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Cosmetology: History and Career Opportunities 2012 Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Cosmetology: History and Career Opportunities 2012 Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cosmetology: History and Career Opportunities 2012 Edition

2 In your group, list on flip chart paper all of the occupations you believe are included in the Cosmetology profession. For some, you will need to think “outside of the box”

3 Cosmetology is defined: The art and science of beautifying and improving the skin, hair, and nails and includes the study of cosmetics and their application.

4 Add: I am responsible for my own education

5 Cosmetology includes: * hairstyling * nail technology * esthetics

6 Cosmetology: Greek word: kosmetikos Means: skilled in the use of cosmetics Add to side bar: Barber: Latin word: barba Means: the beard or the hair of the beard.

7 Archeological studies: Reveal that haircutting and hairstyling were practiced as early as the glacial age Implements Used: 1.Sharpened flints 2.Oyster shells 3.Bone 4.Animal sinew 5.Strips of hide

8 Pigments made from: Berries Bark of trees MineralsInsects NutsHerbs Leaves And other materials

9 Ancient Egyptians: The first to cultivate beauty in an extravagant fashion

10 first to use: * cosmetics as part of their personal beautification habits * in religious ceremonies * preparing the deceased for burial

11 3000 B.C. * minerals, insects, and berries to create makeup * henna to stain the hair and nails * first to use essential oils for perfumes hair history

12 created kohl makeup *mixture of ground galena (a black mineral) * sulfur * animal fat

13 * used to heavily line the eyes * alleviate eye inflammations * protect the eyes from the glare of the sun In ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders stained their nails and lips in matching colors before important battles

14 Chinese 1600 B.C. aristocrats * rubbed tinted mixtures onto their nails * turned crimson or ebony 1100 B.C. * gold and silver were royal colors * commoners caught wearing a royal nail color faced a punishment of death

15 Add: Egyptian and Roman women temporarily waved their hair by applying a mixture of soil and water (mud) to the hair and wrapping it around crudely made wooden rollers to bake in the sun all day. ***In Africa, hair was groomed with intricately carved combs and adorned with beads, clay and colored bands

16 The Greeks (500 B.C.) hairstyling-highly developed art used perfumes and cosmetics in religious rites, in grooming, and for medicinal purposes developed excellent method of dressing the hair and caring for the skin and nails


18 used white lead on faces, kohl on eyes and vermillion on cheeks and lips vermillion-bright red pigment made by grinding cinnabar ~ a mineral that is the chief source of mercury The fine powder was mixed with ointment or dusted on the skin in the same way as cosmetics are applied today

19 Romans (296 B.C.) hairstyling services introduced; women used hair color to indicate class in society as follows: - noblewomen: red hair - middle-class women: blonde - poor women: black facials of milk, bread and fine wine were popular mixture of chalk and lead used for facial cosmetic

20 FYI Julius Caesar 101-44 BC had his face tweezed everyday this started a trend among the men of that time

21 Crystallyn.vox.vom

22 Middle ages included towering headdresses, intricate hairstyles, and cosmetics Women wore ms makeup on cheeks and lips, not eyes steam distillation was invented, which is still used to create essentials oils today


24 Renaissance shaved eyebrows and hairline-thought to give the women a look of greater intelligence Elaborate, elegant clothing Fragrances and cosmetics were used highly colored cosmetics were discouraged.

25 2.ivcc.rdu

26 Victorian Age to preserve the health and beauty of the skin, women used beauty masks and packs made from natural ingredients pinched their cheeks and bit their lips to colorize rather than use cosmetics

27 ADD both to side bar: 1892; Frenchman, Alexander F. Godefroy, invented a hot-blast hair dryer 1890; First hairdressing academy opening in Chicago by Frenchman, Bribois and Federmeyer.

28 The Twentieth Century motion pictures-shift in American attitudes viewers wanted the flawless complexions, beautiful hairstyles, manicured nails beauty began to follow trends

29 Jean Harlow 1930’s Vivien Leigh 1940’s Elizabeth Taylor 1950’s

30 1901-1910 Max Factor began making and selling makeup to movie stars that would not cake or crack, even under the hot studio lights

31 1905, Charles Nessler invented heavily wired machine that supplied electrical current to metal rods around which hair strands were wrapped units were heated kept away from the scalp by counterbalancing weights suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted to a stand

32 Internet source:

33 Two methods were used to wind hair strands around the metal units: 1.Spiral wrap: long hair was wound from scalp to ends 2.Croquignole wrap: for short hair, wound from ends to scalp.

34 Success story of the cosmetology industry Madam C.J. Walker daughter of a former slave born Sarah Breedlove in 1867 during the 1890’s she suffered from a scalp condition and began to lose her hair. she experimented with store-bought products and home-made remedies

35 invented hair grower scalp conditioner devised sophisticated sales and marketing strategies and traveled extensively giving product demonstrations built a factory, hair salon and training school 1929

36 gave time and money to organizations like NAACP and the YMCA organized the first national meetings for businesswomen pioneer of the modern African-American hair care and cosmetic industry

37 1872Marcel Grateau invented the first curling iron (called Marcel iron and Marcel waving) 1923-invented the electric version Also developed a PW machine, barber clippers, safety razor, and other devices.

38 1920’s cosmetic industry grew rapidly ad’s expenditures in radio alone went from $390,000.00 to $3.2 million by the end of the decade

39 1931, preheat method was introduced- hair was wrapped in the croquinole method clamps heated by a separate electrical machine were place over the wound curls

40 1932, Ralph L. Evans and Everett G. McDonough pioneered a method that used external heat generated by chemical reaction was introduced small flexible pads containing a chemical mixture were wound around hair strands pads moistened with water released a chemical heat creating long-lasting curls machineless permanent wave was born

41 1932 Revlon marketed the first nail polish (not stain) using formulas borrowed from the car paint industry dramatic shift in nail cosmetics array of nail lacquer colors available early screen stars started the trend of wearing matching colors on their fingers and toes

42 1932-Clairol created permanent haircolor 1938 the cold wave was invented that used no machine or heat considered to be the precursor to the modern perm

43 1941, scientists developed waving lotion that did not require heat *called cold wave

44 today, the term “texture service” is used to describe the variety of permanent wave services and straightening services available for different hair types and conditions

45 Barbering and Medicine The Barber Pole-symbol of the barber-surgeon, has its roots from the bloodletting procedure that was once thought to strengthen the immune system 1.Pole = the staff; patients held a staff tightly in order for the veins in the arm to stand out. 2.Bottom = basin; basin was the vessel that caught the blood.


47 3. White bandages stop blood; the bandages used to stop the bleeding were hung on the staff to dry. The stained bandages would twist around the pole forming the red/white pattern. Another interpretation is that the red represented the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages. Barbers still use the symbol today.

48 1951-2000 introduction of tube mascara, improved hair care, and nail products

49 boom and death of the weekly salon appointment

50 1960’s-Vidal Sassoon’s revolutionary geometric haircuts

51 1970’s highlighting techniques of “hair weaving” using aluminum foil

52 1980’s heavy use of eye make-up and blush…and really BIG HAIR, just ask Mrs. Kucas

53 1990’s haircolor became gentler, allowing everyone to be able to color their hair without breakage

54 1998-Creative Nail Design introduced the first spa pedicure ***nail art also entered the seen by the 1990’s


56 21st Century gentle-no fade hair colors estheticians rejuvenate the face and keep sunspots, and mild acne under control specialization became popular-hair colorist, hair cutting specialist, nail technician, etc. providing a full array of services

57 ***haircoloring in the twentieth century has become a multibillion-dollar industry of professional products!!!!!!! ***the huge growth in day spas has also been a significant development *** the domain of cosmetology has changed dramatically. All the new services and skills have transformed and expanded the role of cosmetologists, requiring them to know more than ever and to make continuing education a necessity

58 men’s-only specialty shops and barber spas have gained popularity, providing new opportunities for men’s hair, skin and nail care specialists

59 Career Paths Haircolor specialist perform color services work for a product manufacturer

60 Texture specialist ~ perming Texture ~ straightening Services ~ training others ~ work for manufacturer New subspecialty-curly hair specialist maintains natural curl


62 Cutting specialist Learning various cutting styles and techniques Perfect your own skills Develop your own method of cutting hair (everyone develops their own way of cutting hair)


64 Salon trainer- train others management and interpersonal relationship training Small salons large organizations Trade associations

65 Distributor sales consultant-salon new products, new trends, and new techniques excellent opportunity

66 Cosmetology instructor Add: terms only-not definitions ***Salon stylist performs all services offered in a salon.

67 ***Wig or extensions specialist-change the length, texture and color by adding extensions, through braiding, weaving, bonding, gluing, or sewing. Wigs, especially for people who experience hair loss. Or a men’s hair replacement specialist

68 ***Retail specialist handling merchandise and inventory divasalonspa,.com

69 ***Skin Care Specialist/Esthetician- offers treatments makeup work with Dermatologists Many will own their own business


71 ***Makeup artist- able to blend, shade, and create any image work with a private clientele makeup director for a department store represent a line of cosmetics work in TV or film, fashion magazines, theater, independent freelancer


73 ***Nail technician-provide clients with manicures and pedicures, nail art, artificial nail services ***Day Spa stylist or technician-all salon services plus treatments like body massage, body wraps, hydrotherapy.


75 ***Product educator Travel is a must Speak to groups of people

76 ***Cosmetic chemist- cosmetic manufacturers consultant for several companies be on a panel that studies products Further education may be required

77 ***Session stylist-stylist for models being photographed for magazines or books



80 ***Styles director/artistic director works with videographers, fashion magazines, publishing companies ***Design team member creates presentations for fashion shows, runway work, hair shows, etc. On the cutting edge of fashion and design

81 ***Platform artist on stage, performing for people, sharing knowledge and traveling. Demonstrates current trends and techniques. Salon experience is a must

82 ***Competition Champion “the best” display their individual talents and techniques. Often establishes their own salon, works as trainers, and sets a high standard for pricing ***Educator work as an educational consultant for a product manufacturer, educator in the private or technicalsector, school director.

83 ***Writer for articles, books, brochures, produce videos. Work for a publishing company ***State board member take a proactive role in the regulatory issues affecting the cosmetology industry. You could also become a state board examiner or a state board inspector

84 ***Salon industry grosses about $50 billion a year in revenue no limit to your possibilities develop your skills most creative and unique career

85 Salon Management management opportunities are diverse * inventory manager * department head * special events manager * assistant manager * general manager

86 Salon owner * enroll in business classes to learn about managing: ~ products ~ departments ~ people


88 You must decide whether you want to work in: Specialty salon Full-service salon (hair, skin, and nail services) Day spa (skin, body, nail, and hair services that emphasize beauty and wellness

89 FYI at top of page 14 focus on your studies read trade publications become a member in trade associations continue your education by attending workshops outside of school your personal dedication and passion will determine your success.

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