Presentation on theme: "Considerations when Implementing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Considerations when Implementing RTI withEmergingBilingualStudentsKlingner (2012)
2 As a backdrop…We are not doing enough to examineunderlying assumptions about whocan learn and who struggles: “It was if the failure was invisible, or worse, inevitable” (Noguera & Wing, 2006).“We lament that we have to spend so much of our careers documenting competence, when it should simply be assumed, suggesting that ‘language minority’ students have the intellectual capabilities of any other children, when it should simply be acknowledged, and proposing instructional arrangements that capitalize fully on the many strengths they bring into classrooms, when it should simply be their right” (Moll & Gonzalez, 1997).Klingner (2012)
3 Consideration 1: Classroom teachers and other school personnel know little about the second language acquisition process and they have many misconceptions about their emerging bilingual students.
5 Multiple TermsFor students whose primary language is other than English:English Language Learners (ELLs)English Learners (ELs)Linguistically Diverse Learners (LDL)Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners (CLD)Limited-English proficient (LEP)Emerging Bilinguals (EB)Potential BilingualsYou may use whichever you feel most comfortable with, just know why you do.Take 2 minutes to record which one you prefer and why.
6 Who are emerging bilingual students in the U.S? 85% of EBs speak Spanish as a mother tongue95% of all linguistic diversity in the U.S. is accounted for in 5 language groups (Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Hmong, Korean)67% of all EBs in U.S. schools were born in the U.S. and are entitled to all the rights of U.S. citizenship
7 EBs generally score lower on academic achievement tests than their English-speaking peers: 71% of 4th-grade EBs scored below basic in standardized reading assessments while 30% of their non-EBs peers scored below the basic level.43% of 4th-grade EBs scored below basic in math, while 16% of their non-EB peers scored below the basic level.74% of 8th-grade EBs scored below basic on reading achievement tests and similarly on math, compared to approximately a quarter of their non-EBs peers who scored below the basic level.U.S. Department of Education (2009)
8 EBs are a diverse group Familiarity with English Prior school experiencesSocio-economic backgroundLife Experiences
9 EBs differ by…Variations in degrees of proficiency across both languages.Sequential versus simultaneous bilingualismDid they learn both languages at the same time or did they learn one first and then the other second?Elective versus circumstantial bilingualismDid they actively want to learn another language or did they have to learn a second language in order to survive?Rhodes
10 The Sprinter, The High Jumper and the Hurdler: A Bilingual Metaphor The sprinter and high jumper concentrate on one event and may excel in it.The hurdler concentrates on two different skills, trying to combine a high standard in both. With only a few exceptions, the hurdler will be unable to sprint as fast as the sprinter or jump as high as the high jumper.This is not to say that the hurdler is a worse athlete than the other two. They are simply different.Escamilla
11 Grosjean (2001)Any comparison of the sprinter, the jumper and the hurdler makes little sense.This analogy suggests that comparing the language proficiency of a monolingual with a bilingual’s dual language or multilingual proficiency is similarly unjust.We need to look at dual language schools as educating students to be hurdlers, capable of qualitatively different skills than sprinters or high jumpers.Escamilla
12 Language ModalitiesHow many languages have you learned, at least partially? What is your relative proficiency in different language modalities? Why?ListeningSpeakingReadingWriting
16 Sequential Bilinguals and Simultaneous Bilinguals When students are sequential bilinguals, it is not hard to determine whether difficulties are evident in both languages.When students are simultaneous bilinguals, it is much more challenging to determine if difficulties are the result of language acquisition or LD.We need a new way to think about the process of simultaneous language acquisition (Escamilla).EBs with LD exhibit difficulties in their first language as well as in English.
18 Misconception Reality 1. Semilingualism is a valid concept and non-non classifications are useful categories.Semilingualism and non-non categories are the results of tests that do not measure the full range and depth of language proficiencies among emerging bilingual students acquiring two languages.2. Native language assessments present a clear picture of linguistic proficiency.Commonly used native language proficiency assessments provide a limited view of EBs’ oral language proficiency.3. Assessment and instructional frameworks developed for monolingual students are appropriate for EBs.Literacy instruction and assessments in a second language differ in key ways from native language instruction.4. The majority of EBs in the U.S. are sequential bilinguals.The majority of EBs in the U.S. are simultaneous bilinguals. This is especially true among long-term EBs.
19 5. The more time students spend receiving English instruction, the faster they will learn it. Students who receive some L1 instruction achieve at higher levels in English than students who do not.6. All EBs learn English in the same way at about the same rate.The length of time it takes students to acquire English varies a great deal; many different variables affect the language acquisition process.7. Errors are problematic and should be avoided.“Errors” are a positive sign that the student is making progress and are a necessary aspect of second language acquisition.8. EBs are not ready to engage in higher level thinking until they learn basic skills.EBs are as intelligent as fully proficient peers and should have frequent opportunities to engage in higher level thinking.9. Learning/acquiring more than one language at a time is confusing.Children around the world learn/acquire multiple languages simultaneously.
20 Consideration 2: According to progress-monitoring data, more than half of the emerging bilingual students are not reaching benchmarks.Klingner (2012)
21 Recommendations For RTI to work, most EBs must be succeeding. When many students are not progressing, change instruction:Has the instructional program been validated with students like those in the class?Is instruction at an appropriate level for students’ language and learning needs?Is the program well-implemented?Are teachers sufficiently differentiating instruction to meet diverse student needs?Is the environment conducive to learning?This will require:observing in classrooms and supporting instructiondeveloping and capitalizing on local expertise.Use progress monitoring to ensure that instruction is adjusted to meet the needs of individual students and classrooms of learners.
23 Consideration 3: School personnel are unclear how the RTI process is similar to and different from the Pre-Referral Process used in previous years.Klingner (2012)
24 RecommendationsShift from figuring out what is wrong with a student to looking more broadly at the instructional context and at how to provide support for all students.Focus first on improving core instruction, with differentiation.Use progress monitoring data to look at classroom datasets.Make sure someone on the team has expertise in the language acquisition process, cultural variables, and how to distinguish between language acquisition and learning disabilities.Klingner (2012)
25 Consideration 4: Screening and progress monitoring assessment batteries tend not to provide a comprehensive view of literacy skills or adequately identify our EBs who are at-risk for later reading difficulties.
26 READING COMPREHENSION A Common Scenario: Early Literacy MeasuresLesauxAccuracyLetter Names & Letter SoundsPhonologicalAwarenessWord ReadingEfficiencyREADING COMPREHENSIONBackground KnowledgeOral LanguageInterestVocabularyMetalinguistic SkillsMotivationWord Learning StrategiesKnowledge of word function or typeUnderstanding of PurposeText CharacteristicsOrganizational structureSentence structure
27 Gaps during Early Childhood LesauxGaps during Early ChildhoodPercentile RankKlingner (2012)
28 The Gap between Reading Words & Comprehending Text (Lesaux) A profile that is very striking, very concerning, and not one that is going to support high level text going forwardYou can liken this to picking up a technical textbook, reference, or a seminal piece in an area of study well outside of yours. You can probably read the words and might have some sense of some by using context and vague encounters, but because you don’t bring enough relevant background knowledge and depth of word knowledge to the piece, you can’t really make sense of it and you don’t get much from it. Make no mistake, you might learn something but what you learn compared to what is expected for the target reader is very different and much lessSo if we fit a structural equation model to these data – X happens.And when we model growth in these skills, rate of growth in the word reading skills is on par but vocabulary actually starts to plateau altogetherSerious needs that are entrenched; these are students who are losing ground over time
29 RecommendationsUse multiple assessment methods to provide a comprehensive view of learning.Use RTI assessment strategies that reflect the multi-dimensional nature of language and literacy.*Oral reading fluency (ORF) does not correlate with comprehension for EBs as it does for fluent English speakers (Crosson & Lesaux, 2009)—use ORF as a starting point for further assessment.
31 Consideration 5: School personnel are not sure what it means for practices to be “research-based” for EBs.
32 What Do We Mean by “Research-based”? The RTI model is based on the principle that instructional practices or interventions at each level should be based on scientific research evidence about “what works.”However, it is essential to find out what works with whom, by whom, for what purposes, and in what contexts—One size does not fit all.
33 With Whom?When deciding if a practice is appropriate for implementation as part of an RTI model, it should have been validated with students like those with whom it will be applied.The National Reading Panel report “did not address issues relevant to second language learning” (2000, p. 3).Not meeting this criterion is a fundamental limitation of almost all instructional research in education.Researchers typically provide inadequate information about participants in their reports, making it hard to determine if a practice should be considered appropriate.For this reason, we are cautious in interpreting research findings when applied to culturally and linguistically diverse students.Klingner (2012)
34 With Whom?English language learners are often omitted from participant samples because of their limited English proficiency.Yet language dominance and proficiency are important research variables and can affect treatment outcomes.Leaving students out of studies limits the external validity and applicability of such studies, especially for those who teach culturally and linguistically diverse students.When research studies do not include culturally and linguistically diverse student populations, or disaggregate data based on important variables, what does this say regarding a study’s assumptions about what matters, who counts, and what works?A related concern is that culturally and linguistically diverse students, particularly culturally and linguistically diverse students, are often omitted from participant samples because of their limited English proficiency.Yet language dominance and proficiency are important research variables and can affect treatment outcomes (Ortiz, 1997).That practice limits the external validity and applicability of such studies, especially for teachers who have culturally and linguistically diverse students in their classes.Although culturally and linguistically diverse students do not participate in many studies, research findings generally are touted as applying widely across student populations.For instance, the National Reading Panel report “did not address issues relevant to second language learning” (2000, p. 3), yet the report’s conclusions are commonly cited as support for Reading First initiatives.Klingner (2012)
35 For What Purposes? What is the goal of instruction? Some widely touted instructional approaches help improve word identification skills, but not necessarily reading comprehension.According to the Reading First Impact Study: “Reading First did not have statistically significant impacts on student reading comprehension test scores in grades 1-3.”Klingner (2012)
36 In What Contexts?Variations in program implementation and effectiveness across schools and classrooms are common (see the First Grade Studies for a classic example, Bond & Dykstra, 1967).When students struggle, is it the program, the teachers’ implementation, or the school context?What is it about the system that facilitates or impedes learning?Schools are dependent on larger societal influences that should not be ignored.Klingner (2012)
37 In What Contexts? It is essential to observe in classrooms. Is the instruction appropriate for students’ language and learning needs?What is the relationship between a teacher and students?How does the teacher promote interest and motivation?We draw different conclusions when several students are struggling rather than just a few ...As the field considers how RTI models should be implemented, not enough attention has focused on the role of classroom teachers.By looking in classrooms, we can tell a great deal about teachers’ instruction, the activity, and the ways teachers and students interact.What do we notice about the nature of the relationship between a teacher and students?How are students supported?How does the teacher promote interest and motivation?With so much variability in teachers’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions, it is unrealistic to assume that all teachers will be able to implement interventions in such a way that we can have confidence they are providing students with an adequate opportunity to learn.Klingner (2012)
38 More thoughts on research… Experimental research studies tell us what works best with the majority of students in a research sample, not all students.Some practices that may be effective have not yet been researched.Qualitative research helps us understand why a practice works or not and factors that can affect implementation.Observation studies in the classrooms of effective teachers tell us a lot about the attributes of successful teachers and the characteristics of effective instruction.Klingner (2012)
39 Opportunity to Learn?As with previous special education identification criteria, for students to be considered for special education in an RTI model, we must be able to show that they have received an adequate opportunity to learn?What about in the following classes? All examples are from real classrooms with English language learners, most at beginning levels of English proficiency.Klingner (2012)
41 Tier 1 Example: Kindergarten Students are seated in a circle on the alphabet rug. Teacher asks them to stand up, and says, “Let’s do the alphabet rap song.” Teacher begins to rap and makes motions with her hands to symbolize sound-letter correspondence. Sings A-Alley, B-Bubba, C-Catina, D-Deedee… Students are trying to mimic the teacher, however, they are falling behind. [Students are not understanding this--the teacher is going too fast.] Teacher says, “Let’s try it one more time.” More and more students are falling behind to the point where the majority are just looking around and bumping into each other. They look like bumper cars. These students cannot keep up with the song and hand motions. Teacher, “S is for Sammy Snake (making a slithering motion)... V is for Vinny Vampire (motioning with her hands to her mouth that she had vampire fangs)….W is Willie Weasel….” (Orosco, 2007)
42 Tier 1 Example: First Grade The whole Class is sitting in a circle. Teacher : “Yesterday, how many of you knew your sight words? One student speaks out, “One?” Another, “Three?” Teacher (with increasing frustration in her voice): “You are right. Three students were able to tell me their sight words. We need to practice these words; we are really behind. Every one of you should know these sight words by now. You need to practice these at home. Don’t you practice these at home?” Teacher : “Only those 3 students will be able to pull from the treasure chest.” … Teacher begins sight words practice and holds up index cards with: Big, My, See, Like, I, At, This, And, Up, Have, Too. Students repeat sight words as Teacher holds up cards and reads them. She then holds up the word “Big” without saying anything. One student says the word… She continues to go through this process with all the words, and says, “Okay guys, you need to practice these at home, you are not paying attention, you should have known these words by now.” (Orosco, 2007)Klingner (2012)
43 Tier 2 ExampleTeacher (reading specialist): “Let’s work on our sight words.” She writes “have, many, some” on her dry erase board. She reads the words and has students repeat them. T: “Okay, now can you guys use these words in a sentence? Who would like to try?” No takers. Teacher looks at a student across from her and says, “Pick a word and try.” The student is hesitant. T: “How about if I help you? Can you say this, I have some snow. Repeata (Spanglish).” Student: “I hab… so...mo... s...no.” T., “Good. How about someone else? How about the word many?” Students hesitate. T: “Okay. Here is an example. I have many friends. Can you say this?” Student: “I…hab…ma...ni friend…z.” T., “Good. Next word. Some.” Teacher makes up another sentence, “I have some toys.” Student repeats… The teacher takes them back to class. (Orosco, 2007)Klingner (2012)
44 Tier 3 ExampleThe teacher has a master’s degree in special education and has been teaching for about 20 years. She noted, “I teach LD by the book.”The class consists of 4 second-grade culturally and linguistically diverse students, all determined by the school to have LD.Klingner (2012)
45 Teacher: “Boys and girls, we need to read our story, ‘Polar Bears’ Teacher: “Boys and girls, we need to read our story, ‘Polar Bears’. We need to listen to see what color they are, where they live or what they eat.” Teacher directs students to look at the title page, asks what they think the book is about. No response. Teacher asks, “Are polar bears nice?” No response. Teacher begins to read: “Polar Bears live in the Arctic at the North Pole. The polar bear is a marine mammal… Polar bears are carnivores…” [OC: I wonder how many students know what a marine mammal is, or a carnivore.] … As she is reading students are beginning to check out; one student is playing with the drawstring in his hooded sweater. Another two are whispering to each other. The teacher continues: “The white fur is important camouflage for the bears as they hunt their prey on the ice…”Klingner (2012)
46 [OC: What is camouflage [OC: What is camouflage? This story uses tough words for ESL students at this level. I wonder if the teacher knows whether these kids really understand this.] Teacher: “Okay let’s talk about the story now. So what do they smell?” No reply. Teacher, “Anyone?” One student, “People.” Teacher, “Good.” [This was not in the story.] Teacher, “Do polar bears live here in Colorado?” Students, “Yes.” Teacher, “Good. They could if they lived at the zoo.” [Colorado was not in the story.] … Only one student is responding, with one word answers. [OC: I wonder if this book is too difficult for them. However, it would work for these kids if the language was modeled and sheltered for them...] (Orosco, 2007)Klingner (2012)
47 Thoughts on the significance of these examples… We cannot distinguish between LD and language acquisition without making sure that EBs are receiving adequate opportunities to learn.We can not determine whether EBs have LD without looking into their classrooms and comparing how they are doing with their peers.Generic “research-based” practices may not be adequate for meeting the language and learning needs of EBs.
48 Consideration 6: School personnel are unsure what it means to be culturally and linguistically responsive or to provide culturally and linguistically responsive literacy instruction.
49 Culturally Responsive Literacy Instruction What does it mean to provide culturally responsive literacy instruction?All practice is culturally responsive—but responsive to which culture(s)?Culture is involved in all learning.Culture is not a static set of characteristics located within individuals, but is fluid and complex.
50 Culturally Responsive Literacy Instruction Includes explicit instruction in phonological awareness, the alphabetic code, fluency, vocabulary development, comprehension strategies, and oral language.ExplicitMultifacetedRelevantIncludes frequent opportunities to practice reading with a variety of rich materials in meaningful contexts (“mirrors & windows”).Emphasizes cultural relevance and builds on students’ prior knowledge, interests, motivation, and home language.
51 Culturally and Linguistically Responsive? Culturally and Linguistically Responsive TeachersBuild strong relationships with students and their familiesHold high expectationsConnect learning with students’ experiences and interests, making learning relevant to their livesValue and build on different “ways of knowing”Linguistically Responsive InstructionAppropriate for students’ language proficiency levelsIncludes language objectives and language supportsDevelops linguistic competence through functional, purposeful classroom dialogue and frequent opportunities to learn and use academic language
52 An example of culturally responsive literacy instruction… This lesson was taught in Spanish in a first-grade classroom.Haager, D., Klingner, J. K., & Aceves, T. (2009). How to teach English language learners: Effective strategies from outstanding educators. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
53 Teacher: “Today we are going to preview this book and look for the pictures that describe the word art or artist. Preview means to go over the book (beginning to flip through the pages, modeling this concept)…it means to look at the pictures and think and talk about what the book may be about.” She points to a picture of Juan holding a pot overlooking the desert plains with adobe houses and asks, “Has anyone seen these types of houses?” Students respond, “Mexico.” She goes on to preview every page. The pictures are eye-catching; the students excitedly point to the pictures...Teacher [motioning to the board]: “Okay, let’s stop there for today and work on a writing activity using this book. We are going to write about some artists you know in your family or community.” She is explicitly modeling by writing on the board, “I have a brother who is a chef. A chef is an artist. A chef makes delicious food. A chef experiments with food.” She has brought in pictures of chefs making food and posts them next to her phrase. She explains that they need to come up with an example like hers. “Okay. I am going to hand-out some writing paper and I want you to write about an artist in your family and then draw me a picture.”
54 In conceptualizing culturally responsive literacy instruction, we draw upon Wiley’s (1996) framework for working with diverse students and families:accommodationincorporationadaptation
55 Accommodation requires teachers and others to have a better understanding of the communicative styles and literacy practices among their students and to account for these in their instruction.“Literacy learning begins in the home, not the school … instruction should build on the foundation for literacy learning established in the home” (Au, 1993, p. 35).Even in conditions of substantial poverty, homes can be rich in print and family members engage in literacy activities of many kinds on a daily basis.Accommodation requires teachers and others to have a better understanding of the communicative styles and literacy practices among their students and to account for these in their instruction.“Literacy learning begins in the home, not the school, and that instruction should build on the foundation for literacy learning established in the home” (Au, 1993, p. 35).Several qualitative studies have shown that, even in conditions of substantial poverty, homes can be rich in print and family members engage in literacy activities of many kinds on a daily basis (Anderson & Stokes, 1984; Heath, 1983; Purcell-Gates, 1996; Taylor & Dorsey-Gaines, 1988; Teale, 1986).
56 Incorporation requires studying community practices that have not been valued previously and incorporating them into the curriculum.“We must not assume that we can only teach families how to do school, but that we can learn valuable lessons by coming to know the families…” (Moll, 1999, p. xiii).“Teachers and parents need to understand the way each defines, values, and uses literacy as part of cultural practices--such mutual understanding offers the potential for schooling to be adjusted to meet the needs of families” (Cairney, 1997, p. 70).
57 Adaptation involves the expectation that children and adults must acculturate or learn the norms of those who control the schools, institutions, and workplace.Culturally and linguistically diverse parents want to give their children the capital to deal in the marketplace of schools, but often are unsure how to go about this.“When schools fail to provide parents with factual, empowering information and strategies for supporting their child’s learning, parents are even more likely to feel ambivalence as educators [of their own children]” (Clark, 1988, p. 95).Adaptation involves the expectation that children and adults must acculturate or learn the norms of those who control the schools, institutions, and workplace (Wiley, 1996).It is within this final area that many controversies and conflicts emerge concerning how families should be involved in their children’s literacy development and what they need to know to be effective partners (Edwards, 1993; Handel, 1992; Winter & Rouse, 1990; Darling & Hayes, 1990).Culturally and linguistically diverse parents, parents living in poverty, and immigrant parents want to give their children linguistic, social, and cultural capital to deal in the marketplace of schools, but are unsure how to go about doing this (Gallimore, Weisner, Kaufman, & Bernheimer, 1989; Super & Harkness, 1986).It is schools’ responsibility to make sure parents are assisted in their efforts to help their children acquire new forms of capital.“When schools fail to provide parents with factual, empowering information and strategies for supporting their child’s learning, the parents are even more likely to feel ambivalence as educators [of their own children]” (Clark, 1988, p. 95).
58 Consideration 7: Many school personnel are unsure how to distinguish between language acquisition and learning disabilities or how to think about the role of the first language.Klingner (2012)
59 Example James was at ESOL Level 1. Teacher: “My real concern is that when I give a direction (in English) he gives me a blank look, like he doesn’t understand. He’s lost.” She also noted that he had difficulty paying attention.Assistant principal: “A lot of children in ESOL have these difficulties.”Teacher: “But I think it’s more than that. It’s more a matter of higher level thinking.”This was accepted by the team and they proceeded to refer the student for an evaluation. They did not discuss his native language skills, and whether he exhibited these same problems in Haitian Creole.Klingner (2012)
60 James’ ClassTeacher: “The last sense is the sense of touch. That means you feel. Feel the floor with your elbows. Can you feel it?” [OC: The students don’t understand what to do. There are no visual cues.] Teacher (yelling), “Some of you are being extremely rude.” Then she asks more calmly, “So did you feel the floor with your elbows, but do you normally feel with your elbow?” A few students respond, “No.” Teacher yells again, “You just finished telling me you were listening, Ezekiel. Were you lying to me? I’m only going to call on the people who are listening.”…Teacher: “If I wanted to eat cake, what sense would I use?”…“My point is that you use your sense of taste to decide if you like it.” Teacher (yelling): “Pay attention to me, not his shoes! His shoes aren’t going to give you a grade. I will.” “If one more person touches shoes, I’m going to throw it in the garbage. It’s important to make sure your shoes are tied, but not while I’m teaching.” (Harry & Klingner, 2006)Klingner (2012)
61 Think (Write)-Group-Share What could the members of this team have done differently?Did the problem-solving team achieve its purpose?
62 Use a “hypothesis-driven” process: Begin the referral and evaluation process by exploring the hypothesis that the causes of the individual’s learning difficulties are due to external factors.Conduct the assessment with the notion that there is nothing wrong with the individual and that systemic, ecological, or environmental factors are the primary reason for the observed learning problems.Maintain this hypothesis until data suggest otherwise and when all plausible external factors are ruled out (Watkins, 2003, Minnesota Department of Education).
63 (Some) Similarities b/w LD and Language Acquisition Behaviors Associated w/ LDBehaviors when Acquiring an L2Difficulty with phonological awarenessDifficulty distinguishing b/w sounds not in L1Slow to learn sound-symbol correspondenceConfusion w/ sound-symbol correspondence when different than in L1Difficulty remembering sight wordsDifficulty remembering sight words when word meanings not understoodDifficulty retelling a story in sequenceMay understand more than can convey in L2Confused by figurative languageConfused by figurative language, anaphora, words with multiple meaningsSlow to process challenging languageDifficulty following directionsMay have poor auditory memoryMay have poor auditory memoryMay seem easily frustratedKlingner (2012)
64 Consideration 8: Some school personnel are unsure about differences between learning to read in one’s first language and a second or additional language (English).Klingner (2012)
65 There are important differences between learning to read in one’s L1 and L2 (August & Shanahan, 2006).Learning trajectories for emerging simultaneous bilinguals are not well understood.Benchmarks and expected rates of progress are not the same (Hopewell, Escamilla et al., 2012; Linan-Thompson, Cirino, & Vaughn, 2007).Some recommendations put too much emphasis on phonological awareness and letter naming at the expense of other skills, such as oral language, vocabulary, and comprehension (e.g., the IES Practice Guide for ELLs).
66 Oral proficiency in L1 & L2 Factors that Influence Learning to Read for Emerging Bilingual StudentsLearning contextReading skills in L1 & L2Teacher’s skills& behaviorsOral proficiency in L1 & L2Instructionalpractices
67 The Relationship b/w Second-Language Oral Proficiency and Second-Language Reading English second-language oral proficiency and English second-language reading have a reciprocal relationship, particularly at higher grade levels.There may be a threshold level of oral proficiency in the second language that must be achieved before reading in that language is strongly correlated.Optimal programs for ELLs include a focus on oral English language development as well as on reading.
68 Differences b/w Second Language Readers and Native English Readers Translation, cognate awareness, and information transfer across languages are unique to L2 reading.Unknown vocabulary is more of an obstacle for bilingual readers.Good second-language readers focus much more on word meaning than do good monolingual readers.Cohesive signals (e.g., referents such as “them” or “it”) are more problematic.
69 Contexts for Literacy Instruction Culturally and linguistically diverse students are more likely to excel academically when:they are provided access to high quality teachers, programs, curricula, and resources;they are motivated and engaged;they are taught with culturally responsive and appropriate practices; andtheir culture, language, heritage, and experiences are valued and used to facilitate their learning and development--every learner “brings a valid language and culture to the instructional context.”
70 Phonological Awareness and ELLs Phonological awareness transfers from L1 to L2.Phonological awareness (in English) can present special challenges to ELLs.Phonemes not present in the student’s first language are difficult to distinguish auditorily from similar sounds.Sound placement in words differs across languages.Phonological tasks with unknown sounds and words are more difficult.Teachers can help ELLs by finding out which phonemes exist and do not exist in their native language and helping them hear new sounds.Phonemic awareness (very similar to phonological awareness) is the ability to identify and manipulate the phonemes or sounds in spoken words. It is also the understanding that, when put together, the sounds of spoken language make words. Phonemic awareness does not involve written text—it refers only to the ability to manipulate sounds. This ability has been found to be predictive of ELLs’ reading achievement in English (Chiappe, Siegel, & Gottardo, 2002) and Spanish (Lindsey, Manis, & Bailey, 2003). In fact, Spanish phonological awareness may be a better predictor of English word reading than English or Spanish oral proficiency or English word recognition (Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1993).Thus, developing native language phonological awareness appears to be a way to improve reading in English. Many activities that work well with all students should also help ELLs, such as word plays, songs, poems, language games, and word walls (Hiebert, et al., 1998). Rhymes exist in every language. Antunez (2002) suggests that teachers ask students or their parents to share these culturally relevant and teachable rhymes with the class, and build phonemic awareness activities around them. Antunez (2002) offers one example in Spanish:Bate, bate, chocolate, tu nariz de cacahuate. Uno, dos, tres, CHO! Uno, dos, tres, CO! Uno, dos, tres, LA! Uno, dos, tres, TE! Chocolate, chocolate! Bate, bate, chocolate! Bate, bate, bate, bate, Bate, bate, CHOCOLATE!
72 Alphabetic Principle, Decoding, and ELLs The process of learning to read in English is facilitated when students are already literate in their L1 and the orthographic systems of the two languages are similar.Spanish and English share many similarities (e.g., the sounds represented by the letters b, c, d, f, l, m, n, p, q, s, and t).However, vowels look the same in Spanish and English but represent different sounds. Therefore, English vowel sounds and their various spellings can be very challenging for ELLs.Unfamiliar phonemes and graphemes make decoding and spelling difficult.Not knowing English vocabulary prevents ELLs from using word meaning to figure out how to read a word.Learning letters and sounds can seem very abstract.The alphabetic principle, or phonics, is the understanding of sound-symbol correspondence, or, in other words, which letters make which sounds. It generally is much more difficult for ELLs to learn phonics in English when they have not already acquired this understanding in their first language. The process becomes much more abstract and less meaningful (Peregoy & Boyle, 2000).
73 ELLs can be confused by common words: Vocabulary and ELLsELLs can be confused by common words:prepositions (e.g., “on,” “above”)pronouns (e.g., “she,” “they”)cohesion markers (e.g., “therefore,” “however”)words with multiple meanings (e.g., “bat,” “light”)figurative language such as similes (e.g., “swims like a fish”) or metaphors (e.g. “his stomach was a bottomless pit”)idioms (e.g., “to know something inside out”)False cognates can perplex students (e.g., “fast” in German means “almost”; “embarazada” in Spanish means “pregnant”)
74 ACTIVITY: Remembering Vocabulary Here I let participants know that I will be saying 10 words and I would like them to listen and then when I finished saying the words, write down as many as they can remember. I try to pick random, unrelated words, such as: jump, pliers, smile, caterpillar, toothpaste, squash, flood, zero, anticipate, clap. After I say the words, I let the participants know they should now write the words. After giving them time to write, I ask if anyone remembered all 10. Then I ask for 9, 8, and 7. Then I do the same activity again, but this time with connected words: living room, hallway, den, kitchen, dining room, family room, bathroom, bedroom, basement, attic. After I’ve asked how many people remembered all 10, 9, and 8, I ask which way was easier, and why (because the second set of words was connected, and we activate our background knowledge, a house schema, once we recognize that the words are all rooms in a house). I also ask them if I were to come back in a week and ask them to write down as many words as they can remember from both lists, how many they’d remember. They would probably remember all of the words on the second list, but few on the first. I ask what the implications of this activity are for ELLs, and emphasize how important it is for us as teachers to help kids make connections and build and activate schema. Often instruction seems so disconnected and abstract for ELLs. I then show the audience some ways to help kids learn new vocabulary words that build on these ideas.
76 Sample Concept Map Main Category Animal CHARACTERISTICS Has no backbone.Subordinate CategoryBody has 3 parts.Has 6 or more legs.Many have wings.InsectEXAMPLESAntsFliesSpiders
77 Reading Comprehension and ELLs Many factors affect the reading comprehension of ELLs:language proficiencyvocabulary knowledgeability to use comprehension strategiesdifferences in text structureculture influencesinterestschema
78 ACTIVITY: Comprehension Here I let participants know that I will be saying 10 words and I would like them to listen and then when I finished saying the words, write down as many as they can remember. I try to pick random, unrelated words, such as: jump, pliers, smile, caterpillar, toothpaste, squash, flood, zero, anticipate, clap. After I say the words, I let the participants know they should now write the words. After giving them time to write, I ask if anyone remembered all 10. Then I ask for 9, 8, and 7. Then I do the same activity again, but this time with connected words: living room, hallway, den, kitchen, dining room, family room, bathroom, bedroom, basement, attic. After I’ve asked how many people remembered all 10, 9, and 8, I ask which way was easier, and why (because the second set of words was connected, and we activate our background knowledge, a house schema, once we recognize that the words are all rooms in a house). I also ask them if I were to come back in a week and ask them to write down as many words as they can remember from both lists, how many they’d remember. They would probably remember all of the words on the second list, but few on the first. I ask what the implications of this activity are for ELLs, and emphasize how important it is for us as teachers to help kids make connections and build and activate schema. Often instruction seems so disconnected and abstract for ELLs. I then show the audience some ways to help kids learn new vocabulary words that build on these ideas.
80 To determine what ELLs comprehend, teachers should: provide them with alternative ways to show understanding (e.g., in their native language, using diagrams), andfocus more on content than grammatical errors or accents.
81 The Importance of Background Knowledge (Example) Group 1: Told that they were gathering information in order to rob a house.Group 2: Told that they were prospective home buyers.Both groups read the same passage describing a house.Results: Memory for information varied according to activated schema and prior knowledge.Participants spent more time reading sentences that were associated with their assigned perspective – ex. home buyerReal-life perspectives had little influence (subjects were cops, real-estate agents, and students)Teachers can support students in activating relevant schema or background knowledge that will support text comprehension.(Pichert & Anderson, 1977; Goetz, et al., 1983)
83 Beyond ‘Good Teaching’: Background Knowledge ≠ Cultural Schema Johnny jokesDouble meaning of the word naval - branch of the military; your belly buttonCultural Schema:Piercing your belly button is not a taboo in some cultures;Children do not challenge the authority of their parents - there are not battles
84 Fill in the BlanksThe problems that confront p_____ in raising ch____ from in____ to adult life are not easy to ____. Both f____ and m_____ meet with many di___ in their concern for satisfactory pro___ from the e____ stage to later life. It is important that young ch____ have plenty of s____ and good f____ for healthy growth. B___ and g____ should not occupy the same b____ or sleep in the same r____. They are often afraid of the d____.
85 Fill in the BlanksThe problems that confront poultrymen in raising chickens from incubation to adult life are not easy to summarize. Both farmers and merchants meet with many difficulties in their concern for satisfactory promotion from the egg stage to later life. It is important that young chicks have plenty of sunshine and good feed for healthy growth. Banties and geese should not occupy the same barnyard or sleep in the same roost. They are often afraid of the dark.Background knowledge and context matter. Only people with a background in farming might consider that this passage was about chickens. The rest of us probably have more familiar and close experiences with parents and children.8585
86 In Conclusion…RTI offers a new way of conceptualizing how we support student learning, along a continuum rather than categorically.Yet we must ensure that students truly receive appropriate instruction, valid assessment, and an adequate opportunity to learn.Klingner (2012)
87 “Stop asking me if we’re almost there; we’re Nomads, for crying out loud.” Klingner (2012)
88 Think (Write)-Pair-Share Where is “there” (i.e., what are our goals—1 year, 3 years)?How will we know when we are “there” (i.e., we have succeeded)?What should our next steps be (i.e., tomorrow, next week…)?Klingner (2012)