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6 th Grade Life Science!!!!. What are the characteristics of a living Organism?

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Presentation on theme: "6 th Grade Life Science!!!!. What are the characteristics of a living Organism?"— Presentation transcript:

1 6 th Grade Life Science!!!!

2 What are the characteristics of a living Organism?

3 The following are characteristics of living things. Be made of cells Be made of cells Produce gas exchange Produce gas exchange Need food Need food Respond to environment Respond to environment Adapt to environment Adapt to environment Eliminate waste Eliminate waste Reproduce Reproduce Grow Grow

4 What are cells?

5 Cells are the building blocks of life. EVERY LIVING THING IS MADE OF AT LEAST ONE CELL.

6 Types of Cells Plant Cells - multicellular Plant Cells - multicellular Animal Cells - multicellular Animal Cells - multicellular Monera (bacteria) – single celled Monera (bacteria) – single celled Fungi (mushrooms) - multicellular Fungi (mushrooms) - multicellular Protist (parmecium) – single celled Protist (parmecium) – single celled

7 Multi-cellular vs. Single Celled Multi-cellular Multi-cellular Living things that are made of more than one cell Living things that are made of more than one cell Examples: People, flowers, trees, animals, fungus ( Examples: People, flowers, trees, animals, fungus ( Single Celled Living things that are only one cell Examples: paramecium, all types of bacteria

8 What makes up an Animal Cell What makes up an Animal Cell Nucleus – The brain, controls all activity Nucleus – The brain, controls all activity Mitochondria - Produces Energy, breaks down sugar Mitochondria - Produces Energy, breaks down sugar Cell Membrane – The outer most layer Cell Membrane – The outer most layer Cytoplasm – Watery substance protects the parts Cytoplasm – Watery substance protects the parts Endoplasmic Reticulum – Carries things through the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum – Carries things through the cell Golgi Body – Packages and exports protein Golgi Body – Packages and exports protein

9 What do Cells have to do with us? Here is the order in which we are made of cells Here is the order in which we are made of cells Cells Cells Tissue – Muscle tissue Tissue – Muscle tissue Organs – heart, brain, stomach, liver, etc... Organs – heart, brain, stomach, liver, etc... Organ Systems – nervous, digestive, etc… Organ Systems – nervous, digestive, etc… Organism – Us! Organism – Us!

10 Other Types of Cells

11 Plant Cell Cell Wall – Outside layer, gives it structure so the plant can grow tall Cell Wall – Outside layer, gives it structure so the plant can grow tall Cell Membrane – provides protection Cell Membrane – provides protection Nucleus – Controls everything Nucleus – Controls everything Chloroplast – Makes energy from the Sun and give plants their green color Chloroplast – Makes energy from the Sun and give plants their green color

12 What do they have in common

13 How do cells and organisms reproduce? Cells – reproduce through asexual reproduction Cells – reproduce through asexual reproduction When cells reproduce they are exactly the same as the original cell When cells reproduce they are exactly the same as the original cell When the nucleus splits into 2 identical new nuclei it is called mitosis When the nucleus splits into 2 identical new nuclei it is called mitosis

14 Is this important YES, if they were not identical they would not do have the same function YES, if they were not identical they would not do have the same function

15 Asexual Reproduction Advantages: Advantages: It is a faster process It is a faster process It only requires 1 parent cell It only requires 1 parent cell The offspring perform the same function The offspring perform the same function Disadvantages: Do not adapt well If there is a genetic defect in the cell it will still continue to reproduce

16 Sexual Reproduction Advantages A stronger offspring is produced that adapts Disadvantages It is a slower process It takes two parent cells

17 Organisms Most living organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction Most living organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction This is when the female egg cell is fertilized by the male sperm cell. This is when the female egg cell is fertilized by the male sperm cell. In this type of reproduction the offspring is not identical to the parents. In this type of reproduction the offspring is not identical to the parents. They get traits from both parents They get traits from both parents

18 What are traits Inherited Traits – Characteristics passed down from your parents that you can’t control. Inherited Traits – Characteristics passed down from your parents that you can’t control. Can you give examples of inherited traits Can you give examples of inherited traits

19 Examples Rolling your tongue Rolling your tongue Eye color Eye color Hair color Hair color Attached ear lobes/detached ear lobes Attached ear lobes/detached ear lobes

20 Where is all this information stored?

21 Your DNA DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid This is the blueprint that make up all your inherited traits. This is the blueprint that make up all your inherited traits. The odds of someone have the same DNA as you are more than 1 : 1,000,000,000 The odds of someone have the same DNA as you are more than 1 : 1,000,000,000

22 Learned Traits Things that you can develop over time, but they are not passed down from your parents. Things that you can develop over time, but they are not passed down from your parents. Examples: typing on a computer, batting in baseball/softball, how fast you read, foul shots Examples: typing on a computer, batting in baseball/softball, how fast you read, foul shots

23 ?’s

24 Rocks and Minerals

25 What are minerals? What are minerals?

26 Minerals are… Naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a chemical composition Naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a chemical composition Can you give me example of minerals? Can you give me example of minerals?

27 Examples Sulfur Sulfur Graphite Graphite Talc Talc Calcite Calcite Quartz Quartz Diamonds Diamonds Gold Gold Pyrite Pyrite

28 There are over 3,000 known minerals.

29 What do we do to determine the type of mineral?

30 Test them! Color – yellow, white, clear, black, etc… Color – yellow, white, clear, black, etc… Luster – metallic/nonmetallic Luster – metallic/nonmetallic Hardness – Moh’s scale Hardness – Moh’s scale Streak – the color of the powder when rubbed an a surface. Streak – the color of the powder when rubbed an a surface. Others – is it magnetic, taste, and smell Others – is it magnetic, taste, and smell

31 How are rocks formed and where do they come from?

32 They come from 2 things Minerals Minerals Other rocks Other rocks

33 -They are formed through something called the Rock Cycle. - What are the different types of rocks?

34

35 Igneous Igneous Rocks – They are formed from magma when it cools and hardens. Example: Granite Igneous Rocks – They are formed from magma when it cools and hardens. Example: Granite Types are: Types are: Intrusive – cool slowely and harden under the surface Intrusive – cool slowely and harden under the surface Extrusive – cool quickly and harden above the Earth’s surface. Extrusive – cool quickly and harden above the Earth’s surface.

36 Sedimentary Sedimentary – they are formed from other pieces of rocks called sediments. They are compacted and cemented together. Sedimentary – they are formed from other pieces of rocks called sediments. They are compacted and cemented together. Example: limestone, sandstone, shale Example: limestone, sandstone, shale

37 Metamorphic Metamorphic – They form from heat and pressure being applied to existing rocks. The heat and pressure is so great it changes the composition. Metamorphic – They form from heat and pressure being applied to existing rocks. The heat and pressure is so great it changes the composition.Example: Marble – comes from limestone Slate – comes from shale

38 Physical Vs. Chemical Change Physical changes – The chemical makeup doesn’t change. It is still the same thing. Physical changes – The chemical makeup doesn’t change. It is still the same thing. It changes it’s state of matter. It changes it’s state of matter. Examples: Ice melting, tearing a piece of paper Examples: Ice melting, tearing a piece of paper Chemical Changes – Changes its chemical makeup or what it actually is. Chemical Changes – Changes its chemical makeup or what it actually is. Examples: baking a cake, combining baking soda and vinegar. Examples: baking a cake, combining baking soda and vinegar.


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