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Heredity Unit 3 Chapter 29a.

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1 Heredity Unit 3 Chapter 29a

2 Heredity Who we are is guided by the gene-bearing chromosomes we receive from our parents in egg and sperm. Segments of DNA called genes are blueprints for proteins, many which are enzymes, that dictate the synthesis of all of our body’s molecules.

3 Heredity Genes are expressed in our hair color, sex, blood type and so on However, these genes are influenced by other genes and by environmental influences

4 Genetics Genetics is the study of the mechanism of heredity
Genes = give birth to Nuclei of all human cells (except gametes) contain 46 chromosomes (or 23 pair) Sex chromosomes determine the genetic sex (XX = female, XY = male)

5 Genetics Karyotype – the diploid chromosomal complement displayed in homologous pairs – a picture of our genome Genome – genetic (DNA) makeup represents two sets of genetic instructions – one maternal and the other paternal

6 Alleles Alleles - Matched genes at the same locus on homologous chromosomes Homozygous – two alleles controlling a single trait are the same Heterozygous – the two alleles for a trait are different

7 Alleles Dominant – an allele masks or suppresses the expression of its partner – represented by a capital letter Recessive – the allele that is masked or suppressed – represented by a lower case letter

8 Alleles & Genotype AA = both alleles dominate – homozygous dominant
Aa = one dominant allele and one recessive allele = heterozygous aa = both alleles recessive – homozygous recessive

9 Genotype and Phenotype
Genotype – the genetic makeup Phenotype – the way one’s genotype is expressed

10 Segregation and Independent Assortment
Chromosomes are randomly distributed to daughter cells Members of the allele pair for each trait are segregated during meiosis Alleles on different pairs of homologous chromosomes are distributed independently

11 Segregation and Independent Assortment
The number of different types of gametes can be calculated by this formula: 2n, where n is the number of homologous pairs

12 Segregation and Independent Assortment
In a man’s testes, the number of gamete types that can be produced based on independent assortment is 223, which equals 8.5 million possibilities

13 Independent Assortment
Figure 29.2

14 Crossover Homologous chromosomes synapse in meiosis I
One chromosome segment exchanges positions with its homologous counterpart Genetic information is exchanged between homologous chromosomes Two recombinant chromosomes are formed

15 Crossover Figure 29.3

16 Crossover Figure 29.3

17 Random Fertilization A single egg is fertilized by a single sperm in a random manner Considering independent assortment and random fertilization, an offspring represents one out of 72 trillion (8.5 million  8.5 million) zygote possibilities

18 Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
Reflects the interaction of dominant and recessive alleles Punnett square – diagram used to predict the probability of having a certain type of offspring with a particular genotype and phenotype

19 Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
Example: probability of different offspring from mating two heterozygous parents T = tongue roller and t = cannot roll tongue

20 Figure 29.4

21 Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
Examples of dominant disorders: achondroplasia (type of dwarfism) and Huntington’s disease Examples of recessive conditions: albinism, cystic fibrosis, and Tay-Sachs disease Carriers – heterozygotes who do not express a trait but can pass it on to their offspring

22 Now try some Punnet Square problems on you own!

23 Study guide check Pages 713-718 (6 points)
Quiz next time! Study guide check Pages (6 points)

24 Heredity Unit 3 Chapter 29b

25 Incomplete Dominance Heterozygous individuals have a phenotype intermediate between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive

26 Incomplete Dominance Sickling gene is a human example when aberrant hemoglobin (Hb) is made from the recessive allele (s) SS = normal Hb is made Ss = sickle-cell trait (both aberrant and normal Hb is made) ss = sickle-cell anemia (only aberrant Hb is made)

27 Multiple-Allele Inheritance
Genes that exhibit more than two alternate alleles ABO blood grouping is an example Three alleles (IA, IB, i) determine the ABO blood type in humans IA and IB are codominant (both are expressed if present), and i is recessive

28 ABO Blood Groups Table 29.2

29 Sex-Linked Inheritance
Inherited traits determined by genes on the sex chromosomes X chromosomes bear over 2500 genes; Y chromosomes carry about 15 genes

30 Sex-Linked Inheritance
X-linked genes are: Found only on the X chromosome Typically passed from mothers to sons Never masked or damped in males since there is no Y counterpart

31 Polygene Inheritance Depends on several different gene pairs at different loci acting in tandem Results in continuous phenotypic variation between two extremes Examples: skin color, eye color, and height

32 Polygenic Inheritance of Skin Color
Alleles for dark skin (ABC) are incompletely dominant over those for light skin (abc) The first generation offspring each have three “units” of darkness (intermediate pigmentation) The second generation offspring have a wide variation in possible pigmentations

33 Polygenic Inheritance of Skin Color
Figure 29.5

34 Environmental Influence on Gene Expression
Phenocopies – environmentally produced phenotypes that mimic mutations

35 Environmental Influence on Gene Expression
Environmental factors can influence genetic expression after birth Poor nutrition can effect brain growth, body development, and height Childhood hormonal deficits can lead to abnormal skeletal growth

36 Genomic Imprinting The same allele can have different effects depending upon the source parent Deletions in chromosome 15 result in: Prader-Willi syndrome if inherited from the father Angelman syndrome if inherited from the mother

37 Genomic Imprinting During gametogenesis, certain genes are methylated and tagged as either maternal or paternal Developing embryos “read” these tags and express one version or the other

38 Extrachromosomal (Mitochondrial) Inheritance
Some genes are in the mitochondria All mitochondrial genes are transmitted by the mother Unusual muscle disorders and neurological problems have been linked to these genes

39 Heredity Unit 3 Chapter 29c

40 Genetic Screening, Counseling, and Therapy
Newborn infants are screened for a number of genetic disorders: congenital hip dysplasia, imperforate anus, and PKU

41 Genetic Screening, Counseling, and Therapy
Genetic screening alerts new parents that treatment may be necessary for the well-being of their infant Example: a woman pregnant for the first time at age 35 may want to know if her baby has trisomy-21 (Down syndrome)

42 Carrier Recognition Identification of the heterozygote state for a given trait Two major avenues are used to identify carriers: pedigrees and blood tests

43 Carrier Recognition Pedigrees trace a particular genetic trait through several generations; helps to predict the future Blood tests and DNA probes can detect the presence of unexpressed recessive genes Sickling, Tay-Sachs, and cystic fibrosis genes can be identified by such tests

44 Pedigree Analysis Figure 29.6

45 Fetal Testing Is used when there is a known risk of a genetic disorder
Amniocentesis – amniotic fluid is withdrawn after the 14th week and sloughed fetal cells are examined for genetic abnormalities Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) – chorionic villi are sampled and karyotyped for genetic abnormalities

46 Fetal Testing Figure 29.7

47 Human Gene Therapy Genetic engineering has the potential to replace a defective gene Defective cells can be infected with a genetically engineered virus containing a functional gene The patient’s cells can be directly injected with “corrected” DNA

48 Study guide check Pages 719 – 726 (8 pts)
Quiz next time! Study guide check Pages 719 – 726 (8 pts)

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