Presentation on theme: "There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids."— Presentation transcript:
There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know. Macromolecule Polymer Monomer
What do these words mean?
So What Is A Macromolecule? A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together.
Biological Macromolecule All biological macro-molecule are made up of a small number of elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur
96% of living organisms is made of: carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) Elements of Life
Polygons Polygamy Polyester
What does “Mono” mean?
A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN? A NECKLACE? If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?
A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAINTHE CARS A NECKLACEEACH PEARL If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?
Now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.
Molecules of Life Put C, H, O, P, and N together in different ways to build living organisms What are bodies made of? ◦ carbohydrates sugars & starches ◦ proteins ◦ fats (lipids) ◦ nucleic acids DNA, RNA
Water ◦ 65% of your body is H 2 O ◦ water is inorganic doesn’t contain carbon Rest of you is made of carbon molecules ◦ organic molecules carbohydrates proteins fats nucleic acids Don’t forget water
Keep the following in mind when studying this material: Nucleic AcidsWhat they look like CarbohydratesWhat they do/Where are they LipidsWhat are they made up of- at the level of atoms Proteins
sucrose Carbohydrates Function: ◦ quick energy ◦ energy storage ◦ structure cell wall in plants Examples ◦ sugars ◦ starches ◦ cellulose (cell wall) glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch
Cellulose Cell walls in plants ◦ herbivores can digest cellulose well ◦ most carnivores cannot digest cellulose that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients cellulose = roughage stays undigested keeps material moving in your intestines
Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
Helpful bacteria How can cows digest cellulose so well? ◦ BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is…
The shape of Glucose is a hexagonal ring
CARBOHYDRATES Each carbohydrate is made up of… THINK: “CHO”
BIG carbohydrates Polysaccharides ◦ large carbohydrates starch energy storage in plants potatoes glycogen energy storage in animals in liver & muscles cellulose structure in plants cell walls chitin structure in arthropods & fungi exoskeleton
Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide
PROTEINS They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in them They make up antibodies in the immune system They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions They makeup non-steriod hormones
Proteins Function: ◦ many, many functions hormones signals from one body system to another insulin movement muscle immune system protect against germs enzymes help chemical reactions
Proteins Building block = amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – —N——N— H H H | —C— | C—OH || O variable group amino acids 20 different amino acids There’s 20 of us… like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words
Amino acid chains Proteins ◦ amino acids chained into a polymer Each amino acid is different some “like” water & dissolve in it some “fear” water & separate from it amino acid
Water-fearing amino acids Hydrophobic “water fearing” amino acids try to get away from water in cell the protein folds
Water-loving amino acids Hydrophillic “water loving” amino acids try to stay in water in cell the protein folds
pepsin For proteins: SHAPE matters! collagen Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape ◦ that’s what happens in the cell! Different shapes = different jobs hemoglobin growth hormone
It’s SHAPE that matters! Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape Unfolding a protein destroys its shape ◦ wrong shape = can’t do its job ◦ unfolding proteins = “denature” temperature pH (acidity) folded unfolded “denatured”
PROTEINS Each protein is made up of… THINK: “CHONS”
Lipids Function: ◦ energy storage very concentrated twice the energy as carbohydrates! ◦ cell membrane ◦ cushions organs ◦ insulates body think whale blubber!
LIPIDS Lipids are not polymers. But they are created by the same process that creates polymers. The most common lipids are…
The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter E This is a triglyceride molecule
Structure of Fat not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”
Saturated fats Most animal fats ◦ solid at room temperature Limit the amount in your diet ◦ contributes to heart disease ◦ deposits in arteries
Unsaturated fats Plant, vegetable & fish fats ◦ liquid at room temperature the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together Better choice in your diet
Saturated vs. unsaturated saturatedunsaturated
Other lipids in biology Cholesterol ◦ good molecule in cell membranes ◦ make hormones from it including sex hormones ◦ but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease
Other lipids in biology Cell membranes are made out of lipids ◦ phospholipids ◦ heads are on the outside touching water “like” water ◦ tails are on inside away from water “scared” of water ◦ forms a barrier between the cell & the outside
LIPIDS Each lipid is made up of… THINK: “CHOP”
The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS The types of Nucleic Acids DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
DNA Nucleic Acids Function: ◦ genetic material stores information genes blueprint for building proteins DNA RNA proteins transfers information blueprint for new cells blueprint for next generation proteins
DNA ◦ Inside the nucleus of a cell RNA ◦ Inside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm
DNA and RNA are polymers of 4 different nucleotides (monomers) Each nucleotide is composed of three parts: ◦ a nitrogen base DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) RNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), uracil (U) ◦ a five-carbon sugar Deoxyribose (DNA) Ribose (RNA) ◦ a phosphate group ◦ DNA is double-sided ◦ RNA is single-sided
Nucleic acids phosphate sugar N base
DNA and RNA Think “PHONC”
Building large molecules of life Chain together smaller molecules ◦ building block molecules = monomers Big molecules built from little molecules ◦ polymers
Small molecules = building blocks Bond them together = polymers Building large organic molecules
Building important polymers sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide Carbohydrates = built from sugars Proteins = built from amino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid –
How to build large molecules Synthesis ◦ building bigger molecules from smaller molecules ◦ building cells & bodies repair growth reproduction + ATP
How to take large molecules apart Digestion ◦ taking big molecules apart ◦ getting raw materials for synthesis & growth ◦ making energy (ATP) for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP
Example of digestion starchglucose ATP Starch is digested to glucose
Example of synthesis amino acidsprotein amino acids = building block protein = polymer Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids
Why do we eat? We eat to take in more of these chemicals ◦ Food for building materials to make more of us (cells) for growth for repair ◦ Food to make energy calories to make ATP ATP
What do we need to eat? Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy for building & running bodies ◦ carbohydrates ◦ proteins ◦ fats ◦ nucleic acids ◦ vitamins ◦ minerals, salts ◦ water