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What is a dangling modifier? How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Infinitive phrases Review A Review B Correcting Dangling Modifiers.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a dangling modifier? How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Infinitive phrases Review A Review B Correcting Dangling Modifiers."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a dangling modifier? How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Infinitive phrases Review A Review B Correcting Dangling Modifiers

2 ? A modifier should clearly and sensibly modify another word or word group. Who or what was wrapping the gifts? What is a dangling modifier? While wrapping the gifts, our cat kept trying to play with the bows. But look at this sentence: The cat?

3 A dangling modifier is a modifier that doesn ’ t clearly and sensibly modify another word or word group. ? ? ? What is a dangling modifier? Lost, the guide book was consulted. Was the guide book lost? Were the streets peering at the map? Does help have to find the hotel? Peering at the map, the streets looked unfamiliar. To find the hotel, help would be needed.

4 What is a dangling modifier? Dangling modifiers often occur at the beginning of a sentence. When a sentence begins with a participial phrase or infinitive phrase, use these steps to tell if the phrase is dangling.participial phraseinfinitive phrase Checking in the mirror, the makeup looked good. Participial phrase Step 1: Look at the word or word group right after the comma.

5 Participial phrase A participial phrase is used as an adjective and consists of a participle and any complements or modifiers the participle has. The parrot kept in that cage has been sold. What is a dangling modifier? Participial phrases Mimicking his owner, the parrot whistled. Both participial phrases modify the noun parrot.

6 An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any complements or modifiers the infinitive has. The entire phrase can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The team ’ s desire to win the game was obvious. What is a dangling modifier? Infinitive phrases Infinitive phrase The infinitive phrase to win the game is used as an adjective to modify the noun desire.

7 If the phrase doesn ’ t sensibly modify the word after the comma, you probably have a dangling modifier. No, it doesn ’ t make sense for the participial phrase to modify makeup. What is a dangling modifier? Step 2: Ask yourself, “ Does it make sense for the phrase to modify the word or word group after the comma? ” ? Checking in the mirror, the makeup looked good. Was the makeup checking in the mirror? Participial phrase Dangling modifier

8 What is a dangling modifier? Try it out with this sentence: Having selected a college, a trip to the campus was planned. Which word or word group follows the comma? Does it make sense that the trip has selected a college? trip ? The phrase is a dangling modifier. NO. Dangling modifier

9 1.Living in New York City, noise has to be tolerated. 2.To solve the problem, patience is necessary. 3.Trying to write a story on the computer, my dog Buster kept pawing my arm. Identify the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences. Be prepared to explain why it is a dangling modifier. What is a dangling modifier?

10 1.Living in New York City, noise has to be tolerated. ? What is a dangling modifier? Which word or word group follows the comma? Does it make sense that noise lives in New York City? noise The phrase is a dangling modifier. NO Identify the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences. Be prepared to explain why it is a dangling modifier.

11 2.To solve the problem, patience is necessary. Identify the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences. Be prepared to explain why it is a dangling modifier. What is a dangling modifier? ? Which word or word group follows the comma? Does it make sense that patience is solving a problem? patience The phrase is a dangling modifier. NO

12 3.Trying to write a story on the computer, my dog Buster kept pawing my arm. What is a dangling modifier? ? Which word or word group follows the comma? Does it make sense that the dog was trying to write a story on the computer? dog The phrase is a dangling modifier. NO Identify the dangling modifier in each of the following sentences. Be prepared to explain why it is a dangling modifier.

13 On Your Own [End of Section] What is a dangling modifier? Circle the word or word group that appears to be modified by the boldfaced word or phrase. Then, determine whether the boldfaced word or phrase is a dangling modifier. Write D for a dangling modifier or C if the modifier is correct. ___ 1.Thirsty and weary, the stream was a welcome sight. ___ 2.Convinced of the prisoner ’ s innocence, the judge ruled that he should be set free. ___ 3.Riding in the glass-bottomed boat, hundreds of beautiful fish could be seen.

14 Circle the word or word group that appears to be modified by the boldfaced word or phrase. Then, determine whether the boldfaced word or phrase is a dangling modifier. Write D for a dangling modifier or C if the modifier is correct. ___ 1.Thirsty and weary, the stream was a welcome sight. ___ 2.Convinced of the prisoner ’ s innocence, the judge ruled that he should be set free. ___ 3.Riding in the glass-bottomed boat, hundreds of beautiful fish could be seen. Answers What is a dangling modifier? D D C

15 Strategy 1: Revise the word group that follows the dangling modifier. Was the rain sitting on the porch? No. A logical subject—such as we—needs to follow the comma. To fix a dangling modifier, you will need to make the meaning logical and clear. How to fix dangling modifiers While sitting on the porch, the rain began to fall. Dangling modifier While sitting on the porch, we heard the rain begin to fall. ? Now the modifier while sitting on the porch logically and clearly modifies the subject we.

16 Strategy 2: Revise the dangling modifier itself. How to fix dangling modifiers While sitting on the porch, the rain began to fall. Dangling modifier ? Adding we were to the dangling modifier makes the meaning clear. Now the modifier clearly and sensibly modifies the verb began. While we were sitting on the porch, the rain began to fall.

17 Dangling modifiers often occur when the verb in a sentence is in the passive voice. How to fix dangling modifiers A short drive was taken by us. We took a short drive. Passive voice Active voice The action is done to the subject, drive. The action is done by the subject, we.

18 Changing a sentence from the passive voice to the active voice often eliminates a dangling modifier. How to fix dangling modifiers ? Having waxed the car, a short drive was taken by us. Having waxed the car, we took a short drive. Passive voice Active voice

19 Participial phrase ? Strategy 1: Revise the word group after the participial phrase. Add a noun or pronoun that the phrase can modify. How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Adding some frosting, the cake was finished. Adding some frosting, I finished the cake. Now the participial phrase clearly and sensibly modifies the pronoun I.

20 Adverb clause ? Participial phrase Strategy 2: Change the participial phrase into a clause.clause How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Adding some frosting, the cake was finished. After I added some frosting, the cake was finished. Now the adverb clause modifies the verb was finished, telling when the cake was finished.

21 The train left the station A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject. How to fix dangling modifiers An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot be a sentence. It must be attached to an independent clause. Independent clause Subordinate clause before they arrived subject verb subjectverb The train left the station.The train left the station before they arrived.

22 Participial phrases that seem to modify possessive nouns or pronouns are dangling modifiers. Reword the sentence to avoid using the possessive form. How to fix dangling modifiers Participial phrases Participial phrase ? Washing them repeatedly, Lady Macbeth ’ s hands still appear bloody. Washing her hands repeatedly, Lady Macbeth still sees blood on them. Now the phrase sensibly modifies the noun Lady Macbeth.

23 Infinitive phrase ? Strategy 1: Revise the word group after the infinitive phrase. Add a noun or pronoun as the subject. How to fix dangling modifiers Infinitive phrases To win this election, your support will be needed. To win this election, I will need your support. Now the infinitive phrase clearly and sensibly modifies will need, telling why I will need your support.

24 Adverb clause ? Infinitive phrase Strategy 2: Change the infinitive phrase into a clause. How to fix dangling modifiers Infinitive phrases To win this election, your support will be needed. If I am to win this election, your support will be needed. Now the adverb clause modifies the verb will be needed, telling why your support will be needed.

25 3.Puzzled by the speaker ’ s statement, a sea of hands rose in the audience. Revise each sentence to correct the underlined dangling modifier. 1.While walking on Spring Avenue, an accident occurred. 2.To improve the yard, a tree could be planted. How to fix dangling modifiers

26 1.While walking on Spring Avenue, I witnessed an accident. 1.While I was walking on Spring Avenue, an accident occurred. While I was walking on Spring Avenue now modifies occurred. Revise each sentence to correct the underlined dangling modifier. How to fix dangling modifiers Possible Answers While walking on Spring Avenue now modifies the pronoun I.

27 Revise each sentence to correct the underlined dangling modifier. How to fix dangling modifiers Possible Answers In the original sentence the infinitive phrase seemed to modify tree. In these revised sentences a logical subject—you—has been added. (You is the understood subject in the second sentence.) 2.To improve the yard, you could plant a tree. 2.To improve the yard, plant a tree.

28 Revise each sentence to correct the underlined dangling modifier. How to fix dangling modifiers Possible Answers Now the participial phrase sensibly modifies the noun members. The adverb clause that has been created sensibly modifies rose. 3.Puzzled by the speaker ’ s statement, many members of the audience raised their hands. 3.After the speaker made his statement, a sea of hands rose in the audience.

29 [End of Section] How to fix dangling modifiers On Your Own Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier. 1.Alone in the house, every little noise made her jump. 2.To win this game, hard work will be necessary. 3.After cleaning the bathroom, Matt ’ s next chore was to sweep the floors. 4.Opening my umbrella, the rain stopped.

30 Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier. 1.Alone in the house, every little noise made her jump. 2.To win this game, hard work will be necessary. 3.After cleaning the bathroom, Matt ’ s next chore was to sweep the floors. 4.Opening my umbrella, the rain stopped. How to fix dangling modifiers Possible Answers 1.Alone in the house, she jumped at every little noise. 2.To win this game, our team will have to work hard. 3.After he cleaned the bathroom, Matt ’ s next chore was to sweep the floors. 4.As I opened my umbrella, the rain stopped.

31 [End of Section] Identify each dangling modifier. If a sentence does not have a dangling modifier, label it C. Review A 1.To make a good grade, homework must be done on time. 2.Foggy and rainy, the driver could barely see the road. 3.While touring the ruins, good walking shoes are essential. 4.Carrying the camping gear, we found the hike up the mountain tiring. 5.The front door was a welcome sight, exhausted after a long day.

32 2.Foggy and rainy, the driver could barely see the road. 5.The front door was a welcome sight, exhausted after a long day. 4.Carrying the camping gear, we found the hike up the mountain tiring. 3.While touring the ruins, good walking shoes are essential. 1.To make a good grade, homework must be done on time. Review A C Identify each dangling modifier. If a sentence does not have a dangling modifier, label it C.

33 [End of Section] Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier. Review B 1.To hang the picture on the wall, a nail will be needed. 3.The kite soared into the air while running across the field. 4.Finishing the chores early, there was time to read before bed. 5.Considering the evidence carefully, the defendant was found guilty. 2.Disappointed, it was time to start the project all over.

34 1.To hang the picture on the wall, a nail will be needed. 4.Finishing the chores early, there was time to read before bed. 5.Considering the evidence carefully, the defendant was found guilty. 2.Disappointed, it was time to start the project all over. 3.The kite soared into the air while running across the field. Review B Possible Answers Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier. 1.To hang the picture on the wall, you will need a nail. 2.Disappointed, he started the project all over. 3.The kite soared into the air while I was running across the field. 4.Finishing the chores early, he had time to read before bed. 5.After the jury considered the evidence carefully, the defendant was found guilty.

35 The End


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