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Education In South Carolina A look at the effect of race on public education since reconstruction.

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Presentation on theme: "Education In South Carolina A look at the effect of race on public education since reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Education In South Carolina A look at the effect of race on public education since reconstruction

2 Introduction  The following presentation shows the progression of education in South Carolina from the end of reconstruction to present day. The presentation examines influential factors on the quality of students’ education. We focus on the role that race plays in the learning environment. By looking at statistics, historical photos and events, the effect of race is apparent. Table of Contents

3 Table Of Contents  1900-1925 1900-1925  1925-1950 1925-1950  1950-1975 1950-1975  1975-2000 1975-2000  Current Current  Conclusion Conclusion

4 1900-1925  School Condition in 1910 School Condition in 1910  Black School House in 1910 Black School House in 1910  South Carolina from 1913-1915 South Carolina from 1913-1915  Teacher Salaries by race 1913-1915 Teacher Salaries by race 1913-1915  Rosenwald School 1914 Rosenwald School 1914

5 School Condition in 1910 http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/toomanykids.htm http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/toomanykids.htm  This picture taken in 1910 represents the biggest obstacle for black teachers at the time— school overcrowding. The number of teachers and the amount of classroom space were insufficient to accommodate every child who wanted an education. In 1910, the ratio of teacher to students in white elementary schools was about 1 to 34, whereas in black elementary schools it was 1 to 47. It was hard to teach in overcrowded classrooms with so few supplies. 1900-1925

6 Black Schoolhouse in 1910 http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/home/c- images.htm  “It was a typical Negro Schoolhouse built of logs, with one door and one window, the latter having no panes and being closed by a board shutter which swung on leather hinges outward. The house was not larger than a comfortable bedroom and had a 'fireplace' opposite the door. The children faced the fireplace, so that the scant white fell through the door upon their books. There were no desks; the seats were long board benches with no backs. The teacher insisted that the students sit in statuesque postures, not moving a limb too often.” -- William Pickens, South Carolina Negroes 1900-1925

7 South Carolina in 1913-1915 http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/schoolfacts.htm http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/schoolfacts.htm WhiteBlack Population of Children ages 6-14 years 145,384212,125 Percentage of Illiterate Population 10.3%38.7% Percentage Living in Rural Community 81.9%87.8% Length of School Term7.7 months6 months 1900-1925

8 Teacher Salaries by Race 1913- 1915 http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/publicschools.htm http://northbysouth.kenyon.edu/1998/edu/publicschools.htm WhiteBlack Teacher Salaries in Public Schools (total expenditures) 1,454,098305,084 Teacher Salaries Per Child$10.00$1.44 1900-1925

9 Rosenwald School in South Carolina http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/2-battleground/quest-for-education-1.html http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/2-battleground/quest-for-education-1.html  To provide education for many African Americans, northern charities aided black communities to build new schools in the South; one of them was Rosenwald School built in 1914. Black men and women--even if they lived in the poorest rural area--held fundraisers, donated land, and built schools with their own hands. 1900-1925

10 1925-1950  Black School house 1938 Black School house 1938

11 Black School House near Summerville, South Carolina, 1938  Conditions of many schools for blacks in 1938 were similar to that of this black school near Summerville, South Carolina. Many states did not apportion enough to provide the equal education conditions for separate schools. 1925-1950 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-segregation.html

12 1950-1975  Pictures,1956 and 1960 Pictures,1956 and 1960  Black and White School photos, 1950s Black and White School photos, 1950s  Brown V. Board 1954 Brown V. Board 1954  Teacher Discrimination 1969-70 Teacher Discrimination 1969-70

13 Blacks protesting against the segregation of schools Orangeburg, SC, 1960.   Claflin College students met under the “Freedom Tree” because the school administrators forbade civil rights meetings in campus buildings. Orangeburg, SC, 1956. http://crmvet.org/images/imgyoun g.htm 1950-1975

14 Paxville, South Carolina http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/2-battleground/quest-for-education-2.html “Colored” school “White” school http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/2-battleground/quest-for-education-2.html  In some southern states, white schools received two to three times more money per student than black schools. Black taxpayers in several states not only bore the entire cost of their own schools, but helped support white schools as well. 1950-1975

15 Brown V. Board  1954: The 1954 United States Supreme Court decision in the Oliver L. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case is one of the most influential and significant turning points in the history of the United States. The ruling in the case was that racial segregation violates the 14th Amendment that guarantees all United States citizens equal protection of the law. Through this decision, the Brown v. Board of Education case inspired and led the way for future human rights issues especially the Civil Rights Movement. The case launched educational and social reform across the country. Although named after one of almost 200 plaintiffs, Oliver L. Brown’s case was an accumulation of five other cases of the same nature. One of the five cases, Briggs v. Elliot, took place in Clarendon County, South Carolina. Members of the State NAACP attempted to take legal action against the substandard conditions black students experienced under the state’s racially segregated school system. A suit was filed through the United States District Court and the Court found that schools built for black students were abhorrently insufficient compared to schools built for white students. An order to equalize the facilities was ignored by school officials and action was never taken to do so. – Brown Foundation 1950-1975

16 Teacher Discrimination  1969-1970: In South Carolina, the Chesterfield County school district discriminated against black faculty members solely due to their race. At the end of the 1969-70 school year, some black teachers were fired. Other black faculty members were demoted in the 1970-71 school year. The Chesterfield County school district was charged for violating the law. The court ordered the district to reinstate all faculty members who were not offered fair contracts for the 1970-71 school year because of their race. However, the court did not have a definitive ruling for discriminatory termination of black faculty members. 1950-1975

17 1975-2000  Dropout rates for Lexington County Dropout rates for Lexington County  Dropout rates for Orangeburg County Dropout rates for Orangeburg County

18 Dropout Rate in Orangeburg County (8th Graders No Longer Enrolled in 12th Grade 4 years Later) http://www.sckidscount.org/trends/sctr_drop.asp?COUNTYID=38 http://www.sckidscount.org/trends/sctr_drop.asp?COUNTYID=38 NumberPercent 1986-87 avg. 1990-91 avg. Most Recent Change 86-87 to Present Change 90-91 to Present 1986-87 avg. 1990-91 avg. Most Recent Change 86-87 to Present Change 90-91 to Present Total35132453652.80%65.30%26.60%26.20%38.30%43.80%46.20% White Males66597615.70%29.40%36.60%33%44.90%22.80%36.20% White Females654564-0.30%44.60%37.20%27.60%38.70%4%39.90% Black 14914724665.30%68.10%29.60%32.20%45.30%53%40.70% Males Black Females7174149109.40%100.90%15.40%16.70%28.60%86.20%71.20% 1975-2000

19 Dropout Rate in Lexington County (8th Graders No Longer Enrolled in 12th Grade 4 years Later) http://www.sckidscount.org/trends/sctr_drop.asp?COUNTYID=32 http://www.sckidscount.org/trends/sctr_drop.asp?COUNTYID=32 NumberPercent 1986-87 avg. 1990-91 avg. Most Recent Change 86-87 to Present Change 90-91 to Present 1986-87 avg. 1990-91 avg. Most Recent Change 86-87 to Present Change 90-91 to Present Total56560183648%39.20%19.70%20.60%24%21.70%16.60% White Males26627241054.30%50.60%20.40%21%27.90%36.40%33% White Females21823827425.80%15.30%17.90%19%19.70%10.10%3.70% Black Males54648967%40.70%30.10%32.20%28.40%-5.80%-11.90% Black Females282763123.80%132.10%16.60%15.50%20.20%21.70%30.60% 1975-2000

20 Current (2005)  Racial Make-up Racial Make-up  Mean Income Mean Income  High School enrollment High School enrollment  Graduation rates Graduation rates

21 Racial Make-up We chose three counties out of South Carolina, each one with a different racial makeup. Richland represents a county that has a similar ratio of white and black people. Lexington has a dominant white racial makeup and Orangeburg has a dominant black racial makeup. Through analyzing the data we’ve noticed the following correlations. -The visual breakdown of racial makeup in Richland, Lexington, and Orangeburg. 2005 The following statistics used in the graphs were gathered from: U.S. Census Bureau and South Carolina Department of Education

22 Mean Income -The percentage of black people in the county directly correlates with the percentage of population that falls below the mean income of that county. -The more black people in the county, the higher the percentage of people that fall below the mean income. 2005

23 High School Enrollment -The number of students enrolled of each race in the graduating class of the county’s high school. 2005

24 Graduation Rates -The racial composition of the schools directly correlates with the graduation rate. Lexington being predominantly white has a higher graduation rate than does Orangeburg which is predominantly black. Richland graduation rate is in the middle of Lexington and Orangeburg’s graduation rate as is their racial makeup. 2005

25 Graduation Rates (cont.) - Through the information gathered perhaps race is not the major factor in graduation rates, but resources and income. When blacks were in the dominant white environment of Lexington, all graduated, but when the whites were put in a dominant black environment significantly fewer whites graduated. When the racial makeup was similar in Richland, so was the graduation rate among races. This allows us to conclude that the environment and resources in the district play a larger role in the outcome of education than race itself. 2005

26 Conclusion  Education is still affected today by influences such as race and income. It is apparent that there is and has always been a difference in the education of black and white students. Since there has been a drastic dissimilarity in the schooling of children of different races, there will always be a deviation in the education of black students.

27 Works Cited "2004 State of South Carolina Education Accountability Act Report Cards." South Carolina Department of Eduation. 2006. South Carolina State Department of Education. 25 Sept. 2006. –slides 21-25 "2005 American Community Survey." U.S. Census Bureau. 2005. U.S. Census Bureau. 9 Oct. 2006. - slides 21-25 “Civil Rights: Black Principals Cut; Other Developments.” World News Digest. 23 June 1971 . –slide 16 “The North by South.” Kenyon College. 29 Aug. 2005 . -slides 5-8 "The Quest for Education." Separate is Not Equal: Brown V. Board of Education. 8 Nov. 2004. Smithsonian National Museum of American History. 7 Oct. 2006. – slides 9, 14 “South Carolina Kids Count.” Kids Count. 27 June 2006. –slides 18&19 “With an Even Hand: Brown v. Board at Fifty.” The Library of Congress. 10 Aug. 2004. –slide 11 “Young People Lead the Way.” Civil Rights Movement Veterans. 25 Aug. 2006. –slide 13

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