Presentation on theme: "Government Chapter 10 The media. Media Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined."— Presentation transcript:
Government Chapter 10 The media
Media Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books and manuscripts had already been in use for centuries.medialarge audiencenewspapers magazinesbooksmanuscripts public.
media Mass media includes Internet media (like blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers.blogsmessage boardspodcastsvideo sharing
media The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass- media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. mass societyadvertising propaganda The term public media is less used and is defined as "media whose mission is to serve or engage a
News paper A newspaper is a regularly scheduled publication containing news, information, and advertising. By 2007 there were 6580 daily newspapers in the world (including 1456 in the U.S.) selling 395 million copies a day (55 million in the U.S). The worldwide recession of 2008, combined with the rapid growth of web-based alternatives, caused a serious decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers closed or sharply retrenched operations.
Circulation USA Today Circulation: 2,281,831USA Wall Street Journal Circulation: 2,070,498Wall Street New York TimesCirculation:1,121,623New York Times
AGENDA -SETTING The agenda-setting theory is the theory that the mass-news media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them.massnews media
Agenda-setting Agenda-setting theory’s main postulate is salience transfer. Salience transfer is the ability of the mass media to transfer issues of importance from their mass media agendas to public agendas saliencemass media
SELECTIVE EXPOSURE Selective exposure theory is a theory of communication, positing that individuals prefer exposure to arguments supporting their position over those supporting other positions, media consumers have more privileges to expose themselves to selected medium and media contents. People tend to engage in information that comforts and agrees with their own ideas and as a result, they avoid information that argues against their opinion
SELECTIVE PERCEPTION Tendency to avoid information inconsistent with one’s beliefs & attitudes. Example: Attention to political ads. Can be counteracted by three factors: Perceived usefulness of information. Perceived norm of fairness. Curiosity/interest value of information. Application: Persuading a hostile audience.
SELECTIVE PRECEPTION Example After buying something, when we see it elsewhere, we are torn between checking the price to confirm we have bought a bargain and the fear that we will find that we could have bought it cheaper. So what?
SELECTIVE PRECEPTION Using it When you have persuaded somebody, deflect them from situations where they might feel that they have made the wrong decision. If they do face this dissonance, talk up their decision so they will naturally move away from the distraction.
NATIONAL NEWSPAPER US Newspapers USA Today –Circulation: 2,281,831 Wall Street Journal –Circulation: 2,070,498 New York Times
MEDIA CONGLOMERATES A media conglomerate describes companies that own large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, radio, publishing, movies, and the Internet. It is also referred to as media institutions and media groups.mass media televisionradiopublishingmoviesInternet
MEDIA CONGLOMERATES As of 2009, in terms of revenue, The Walt Disney Company is the world's largest media conglomerate, with Time Warner and News Corporation ranking second and third respectively[The Walt Disney CompanyTime WarnerNews Corporation[
KENNEDY/ NIXON DEBATES WASHINGTON (CNN) -- The first televised debate between presidential candidates, which took place 45 years ago Monday, not only had a major effect on the 1960 election, it changed America politics for good.
KENNEDY/ NIXON DEBATES The candidates in 1960 were Democratic Sen. John F. Kennedy and Republican Vice President Richard Nixon, and the debate turned, not on what they said about the Cold War or civil rights. In fact it didn't turn on what they said at all. The key factor was makeup.
KENNEDY/ NIXON DEBATES Nixon arrived at the CBS station in Chicago after a hard day's campaigning- speech to a labor union and so on. He was tired, still not fully recovered from an infected knee.
KENNEDY/ NIXON DEBATES He declined CBS's offer of makeup, but one of his staff dabbed his face with something called Lazy Shave, which was supposed to hide his five o'clock shadow
KENNEDY/ NIXON DEBATES Kennedy, in contrast, had spent he day relaxing, fielding practice questions. He had a California tan, though an aide told Hewitt later that Kennedy wore a little makeup, too. Better than Lazy Shave, whatever it was. The contrast was dramatic. Nixon, blotchy and nervous, Kennedy tanned and trim.