Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Villin Gary Benz and Claudia Winkler."— Presentation transcript:
The Chemistry of Villin Gary Benz and Claudia Winkler
The Chemistry of Villin Villin is a protein Proteins are macromolecules (polymers) formed by a defined sequence of small similar molecules (monomers) of amino acids Amino acids are organic compounds containing at least one amino group (NH 3 ) and one carboxyl group (-COOH). 20 different amino acids make up all proteins
The amino-acid alphabet Biologists represent each amino acid with a capital letter For instance: –D=Aspartic Acid, E=Glutamic Acid, F=Phenylalanine, K=Lysine, A=Alanine, V=Valine, F=Phenylalanine All amino acids are made of 4 elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. Two also contain Sulfur.
Villin’s Single Chain Biologists describe the sequence of amino acids that make villin as: –DEDFKAVFGMTRSAFANLPLWKQQNLK KEKGLFMLS –Although villin is made of a chain of 36 letters, only 16 different letters are needed to describe villin –In the next slides we shall look at the individual amino acids that make up villin
D – Aspartic Acid NameInfoLooks Aspartic acid, Letter: D Abbreviation: Asp 4 oxygen 4 carbon 6 hydrogen 1 nitrogen
E – Glutamic Acid NameInfoLooks Glutamic acid Letter: E Abbreviation: Glu 5 carbon 8 hydrogen 4 oxygen 1 nitrogen
F – Phenylalanine NameInfoLooks Phenylalanine Letter: F Abbreviation: Phe 9 carbon 11 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
K – Lysine NameInfoLooks Lysine Letter: K Abbreviation: Lys 6 carbon 14 hydrogen 2 nitrogen 2 oxygen
A – Alanine NameInfoLooks Alanine Letter: A Abbreviation: Ala 3 carbon 7 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
V – Valine NameInfoLooks Valine Letter: V Abbreviation: Val 5 carbon 11 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
G – Glycine NameInfoLooks Glycine Letter: G Abbreviation: Gly 5 carbon 11 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
M – Methionine NameInfoLooks Methionine Letter: M Abbreviation: Met 5 carbon 11 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen 1 suphur
T – Threonine NameInfoLooks Threonine Letter: T Abbreviation: Thr 4 carbon 9 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 3 oxygen
R – Arginine NameInfoLooks Arginine Letter: R Abbreviation: Arg 6 carbon 14 hydrogen 4 nitrogen 2 oxygen
S – Serine NameInfoLooks Serine Letter: S Abbreviation: Ser 3 carbon 7 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 3 oxygen
N – Asparagine NameInfoLooks Asparagine Letter: N Abbreviation: Asn 4 carbon 8 hydrogen 2 nitrogen 3 oxygen
L – Leucine NameInfoLooks Leucine Letter: L Abbreviation: Leu 6 carbon 13 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
P – Proline NameInfoLooks Proline Letter: P Abbreviation: Pro 5 carbon 9 hydrogen 1 nitrogen 2 oxygen
W – Tryptophan NameInfoLooks Tryptophan Letter: W Abbreviation: Trp 11 carbon 12 hydrogen 2 nitrogen 2 oxygen
Elements Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N) and Sulfur (S) are the only chemical elements that make up all villin’s amino acids. We shall review some of their properties in the next pages.
Carbon (Latin: carbo, charcoal) Carbon, an element of prehistoric discovery, is very widely distributed in nature. It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets. Carbon is the source of energy for life through carbohydrates, just like a burning log is a source of energy to a cold room. Atomic number 6 Atomic Symbol C Atomic mass12.011 u Electron Configuration [He]2s 2 2p 2
Hydrogen (Greek: hydro, water, and genes, forming) Hydrogen is the most abundant of all elements in the universe. The heavier elements were originally made from Hydrogen or from other elements that were originally made from Hydrogen. Used in rocket fuel. Atomic number 1 Atomic symbol H Atomic mass1.0070 u Electron Configuration 1s 1
Oxygen Greek: oxys, sharp, acid, and genes, forming; acid former) Oxygen is the third most abundant element found in the sun. Oxygen is vital to the respiration of living organisms. Oxygen is responsible for the bright red and yellow- green colors of the Aurora. Essential element for combustion (i.e. burning). Atomic number 8 Atomic symbol O Atomic mass15.9994 u Electron Configuration [He]2s 2 2p 4
Nitrogen (Latin Nitrum, Greek. Nitron, native soda; genes, forming). Nitrogen gas (N 2 ) makes up 78.1% of the Earth’s air, by volume. Nitrogen is found in all living systems as part of the makeup of biological compounds. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the most important commercial compound of nitrogen, with a very pungent smell, used in cleaning supplies. Atomic number 7 Atomic symbol N Atomic mass14.00674 Electron Configuration [He]2s 2 2p 3
Sulfur (Sanskrit, sulvere; Latin sulpur) Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone. Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature in various minerals (iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, epsom salts, celestite, barite, etc.) Sulfur is found in meteorites. Atomic number 16 Atomic symbol S Atomic mass32.6 Electron Configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 4 Yellowstone hot springs
Molecules, Bonds Atoms are bonded together to form molecules and molecules are bonded together to form macromolecules. The next slides shows some characteristics of chemical bonds.
Peptide Bond Amino acids join together via a special bond called “peptide bond”. In a peptide bond, two molecules (amino acid 1 and amino acid 2) are joined together with the accompanying removal of a molecule of water.
Activity Knowing that villin is made of the following sequence of amino acids –DEDFKAVFGMTRSAFANLPLWKQQNLKKEKGLFMLS Compute the molar mass of villin. Compute the percentage by number of each atom component. Compute the percentage by mass of each atom component. (Remember that amino acids are joined together through peptide bonds….) Lesson Plan