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Basin Analysis Chapter1: Basins and their plate tectonic environment This presentation contains illustrations and some text from Allen and Allen (2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Basin Analysis Chapter1: Basins and their plate tectonic environment This presentation contains illustrations and some text from Allen and Allen (2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basin Analysis Chapter1: Basins and their plate tectonic environment This presentation contains illustrations and some text from Allen and Allen (2005 ) as well as illustrations from Press et al. (2004)

2 Basins INTRODUCTION –Definition and examples (What is a basin?) –How are basins classified? –Essay (due next Thursday, barring days off for hurrican Gustav) MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional division –Rheological division BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Plate Tectonics –Thermal –Thermo-mechanical –Mechanical

3 Basins Definition and examples

4 Basins Definition Areas of the earth where there is a net sedimentation, or in the fossil (ancient) record of such areas Zones of pronounced subsidence where sediment can accumulate. What makes a basin interesting for oil and gas exploration? Examples Gulf of Mexico (today and ancient) Pyrenees (ancient) Oman (oil from 650 Ma stromatolites still in living position)

5 Pre- Cambrian Permian Permian-Pre-Cambrian angular unconformity, Oman

6 Basins INTRODUCTION –Definition and examples (What is a basin?) –How are basins classified? –Homework # 1.A (due next Thursday) MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional division –Rheological division BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Plate Tectonics –Thermal –Thermo-mechanical –Mechanical

7 How are basins classified? Basin can be classified according to many priorities of the individual. A classification scheme should not just create "order from the chaos", but highlight patterns that are useful for predicting stratigraphy, and faulting. Dickinson's (1974) classification scheme is based on tectonic history: (a) lithospheric substratum: oceanic versus continental (b) proximity of the basin to a plate margin (c) type of plate margin nearest the basin i.e., convergent, divergent, conservative (similar to Bally and Snelson, 1980) Other factors used are: hydrocarbon characteristics, types of sedimentary sequences filling the basin, and the tectonics that modify the sediment infill If on the other hand one is interested in WHERE they are to be found with respect to PLATE TECTONIC boundaries we might also get a hint about the mechanism of formation. Fossil basins may no longer be in the plate tectonic setting in which they were originally formed..

8 How are basins classified? If one is interested in HOW Basins are formed then it is very natural that we break up the basin types according to their mechanism of formation. E.g., mechanical, thermal or thermal-mechanical.

9 Basins INTRODUCTION –Definition and examples (What is a basin?) –How are basins classified? –Homework # 1.A (due next Thursday) MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional division –Rheological division BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Plate Tectonics –Thermal –Thermo-mechanical –Mechanical

10 Homework due next Thursday Essay For the basin you have chosen to write a proposal in this class write an essay (1 page or 300 words at most, including figures). In the essay you will classify your basin according to Kingston et al., (1983a) scheme (4-5 sentences). You should read Ch.1 of your book and the original paper to get a detailed understanding of their classification scheme. (This scheme was devised to help predict hydrocarbon potential). Write a brief sentence or two about your opinion of this classification scheme? Does it help you? Does it make it more difficult to understand the basin? Please justify your answer with a reason. Reason your case with evidence and write clearly in your own words. Propose an alternative classification of your basin, if needed. Kingston, D.R. Dishroon,C.P. and Williams,P.A. (1983) Global basin classification. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 67, There is also a *.pdf file of this paper available from my website.*.pdf file

11 Basins INTRODUCTION –Definition and examples (What is a basin?) –How are basins classified? –Homework # 1.A (due next Thursday) MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional division –Rheological division BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Plate Tectonics –Thermal –Thermo-mechanical –Mechanical

12 Basins MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional subdivision Crust km thick cont. granite 2.7 g/cc oceanic- basaltic >2.8 g/cc mantle Mantle peridotite >3.1 g/cc down to 2900 km depth

13 Where is the Moho deepest? Where is the Moho the shallowest? Where are there basins? Allen and Allen (2005)

14 Compositional zonation Based only on the composition, which affects density, and short- term rigidity (and hence seismic velocities) the shallow portions of the earth (0-80 km) can have one of three flavors: oceanic composition, i.e. gabbroic melt and all its cooling derivatives- mafic rocks, density ~ 2,800 kg/m3, Vaverage Vp=5km/s continental composition, i.e. granitic melt and all its cooling derivatives - felsic rocks, density ~ 2,700 kg/m3, average Vp = 6.5 km/s mantle i.e. peridotite and high temperatures and pressures, density = 3,300 kg/m3, average Vp>=8.1 km/s

15 Basins MAKEUP of the EARTH –Rheological divisions asthenosphere lithosphere RIGID DUCTILE

16 Key parts of Plate Tectonics Lithosphere or rigid lid that holds both crust and cold mantle together as one solid block (0-100km) asthenoshphere or plastic,ductile, layer also within the mantle (100km depth to 300 km depth??)

17 Comparison of views earth structure crust mantle Mantle asthenosphere lithosphere RIGID DUCTILE

18 Plates Group of rocks all moving in the same direction Can have both oceanic and continental crust or just one kind.

19 Earth Divisions What type of subdivisions are being used in these diagrams from Allen and Allen (2005)?

20 Basins Definition and examples INTRODUCTION –What is a basin? –How are basins classified? –Essay (due next Thursday) MAKEUP of the EARTH –Compositional zonation –Rheological zonation BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Plate Tectonics –Thermal –Thermo-mechanical –Mechanical

21 Plate Tectonics What drives plate tectonics?

22 Driving Mechanism of Plate Tectonics GRAVITY Convection may have overturned asthenosphere 4–6 times. Convection may initiate process but cooling leads to densification and plate movement. A cold planet is a dead planet. Is there oil on Mars?

23 Ridge Push and Trench Pull Press et al., 2005

24 Two Models of Mantle Convection Press et al. 2004

25 Divergent Plate Boundary Usually start within continents— grows to become ocean basin Press et al. 2004

26 Basins BASIN FORMING MECHANISMS –Thermal (lithospheric thermal erosion, plumes (active upwelling) –as well as cooling) –Thermo-mechanical (cooling leading to subsidence) –Mechanical (e.g.,regional isostasy (sub- super-crustal), aestenospheric drag, crustal extension) –Link to composition of N.American Platecomposition of N.American Plate –Link to thermal structure of N. American Platethermal structure of N. American Plate

27 The Rock Cycle Press et al. 2004

28 Rock Cycle Igneous rocks originate from magma. These rocks are subsequently eroded to form sediments that are transported and deposited in basins and can be preserved within continents … Why is there a rock cycle?

29 Allen and Allen, 2005

30 Diachronous Appalachian Orogenic events Taconic (Ordovician) All Appalachians Acadian (Devonian) Mostly in northern Appalachians Alleghanian (Late Carboniferous- Permian) Mainly in the southern Appalachains


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