 1 to 1 ration, they form table salt which is a white solid that dissolves in water.
Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) What elements are in a molecule of sugar? “A Compound Problem” Practice
What elements are in the compounds below and in what ratio? What are the properties of the elements?
Glucose and Fructose (sugar) Molecules What elements are common is both of these compounds? How are they different?
Carbohydrate Compounds – the main source of energy for our bodies What elements are in these molecules? What is a better source of carbohydrates, simple or complex carbohydrates?
What elements are in a molecule of protein? In nature, matter is continually recycled. What elements are in the essential nutrient protein?
Lipids/Fats What elements are in lipid molecules?
Common Name Chemical NameChemical Formula white vinegaracetic acidCH 3 COOH + H 2 O nail polish removeracetoneCH 3 COCH 3 ammoniaammonium hydroxideCH 3 + H 2 O boric acid H 3 BO 3 marble,limestone,chalkcalcium carbonateCaCO 3 road saltcalcium chlorideCaC l2 garden limecalcium hydroxideCa(OH) 2 corn syrupglucoseC 6 H 12 O 6 + H 2 O epsom saltmagnesium sulfateMgSO 4 + 7H 2 O moth ballsnaphthaleneC 10 H 8 baking sodasodium bicarbonateNaHCO 3 table saltsodium chlorideNaCl cane sugarsucroseC 12 H 22 O 11 sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 Common Chemicals
1.A molecule is what you get when any atoms join together. 2.A compound is what you get when atoms of two or more different elements join together. 3.All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. - Water is a molecule because it is made from atoms that have been chemically combined. It is also a compound because the atoms that make water are not all the same - some are oxygen and some are hydrogen.oxygen hydrogen -Oxygen in the atmosphere is a molecule because it is made from two atoms of oxygen. It is not a compound because it is made from atoms of only one element - oxygen. This type of molecule is called a diatomic molecule, a molecule made from two atoms of the same type. Review: Molecules & Compounds 1.A molecule is what you get when any atoms join together. 2.A compound is what you get when atoms of two or more different elements join together. 3.All compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. -Water is a molecule because it is made from atoms that have been chemically combined. It is also a compound because the atoms that make water are not all the same - some are oxygen and some are hydrogen.oxygen hydrogen -Oxygen in the atmosphere is a molecule because it is made from two atoms of oxygen. It is not a compound because it is made from atoms of only one element - oxygen. This type of molecule is called a diatomic molecule, a molecule made from two atoms of the same type.
The Difference Between Compounds and Mixtures Mixture - A physical blend of two or more substances that are NOT chemically combined. Compound - A substance that contains two or more elements CHEMICALLY combined in a fixed proportion. The elements do not retain their original properties. Compound is chemically combined, mixture is not chemically combined. *Cake would be a compound because all of the ingredients are together to make batter you cannot see the individual components (eggs, flour, sugar, etc.) *Trail mix would be a mixture because you can see every individual item (M&M, peanuts, raisins, pizza, etc.) “Introduction to Matter” Mini-poster examples
- tin + copper = pewter - copper + tin = bronze (more) (less) (more) (less) -Steel is an alloy of iron, with carbon being the primary alloying element. -The air you breathe is made up of about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and small amounts of other gases like argon, carbon dioxide and methane. STC lab activities: “Comparing the Two Mixtures” 1.6 “Filtering a Mixture” 1.2 “Separating a Mixture” 1.4 Ways to separate mixtures: -Filtration (separates large particles from small) - Magnet -Evaporation (use boiling point) - Sifting -Centrifuge (use density) Mixture
Homogenous or Heterogeneous Mixtures… Do you know? #1 M & M #2 Salad #3 Kool Aid drink #4 Fruit Loops #5 Milk #6 Cake Batter #7 Chocolate Chip Cookie #9 Trail Mix#10 Tap Water #11 Smoke #12 Clear Seawater #8 Hot Chocolate