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There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.

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Presentation on theme: "There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids."— Presentation transcript:

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2 There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids

3 Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know.  Macromolecule  Polymer  Monomer

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5 What do these words mean?

6 So What Is A Macromolecule?  A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together.

7 Biological Macromolecule All biological macro-molecule are made up of a small number of elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur

8 96% of living organisms is made of: carbon (C) oxygen (O) hydrogen (H) nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) Elements of Life

9 Next Word…..

10 Polygons Polygamy Polyester

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12 What does “Mono” mean?

13 A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAIN? A NECKLACE? If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

14 A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. EXAMPLE of POLYMER MONOMER A TRAINTHE CARS A NECKLACEEACH PEARL If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

15 Now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.

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17 Molecules of Life Put C, H, O, P, and N together in different ways to build living organisms What are bodies made of? ◦ carbohydrates  sugars & starches ◦ proteins ◦ fats (lipids) ◦ nucleic acids  DNA, RNA

18 Water ◦ 65% of your body is H 2 O ◦ water is inorganic  doesn’t contain carbon Rest of you is made of carbon molecules ◦ organic molecules  carbohydrates  proteins  fats  nucleic acids Don’t forget water

19 Keep the following in mind when studying this material: Nucleic AcidsWhat they look like CarbohydratesWhat they do/Where are they LipidsWhat are they made up of- at the level of atoms Proteins

20 sucrose Carbohydrates Function: ◦ quick energy ◦ energy storage ◦ structure  cell wall in plants Examples ◦ sugars ◦ starches ◦ cellulose (cell wall) glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch

21 Cellulose Cell walls in plants ◦ herbivores can digest cellulose well ◦ most carnivores cannot digest cellulose  that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = roughage  stays undigested  keeps material moving in your intestines

22 Different Diets of Herbivores Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

23 Helpful bacteria How can cows digest cellulose so well? ◦ BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals

24 CARBOHYDRATES  Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is…

25 The shape of Glucose is a hexagonal ring

26 CARBOHYDRATES Each carbohydrate is made up of… THINK: “CHO”

27 Building carbohydrates Synthesis | glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose

28 BIG carbohydrates Polysaccharides ◦ large carbohydrates  starch  energy storage in plants  potatoes  glycogen  energy storage in animals  in liver & muscles  cellulose  structure in plants  cell walls  chitin  structure in arthropods & fungi  exoskeleton

29 Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide

30 PROTEINS  They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in them  They make up antibodies in the immune system  They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions  They makeup non-steriod hormones

31 Proteins: Multipurpose molecules

32 collagen (skin) Proteins insulin Examples ◦ muscle ◦ skin, hair, fingernails, claws  collagen, keratin ◦ pepsin  digestive enzyme in stomach ◦ insulin  hormone that controls blood sugar levels pepsin

33 Proteins Function: ◦ many, many functions  hormones  signals from one body system to another  insulin  movement  muscle  immune system  protect against germs  enzymes  help chemical reactions

34 Proteins Building block = amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – —N——N— H H H | —C— | C—OH || O variable group amino acids  20 different amino acids There’s 20 of us… like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words

35 Amino acid chains Proteins ◦ amino acids chained into a polymer  Each amino acid is different  some “like” water & dissolve in it  some “fear” water & separate from it amino acid

36 Water-fearing amino acids  Hydrophobic  “water fearing” amino acids  try to get away from water in cell  the protein folds

37 Water-loving amino acids  Hydrophillic  “water loving” amino acids  try to stay in water in cell  the protein folds

38 pepsin For proteins: SHAPE matters! collagen Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape ◦ that’s what happens in the cell! Different shapes = different jobs hemoglobin growth hormone

39 It’s SHAPE that matters! Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape Unfolding a protein destroys its shape ◦ wrong shape = can’t do its job ◦ unfolding proteins = “denature”  temperature  pH (acidity) folded unfolded “denatured”

40 PROTEINS Each protein is made up of… THINK: “CHONS”

41 Lipids Function: ◦ energy storage  very concentrated  twice the energy as carbohydrates! ◦ cell membrane ◦ cushions organs ◦ insulates body  think whale blubber!

42 Lipids Examples ◦ fats ◦ oils ◦ waxes ◦ hormones  sex hormones  testosterone (male)  estrogen (female)

43 LIPIDS  Lipids are not polymers. But they are created by the same process that creates polymers.  The most common lipids are…

44 The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter E This is a triglyceride molecule

45 Structure of Fat not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”

46 Saturated fats Most animal fats ◦ solid at room temperature Limit the amount in your diet ◦ contributes to heart disease ◦ deposits in arteries

47 Unsaturated fats Plant, vegetable & fish fats ◦ liquid at room temperature  the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together Better choice in your diet

48 Saturated vs. unsaturated saturatedunsaturated

49 Other lipids in biology Cholesterol ◦ good molecule in cell membranes ◦ make hormones from it  including sex hormones ◦ but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease

50 Other lipids in biology Cell membranes are made out of lipids ◦ phospholipids ◦ heads are on the outside touching water  “like” water ◦ tails are on inside away from water  “scared” of water ◦ forms a barrier between the cell & the outside

51 LIPIDS Each lipid is made up of… THINK: “CHOP”

52 The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS  The types of Nucleic Acids  DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid)  RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)

53 DNA Nucleic Acids Function: ◦ genetic material  stores information  genes  blueprint for building proteins  DNA  RNA  proteins  transfers information  blueprint for new cells  blueprint for next generation proteins

54 DNA ◦ Inside the nucleus of a cell RNA ◦ Inside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm

55 DNA and RNA are polymers of 4 different nucleotides (monomers) Each nucleotide is composed of three parts: ◦ a nitrogen base  DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T)  RNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), uracil (U) ◦ a five-carbon sugar  Deoxyribose (DNA)  Ribose (RNA) ◦ a phosphate group ◦ DNA is double-sided ◦ RNA is single-sided

56 Nucleic acids phosphate sugar N base

57 DNA and RNA Think “PHONC”

58 Building large molecules of life Chain together smaller molecules ◦ building block molecules = monomers Big molecules built from little molecules ◦ polymers

59 Small molecules = building blocks Bond them together = polymers Building large organic molecules

60 Building important polymers sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide Carbohydrates = built from sugars Proteins = built from amino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid –

61 How to build large molecules Synthesis ◦ building bigger molecules from smaller molecules ◦ building cells & bodies  repair  growth  reproduction + ATP

62 How to take large molecules apart Digestion ◦ taking big molecules apart ◦ getting raw materials  for synthesis & growth ◦ making energy (ATP)  for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP

63 Example of digestion starchglucose ATP Starch is digested to glucose

64 Example of synthesis amino acidsprotein amino acids = building block protein = polymer  Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids

65 Why do we eat? We eat to take in more of these chemicals ◦ Food for building materials  to make more of us (cells)  for growth  for repair ◦ Food to make energy  calories  to make ATP ATP

66 What do we need to eat? Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy  for building & running bodies ◦ carbohydrates ◦ proteins ◦ fats ◦ nucleic acids ◦ vitamins ◦ minerals, salts ◦ water


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