3Corn Reproductive Structures Explain how sexual reproduction in corn happens. For more information see your Teacher’s Edition for this activity.This image can be found on Transparency 4.3, “Corn Reproductive Structures.”Note: It is a common misconception that corn kernels are gametes. Make sure your students understand that each kernel is a fertilized offspring, or embryo.
4Read the introduction.Sexual reproduction is reproduction in which two parents contribute genetic material to the offspring.Selective breeding is the process by which organisms with desirable traits are mated with the goal of producing even more desirable offspring.
5ChallengeHow can information about the genetic makeup of plants help farmers breed plants for desirable traits?
6Breeding Corn: First Generation Procedure Steps 1-14 are an opportunity for you to use the Group Interaction (GI) Scoring Guide to assess students’ group interaction skills. For more information see the Teacher’s Edition for this activity and Teacher Resources IV: Assessment.Pedigrees are introduced formally in Activity 8, “Interpreting Pedigrees.” Refer to the slide to clarify students’ questions before they begin work in Procedure Step 2. For more information see your Teacher’s Edition for this activity. Be sure students have completed Procedure Step 2 before continuing to the next slide.This image can be found in Transparency 4.1, “Breeding Corn: First Generation.”
7Basic GeneticsAn organism has two copies of the gene for each of its traits. These copies are called alleles.A dominant trait will mask another version of a trait. A recessive trait will be hidden by a dominant trait.Be sure students understand clearly the terms allele, dominant and recessive and how to depict genes with letters before they move on to Punnett squares. For more information see your Teacher’s Edition for this activity.
8Creating a Punnett Square Use as necessary to review how to show the results of a cross. See your Teacher’s Edition for this activity for more information.This image can be found on Transparency 4.4, “Creating a Punnett Square.”See your Teacher’s Edition for this activity for information on reviewing the ratios in Steps 7, 10 and 11.
9Which describes the cross that produced ear A? Ear B? Students’ responses to Procedure Steps 16 and 17 may be scored with the Analyzing Data (AD) Scoring Guide. For more information see your Teacher’s Edition for this activity and Teacher Resources IV: Assessment. Students should conclude that the cross shown in Punnett Square Z produced the kernels on ear A and the cross shown in Punnett Square Y produced the kernels on ear B.Have the class conduct an Informal Meeting of the Minds to compare their results and conclusions. For more information on how to do this see your Teacher’s Edition for this activity.Punnett Square XPunnett Square YPunnett Square Z
10Breeding Corn: Second Generation You may wish to review what students know about each cross, including the allele combinations of the parents and offspring, if they do not come to an agreement.This image can be found on Transparency 4.2, “Breeding Corn: Second Generation.”
11Analysis 1How does a Punnett square show the possible results of a cross between two individuals?Analysis Question 1 will help you gauge students understanding of heredity and the use of Punnett squares. A sample student response can be found in the Teacher’s Edition for this activity.
12Analysis 3What do you predict will happen if a purple corn plant with the genes Pp is bred with a corn plant with purple kernels and the genes PP? Explain your answer, and include a matching Punnett Square.Analysis Question 3 will help you gauge students understanding of heredity and the use of Punnett squares. A sample student response can be found in the Teacher’s Edition for this activity.
13Analysis 4How could scientists use selective breeding to help solve a sustainability challenge such as breeding a crop that can survive drought?Analysis Question 4 may be scored using the Understanding Concepts (UC) Scoring Guide. A sample student response and more information can be found in the Teacher’s Edition for this activity and in Teacher Resources IV: Assessment.
14Revisit the ChallengeHow can information about the genetic makeup of plants help farmers breed plants for desirable traits?Return students to Student Sheet 4.1, “Traits and Heredity,” and ask them to complete the “Now we know…” column. More information and a sample student response may be found in the Teacher’s Edition to this activity.
15allele dominant Punnett square recessive selective breeding Key VocabularyalleledominantPunnett squarerecessiveselective breedingsexual reproductiontraitSee Teacher Resources III: Literacy for more information on key vocabulary and the most effective strategies to enhance student vocabulary learning.Note that bold words are formally defined in this activity. Words in regular font are used in the activity, but not formally defined. The definition of a key vocabulary word should not be discussed as a class prior to the formal definition being introduced.