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The LEAST effective means of controlling pest species such as rats or roaches over a long period of time is generally to a. limit food supplies. b. reduce.

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Presentation on theme: "The LEAST effective means of controlling pest species such as rats or roaches over a long period of time is generally to a. limit food supplies. b. reduce."— Presentation transcript:

1 The LEAST effective means of controlling pest species such as rats or roaches over a long period of time is generally to a. limit food supplies. b. reduce the number of potential habitats. c. distribute pesticides throughout the habitat. d. introduce predators of the pest. e. introduce a disease which affects only the pest. answer: c

2 In a population at equilibrium, thousands of eggs and hundreds of tadpoles are produced by a single pair of frogs. About how many offspring will live to maturity and reproduce? a. 0 b. 2 c d. 100 e. more than 100 answer: b

3 Two fossil vertebrates, each representing a different class, are found in the undisturbed rock layers of a cliff. One fossil is a representation of the earliest amphibians. The other fossil, found in an older rock layer below the amphibians, is most likely to be a. a dinosaur. b. a fish. c. an insectivorous mammal. d. a snake. e. a bird. answer: b

4 The bones of a human arm are homologous to structures in all of the following EXCEPT a a. whale flipper. b. bat wing. c. butterfly wing. d. bird wing. e. frog forelimb. answer: c

5 Some varieties of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are now resistant to penicillin. These varieties of bacteria most probably developed as a result of a. natural selection. b. hybrid vigor. c. coevolution. d. adaptive radiation. e. convergent evolution. answer: a

6 The differences in cricket calls among sympatric species of crickets are examples of a. habitat isolation. b. temporal isolation. c. physiological isolation. d. behavioral isolation. e. geographic isolation. answer: d

7 Which of the following statements best describes the effect of genetic drift on the gene frequencies of a population? a.Genes enter a population through immigration thus changing gene frequencies. b. Genes leave a population through emigration thus changing gene frequencies. c. Chance alone can cause significant changes in gene frequencies of small populations. d. Mutations over time cause gene frequencies to change. e. Selection against one allele causes gene frequencies to change. answer: c

8 Which of the following is an acceptable definition of evolution? a. a change in the phenotypic makeup of a population. b. a change in the genetic makeup of a population c. a change in the environmental conditions d. a change in the genotypic makeup of an individual e. a change in the species composition of a community answer: b

9 Anatomical structures that show similar function but dissimilar embryonic and evolutionary background are said to be a. homologous. b. primitive. c. analogous. d. monophyletic. e. polyphylectic. answer: c

10 Natural selection is based on all the following EXCEPT: a. variation exists within populations. a. the fittest individuals leave the most offspring. c. there is differential reproductive success within populations. d. populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support. e. individuals must adapt to their environment. answer: e

11 The statement “Improving the intelligence of an adult through education will result in the adult’s descendants being born with a greater native intelligence” is an example of a. Darwinism b. Larmarckism c. neo-Darwinism d. scala naturae e. natural selection answer: b

12 One finds that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that a. island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors. b. common environments are inhabited by the same forms. c. the islands were originally part of the continent. d. the island forms and mainland forms are converging. e. island forms and mainland forms share the same gene pool. answer: a

13 Many species of animal are indigenous to caves. Which of the following structures would MOST likely to have become vestigial in these organisms? a. eyes b. ears c. teeth d. legs e. tail answer: a

14 Catastrophism was Cuvier’s attempt to explain a. evolution. b. the fossil record. c. uniformitarianism. d. the origin of new species. e. natural selection. answer: b

15 Which of the following is NOT a requirement for maintenance of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. an increasing mutation rate b. random mating c. large population size d. no migration e. no natural selection answer: a

16 In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele? a. 3 b. 9 c. 21 d. 30 e. 42 answer: b

17 Gene frequencies in a gene pool may shift randomly and by chance. This is called a. artificial selection. b. adaptive radiation. c. climatic shift. d. genetic drift. e. natural selection. answer: d

18 You sample a population of butterflies and find that 49% are heterozygous for a particular gene. What would be the frequency of the recessive allele in the population? a b. 0.3 c d. 0.7 e. allele frequency cannot be estimated from this information answer: e

19 In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Sources of variation for evolution include all of the following EXCEPT a. mistakes in translation of structural genes. b. mistakes in DNA replication. c. translocations and mistakes in meiosis. d. recombination at fertilization. e. recombination by crossing over in meiosis. answer: a

20 “Darwin’s Finches” of the Galapagos (several types of finch, each adapted to the environments of the different islands) are the textbook example of a. the bottleneck effect. b. crossing over in meiosis. c. adaptive radiation. d. heterozygote advantage. e. polymorphism. answer: c

21 Recessive alleles in a population at Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium a. are not significant. b. remain stable indefinitely. c. are constantly selected against. d. are on a steady increase. e. are on a steady decrease. answer: b

22 Most copies of harmful recessive alleles in a population are carried by individuals that are a. haploid. b. polymorphic. c. homozygous for the allele. d. heterozygous for the allele. e. afflicted with the disorder caused by the allele. answer: d

23 Evolutionary fitness is measured by a.Physical strength b.Reproductive success c.Length of life d.Resistance to disease e.competiveness Answer: B

24 The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c is exactly the same in humans and chimpanzees. There is a difference of 13 amino acids between the cytochrome c of humans and dogs, and a difference of 20 amino acids between the cytochrome c of humans and rattlesnakes. Which of the following statements is best supported by these data? a.Rattlesnakes apparently gave rise evolutionarily to the dog, chimpanzee, and human. b.Cytochrome c apparently has an entirely different function in rattlesnakes than in mammals, which explains the difference in the number of amino acids. c. Cytochrome c is not found universally in animals. d.Cytochrome c from a rattlesnake could function in a dog, but not in a chimpanzee. e.The human is apparently more closely related to the chimpanzee than to the dog or rattlesnake. Answer: D


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