Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: The Body’s Chemical Makeup"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2: The Body’s Chemical Makeup Mrs. FernandezAnatomy & Physiology Honors
2 Case Study Investigation You have a friend who is preparing for a charity marathon, but he feels that he is too out of shape to compete with seasoned runners. You go with him to shop for energy drinks that would give him a competitive edge. He finally finds a drink called “Endurance” that promises to boost an athlete's energy during strenuous competition. Your friend drinks several bottles of “Endurance” before the race. Your friend collapses after 2 hours of running, only 10 miles into the 26-mile race. The medical team on the scene discovers that your friend is dizzy, vomiting, and breathing rapidly. In addition, his muscles are quickly alternating between very tense and overly relaxed. An on-the-spot examination shows that his heartbeat is rapid, yet his blood pressure is low. Determine the possible body chemistry problems causing this set of conditions.
3 Introduction to Chemistry Studying the human body requires knowledge of the chemistry of the body’s structure and function. -What are the properties? Interactions?Our body is composed of 2 substances: energy and matter. What’s the difference?Much of our energy is released as heat -HomeostasisMost important chemistry to study our body is organic chemistry: compounds that contain carbon.
4 Atoms & MoleculesAll matter is composed of atoms – smallest undividable unit -Different types of atoms called elementsContains 3 subatomic particles - ???Organized into a periodic table according to chemical properties – developed by Mendeleev.Interactive table:
5 Atom Structure & Function Composed of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electron orbital’sAtomic mass = P + NAtomic # = PPhysical Properties: Boiling point, color, density, hardness, melting point, etc.
6 Atom Structure & Function For most elements, the # of N = # of P. When it differs, the element is called an isotope. -Makes the atomic mass different for same element -Have very similar chemical and physical properties, but greatly differ in nuclear properties. -Radioactive isotopes can cause cancer, and also cure it (radiation therapy). Also used in carbon dating (lets us know how long something has been dead for).
7 Atom Structure & Function Gaining or losing electrons = Ions. -Important for every day body reactions: Na/K pump, nerve impulses, and muscle reactionsDiscovery Education: Properties of Atoms
8 Properties of Molecules Molecules are true building blocks of our body -Made up of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds -Used to replace worn down molecules or get energyPure molecules: 2 or more of the same element -Ex: Oxygen molecule made of 2 O bondedCompounds: 2 or more different elements -Ex: Water, H20
9 Types of BondsIonic: Donating / Receiving electrons between 2 elements -Usually from first two columns (readily lose an electron) and next-to-last column (readily gain electron) - Form strong and rigid bonds = crystalline structure -Ex: Na+Cl- (table salt), Bone matrix (calcium chloride), and nerve impulses -Weaken in water (dissolve)
10 Types of BondsCovalent Bonds: Sharing of electrons between 2 elements -More characteristic of the biochemical's that make up the human body -Usually only involve C, H, N, O, P & S -Very important in carbon compounds -Don’t weaken in water -Ex: hair, skin, rubber, plastic -Breaking down covalent bonds creates energy: metabolism
11 Types of BondsHydrogen Bonds: Generally temporary and weak -Partial positive H is attracted to negative O, N, F -Ex: Water! -Gives the glue-like property of adhesiveness (using moisture to stick a cup to a surface) and cohesiveness (water attaching to itself) -Responsible for more of the chemical reactions in our body
13 Independent Assignment Work SILENTLY On page 40 answer the CONCEPT CHECK 1-3 Q+AOutline from pg starting at Parts of a Molecule.At least 2 sentences per paragraph as well as all terms and definitions
14 BiochemicalsBiochemicals: Organic molecules produced by chemical reactions in living organismsObtained by eating plants, or animals that have eaten plants.2 major categories: Bioactive 2. Structural
15 Bioactive Molecules Carry out / promote reactions in the body Ex: Caffeine
16 Structural Molecules Components of the body Ex: Tendons, Nails, Fat Some biochemical have both bioactive & structural properties, such as sugar
17 Biochemical Components Made up of Carbon skeleton and Functional groupCarbon Skeleton: carbon atoms held by covalent bonds (can be straight chain, branch, ring, etc)Functional Group: one or more elements responsible for chemical activities
18 Functional GroupsHydroxyl (Alcohol): Made of O ; Helps other molecules dissolve in water.Carbonyl: Transfer electrons and help in bondingCarboxyl: Acid, exchanges hydrogen ions with other atomsAmino: Made of N ; Make up proteins and parts of DNAPhosphate: Made of P, captures and releases energy in body processesSulfhydryl: Made of S ; Gives unique shapes to molecules when bonded
19 IsomersSame molecular formula, but different structural formula (bonding and arrangement of atoms)May have different physical and chemical propertiesEx: Propanol can be 1-propanol (perfumes) or 2-propanol (rubbing alcohol)
20 Chirality The mirror image of itself Described as “left handed” or “right handed”, the way your hands are mirror images of each otherEx: Right-handed glucose (sugar) and Left-handed glucose (poison)
21 Independent Assignment Complete the Concept Check on page 42Questions and AnswersOn a separate sheet of paperDue TodayPlease work SILENTLY
22 Acids & Bases pH: How many hydrogen ions are in the water Bases / Alkaline solutions: low concentration of HBland taste, slimy feelAcids / Acidic solutions: high concentration of HSharp taste, like lemons and vinegar
23 Acids & Bases Buffers help to neutralize acids and bases to pH of 7 Very important in blood and body fluids
24 CSI Re-VisitKnowing a little more about elements and their role in the body now, is there any new idea you have about our CSI patient? Could an acidic or basic reaction be happening his blood?
25 Human Molecules 4 major organic chemical groups: Lipids Carbohydrates PeptidesNucleic Acids