# Chapter 2: The Body’s Chemical Makeup

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Chapter 2: The Body’s Chemical Makeup
Mrs. Fernandez Anatomy & Physiology Honors

Case Study Investigation
You have a friend who is preparing for a charity marathon, but he feels that he is too out of shape to compete with seasoned runners. You go with him to shop for energy drinks that would give him a competitive edge. He finally finds a drink called “Endurance” that promises to boost an athlete's energy during strenuous competition. Your friend drinks several bottles of “Endurance” before the race. Your friend collapses after 2 hours of running, only 10 miles into the 26-mile race. The medical team on the scene discovers that your friend is dizzy, vomiting, and breathing rapidly. In addition, his muscles are quickly alternating between very tense and overly relaxed. An on-the-spot examination shows that his heartbeat is rapid, yet his blood pressure is low. Determine the possible body chemistry problems causing this set of conditions.

Introduction to Chemistry
Studying the human body requires knowledge of the chemistry of the body’s structure and function. -What are the properties? Interactions? Our body is composed of 2 substances: energy and matter. What’s the difference? Much of our energy is released as heat -Homeostasis Most important chemistry to study our body is organic chemistry: compounds that contain carbon.

Atoms & Molecules All matter is composed of atoms – smallest undividable unit -Different types of atoms called elements Contains 3 subatomic particles - ??? Organized into a periodic table according to chemical properties – developed by Mendeleev. Interactive table:

Atom Structure & Function
Composed of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electron orbital’s Atomic mass = P + N Atomic # = P Physical Properties: Boiling point, color, density, hardness, melting point, etc.

Atom Structure & Function
For most elements, the # of N = # of P. When it differs, the element is called an isotope. -Makes the atomic mass different for same element -Have very similar chemical and physical properties, but greatly differ in nuclear properties. -Radioactive isotopes can cause cancer, and also cure it (radiation therapy). Also used in carbon dating (lets us know how long something has been dead for).

Atom Structure & Function
Gaining or losing electrons = Ions. -Important for every day body reactions: Na/K pump, nerve impulses, and muscle reactions Discovery Education: Properties of Atoms

Properties of Molecules
Molecules are true building blocks of our body -Made up of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds -Used to replace worn down molecules or get energy Pure molecules: 2 or more of the same element -Ex: Oxygen molecule made of 2 O bonded Compounds: 2 or more different elements -Ex: Water, H20

Types of Bonds Ionic: Donating / Receiving electrons between 2 elements -Usually from first two columns (readily lose an electron) and next-to-last column (readily gain electron) - Form strong and rigid bonds = crystalline structure -Ex: Na+Cl- (table salt), Bone matrix (calcium chloride), and nerve impulses -Weaken in water (dissolve)

Types of Bonds Covalent Bonds: Sharing of electrons between 2 elements -More characteristic of the biochemical's that make up the human body -Usually only involve C, H, N, O, P & S -Very important in carbon compounds -Don’t weaken in water -Ex: hair, skin, rubber, plastic -Breaking down covalent bonds creates energy: metabolism

Types of Bonds Hydrogen Bonds: Generally temporary and weak -Partial positive H is attracted to negative O, N, F -Ex: Water! -Gives the glue-like property of adhesiveness (using moisture to stick a cup to a surface) and cohesiveness (water attaching to itself) -Responsible for more of the chemical reactions in our body

Gizmo: Element Builder

Independent Assignment Work SILENTLY 
On page 40 answer the CONCEPT CHECK 1-3 Q+A Outline from pg starting at Parts of a Molecule. At least 2 sentences per paragraph as well as all terms and definitions

Biochemicals Biochemicals: Organic molecules produced by chemical reactions in living organisms Obtained by eating plants, or animals that have eaten plants. 2 major categories: Bioactive 2. Structural

Bioactive Molecules Carry out / promote reactions in the body
Ex: Caffeine

Structural Molecules Components of the body Ex: Tendons, Nails, Fat
Some biochemical have both bioactive & structural properties, such as sugar

Biochemical Components
Made up of Carbon skeleton and Functional group Carbon Skeleton: carbon atoms held by covalent bonds (can be straight chain, branch, ring, etc) Functional Group: one or more elements responsible for chemical activities

Functional Groups Hydroxyl (Alcohol): Made of O ; Helps other molecules dissolve in water. Carbonyl: Transfer electrons and help in bonding Carboxyl: Acid, exchanges hydrogen ions with other atoms Amino: Made of N ; Make up proteins and parts of DNA Phosphate: Made of P, captures and releases energy in body processes Sulfhydryl: Made of S ; Gives unique shapes to molecules when bonded

Isomers Same molecular formula, but different structural formula (bonding and arrangement of atoms) May have different physical and chemical properties Ex: Propanol can be 1-propanol (perfumes) or 2-propanol (rubbing alcohol)

Chirality The mirror image of itself
Described as “left handed” or “right handed”, the way your hands are mirror images of each other Ex: Right-handed glucose (sugar) and Left-handed glucose (poison)

Independent Assignment
Complete the Concept Check on page 42 Questions and Answers On a separate sheet of paper Due Today Please work SILENTLY 

Acids & Bases pH: How many hydrogen ions are in the water
Bases / Alkaline solutions: low concentration of H Bland taste, slimy feel Acids / Acidic solutions: high concentration of H Sharp taste, like lemons and vinegar

Acids & Bases Buffers help to neutralize acids and bases to pH of 7
Very important in blood and body fluids

CSI Re-Visit Knowing a little more about elements and their role in the body now, is there any new idea you have about our CSI patient? Could an acidic or basic reaction be happening his blood?

Human Molecules 4 major organic chemical groups: Lipids Carbohydrates
Peptides Nucleic Acids