12A Polymer EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN ? A NECKLACE Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….EXAMPLE of POLYMERMONOMERA TRAIN?A NECKLACEIf the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?
13A Polymer EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN THE CARS A NECKLACE Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….EXAMPLE of POLYMERMONOMERA TRAINTHE CARSA NECKLACEEACH PEARLIf the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?
14Now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.
16Molecules of LifePut C, H, O, P, and N together in different ways to build living organismsWhat are bodies made of?carbohydratessugars & starchesproteinsfats (lipids)nucleic acidsDNA, RNA
17Don’t forget water Water Rest of you is made of carbon molecules 65% of your body is H2Owater is inorganicdoesn’t contain carbonRest of you is made of carbon moleculesorganic moleculescarbohydratesproteinsfatsnucleic acids
18Keep the following in mind when studying this material: Nucleic Acids What they look likeCarbohydrates What they do/Where are theyLipids What are they made up of-at the level of atomsProteinsKeep the following in mind when studying this material:
19Carbohydrates Function: Examples quick energy energy storage structure cell wall in plantsExamplessugarsstarchescellulose (cell wall)glucose C6H12O6sucrosestarch
20Cellulose Cell walls in plants herbivores can digest cellulose well most carnivores cannot digest cellulosethat’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrientscellulose = roughagestays undigestedkeeps material moving in your intestinesCross-linking between polysaccharide chains = rigid & hard to digestThe digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores.Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant or a horse (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach)Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.
21Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugarsGorillacan’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
22Helpful bacteria How can cows digest cellulose so well? BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals
23CARBOHYDRATESMADE UP OF...Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is…GLUCOSE
27BIG carbohydrates Polysaccharides large carbohydrates starch glycogen energy storage in plantspotatoesglycogenenergy storage in animalsin liver & musclescellulosestructure in plantscell wallschitinstructure in arthropods & fungiexoskeleton
28Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… =polysaccharidestarch(plant)energy storageglycogen(animal)
29PROTEINS WHAT DO THEY DO? They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in themThey make up antibodies in the immune systemThey make up enzymes for helping chemical reactionsThey makeup non-steriod hormones
32Proteins Function: many, many functions hormones movement signals from one body system to anotherinsulinmovementmuscleimmune systemprotect against germsenzymeshelp chemical reactions
33Proteins variable group —N— H | —C— C—OH || O Building block = amino acidsaminoacid–20 different amino acidsThere’s 20 of us…like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words—N—H|—C—C—OH||Ovariable group
34Amino acid chains Proteins Each amino acid is different amino acids chained into a polymeramino acidEach amino acid is differentsome “like” water & dissolve in itsome “fear” water & separate from it
35Water-fearing amino acids Hydrophobic“water fearing” amino acidstry to get away from water in cellthe protein folds
36Water-loving amino acids Hydrophillic“water loving” amino acidstry to stay in water in cellthe protein folds
37For proteins: SHAPE matters! Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shapethat’s what happens in the cell!Different shapes = different jobsgrowth hormonehemoglobinpepsincollagen
38It’s SHAPE that matters! Proteins do their jobs, because of their shapeUnfolding a protein destroys its shapewrong shape = can’t do its jobunfolding proteins = “denature”temperaturepH (acidity)unfolded “denatured”folded
39PROTEINS THINK: “CHONS” Each protein is made up of… AT THE ATOM LEVELEach protein is made up of…Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen,Nitrogen and sometimes SulfurTHINK: “CHONS”
40Lipids Function: energy storage cell membrane cushions organs very concentratedtwice the energy as carbohydrates!cell membranecushions organsinsulates bodythink whale blubber!
48Other lipids in biology Cholesterolgood molecule in cell membranesmake hormones from itincluding sex hormonesbut too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease
49Other lipids in biology Cell membranes are made out of lipidsphospholipidsheads are on the outside touching water“like” watertails are on inside away from water“scared” of waterforms a barrier between the cell & the outside
50LIPIDS THINK: “CHOP” Each lipid is made up of… AT THE ATOM LEVELEach lipid is made up of…Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen…and sometimes phosphorusTHINK: “CHOP”
51The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS The types of Nucleic AcidsDNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
52Nucleic Acids DNA Function: genetic material stores information genesblueprint for building proteinsDNA RNA proteinstransfers informationblueprint for new cellsblueprint for next generationDNAproteins
53DNA RNA Where are they found? Inside the nucleus of a cell Inside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm
54Nucleic Acids are made of… DNA and RNA are polymers of 4 different nucleotides (monomers)Each nucleotide is composed of three parts:a nitrogen baseDNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T)RNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), uracil (U)a five-carbon sugarDeoxyribose (DNA)Ribose (RNA)a phosphate groupDNA is double-sidedRNA is single-sided
56Phosphate, Hydrogen, Oxygen, DNA and RNAAT THE ATOM LEVELPhosphate, Hydrogen, Oxygen,Nitrogen, and CarbonThink “PHONC”
57Building large molecules of life Chain together smaller moleculesbuilding block molecules = monomersBig molecules built from little moleculespolymers
58Building large organic molecules Small molecules = building blocksBond them together = polymers
59Building important polymers Carbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugarProteins = built from amino acidsaminoacid–Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotidesnucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide
60How to build large molecules Synthesisbuilding bigger molecules from smaller moleculesbuilding cells & bodiesrepairgrowthreproduction+ATP
61How to take large molecules apart Digestiontaking big molecules apartgetting raw materialsfor synthesis & growthmaking energy (ATP)for synthesis, growth & everyday functions+ATP
62Example of digestion Starch is digested to glucose starch glucose ATP
63amino acids = building block Example of synthesisamino acidsproteinProteins are synthesized by bonding amino acidsamino acids = building blockprotein = polymer
64ATP Why do we eat? We eat to take in more of these chemicals Food for building materialsto make more of us (cells)for growthfor repairFood to make energycaloriesto make ATPATP
65What do we need to eat?Foods to give you more building blocks & more energyfor building & running bodiescarbohydratesproteinsfatsnucleic acidsvitaminsminerals, saltswater