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Chapter 16 Diseases of the Integumentary System
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Structure and Functions Skin – Largest organ in the body - Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous – Protect, insulate, regulates temp, sense pain, water resistant yet prevents dehydration, synthesizes Vitamin D, excretes urea and uric acid Hair – helps insulate, protect from dust/allergens Nails –protect finger/toe tips, delicate vessels Sweat glands – secrete waste through sweat Sebaceous glands – secrete oils to moisten
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 Diagnostic Tests Visual Blood and urine – used to rule out underlying diseases Microscopic: Skin scrapings Cultures DNA Antibodies to identify cause (organism)
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Diseases of the Skin Signs and symptoms Epidermoid and pilar cysts – smooth, round lump just beneath the skin surface Impetigo – Vesicles and pustules that rupture forming a crust, fever, swollen lymph nodes Cellulitis – Swollen, bright red, hot and tender area of skin, small vesicles, fever, chills, swelling of lymph nodes Folliculitis – Erythema, follicular-based papules and pustules
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Furuncles, Carbuncles – Furuncles – large tender, swollen, pus-filled lesion; Carbuncles – cluster of furuncles Herpes – Small, fluid-filled, painful vesicles Warts – Benign neoplasms with rough, keratinized surface Tinea – Mild scales, rash, fissures Seborrheic dermatitis - Adults: Dry or greasy scaling with variable pruritus; Infants: Thick, yellow-crusted scalp lesions Pediculosis (LICE)– Pruritus, multiple erythematous papules
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Candidiasis – Vaginal: white cottage-cheese discharge, burning, pruritis, erythema; Oral: creamy white, painful patches; Cutaneous: patches of red, moist, weepy skin Scabies- Pruritis, vesicles, pustules, grayish lines (tunnels) Urticaria (hives) – wheals with rounded elevations and pale centers, pruritis Albinism – Absence of melanin Acne – (vulgaris) Comedones, papules, pustules, nodules
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Hemangioma – Red or purple birth marks Nevus (mole) – small, dark skin growth Rosacea – Flushing, persistent erythema, papules, pustules, telangiectasis Basal Cell Carcinoma – (from sun damage) – Pearly nodule with rolled edges may bleed, form crust Squamous Cell Carcinoma ( from sun damage ) – Crusted nodule, ulcerates and bleeds Psoriasis- Red lesions with silvery scales
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Allergic contact dermatitis- Rash with erythema, pruritus, burning Atopic dermatitis – Red, dry crusted patches on the skin Decubitus ulcer (pressure sore) – Reddened area, abrasion, vesicle, superficial ulceration, deep erosion Corns/Calluses – Areas of skin that grow thick Aeborrheic keratosis – Benign lesions with pasted-on look, flat or slightly elevated with a scaly surface, range in size, pruritus
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Hypothermia, frostbite – Hypothermia: shivering, cold and pale skin, lack of coordination, disorientation, decrease in HR, RR, BP, loss of consciousness; Frostbite: pain, numbness, tingling, loss of sensation, blistering, tissue death Burns – 1 st degree: Red, swollen, pain; 2 nd degree: Extremely red, blistered, painful; 3 rd degree: White or black skin with a leathery appearance, no pain in the burned area
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